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J. G. A. . . J. G. ALGEE. 
E. E. A. . . E. E. ANDERSON. 
W. A. J. A. W. A. J. ARCHBOLD. 



G-. T. B. . . G. T. BETTANY. 

A. C. B. . . A. C. BICKLEY. 

G. C. B. . . G. C. BOASE. 

G. S. B. . . G. S. BOULGER. 

E. T. B. . . Miss BRADLEY. 

A. E. B. . . THE EEV. A. E. BUCKLAND. 

A. H. B. . . A. H. BULLEN. 



W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 






J. D. F. . . J. D. FITZGERALD. 
C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 



J. T. G. . . J. T. GILBERT, F.S.A. 
E. C. K. G. E. C. K. GONNER. 



E. E. G. . . E. E. GRAVES. 

W. A. G.. . W. A. GREENHILL, M.D. 

F. H. G. . . F. H. GROOMS. 


J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 

W. J. H-Y. W. J. HARDY. 

T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 


A. M. H. . . Miss HUMPHRY. 


A. H. H. . . A. H. HUTH. 



B. D. J. . . B. D. JACKSON. 

H. G. K.. . H. G. KEENB, C.I.E. 


C. L. K. . . C. L. KINGSFORD. 



W. B. L. . . THE EEV. W. B. LOWTHER. 
JE. M. . . . ^SNEAS MACKAY, LL.D. 

L. M. M. . . MlSS MlDDLBTON. 



List of Writers. 

N M 


E. F. S. . 


W. E. M. . 


G.W. S.. 


J. B. M. . . 


W. B. S. . 


A. N 


L. S. ... 


K. N 


C. W. S. . 

. C. W. SUTTON. 

F. M. O'D. 


J. T-T. . . 

. JAMES TAIT, Fellow of Pembroke 

G. G. P. . . 


College, Oxford. 

E. J. K. . . 


H. E. T. . 

. H. E. TEDDER. 

W. E-L. . . 


D. LL. T. 



T. F. T. . 

. PROFESSOR T. F. Tour. 

J. M. R. . . 

J. M. EIGG. 

E. V 


C. J. E. . . 


A. W. W. 

. A. W. WARD, Litt.D. 

W.E. ... 


F. W-T. . . 


L. C. S. . . 


E. W 


T. S 


W. W. . . . 








HOW. [See HOWE.] 

HOWARD, ANNE, LADY (1475-1512), 
. daughter of Edward IV. [See under HOWARD, 


twelfth DUKE OF NORFOLK (1765-1842), born 
at Sheffield on 21 Nov. 1765, was eldest son 
of Henry Howard (1713-1787) of Glossop, 
by Juliana, second daughter of Sir William 
Molyneux, bart., of Wellow, Nottingham- 
shire. His father was great-grandson of 
Henry Frederick, earl of Arundel (1608- 
1652) [q. v.] On 17 Jan. 1799 he was elected 
F.R.S.,andF.S.A. on20 Feb. 1812. Onl6 Dec. 
1815 he succeeded as twelfth Duke of Nor- 
folk his third cousin, Charles, eleventh duke 
q. v.] Unlike his predecessors he was a 
man catholic, but by act of parliament 
passed 24 June 1824, he was allowed to act 
as earl-marshal. He was made a councillor 
of the university of London in 1825, was 
admitted to a seat in the House of Lords, 
after the Roman Catholic Relief Bill of 1829, 
was nominated a privy councillor 1830, and 
was elected K.G. 1834. In parliament he 
steadily supported the Reform Bill. He died 
at Norfolk House, St. James's Square, Lon- 
don, on 19 March 1842, and was buried at 
Arundel. A portrait by Pickersgill has been 
engraved by Sanders. Norfolk married, on 
23 April 1789, Elizabeth Bellasis, daughter 
of Henry, second earl of Fauconberg, and by 
her, whom he divorced in 1794, had one son, 
Henry Charles, thirteenth duke of Norfolk 
[q. v.] His wife afterwards remarried Ri- 
chard, earl of Lucan, and died in 1819. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage ; Burke's Peerage ; 
Gent. Mag. 1842, i. 542.] W. A. J. A. 

HOWARD, CATHERINE, fifth queen 
of Henry VIII. [See CATHERINE, d. 1542.] 


1624), lord high admiral, was the eldest son 
of William, first lord Howard of Effingham 
(d. 1573) [q. v.], by his second wife, Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage of Coity in 
Glamorganshire and of Margaret, daughter 
of Sir John St. John of Bletsoe (COLLINS, v. 
120). He is said to have served at sea under 
his father during the reign of Queen Mary. 
On the accession of Elizabeth he stepped at 
once into a prominent position at court. His 
high birth and connections the queen was 
his first cousin once removed are sufficient 
to account for his early advancement, even 
without the aid of a handsome person and 
courtly accomplishments (FULLER, Worthies 
of England, 1662, Surrey, p. 83). In 1559 
he was sent as ambassador to France to con- 
gratulate Francis II on his accession. In 
the parliament of 1562 he represented the 
county of Surrey, and in 1569 was general 
of the horse, under the Earl of Warwick, in 
the suppression of the rebellion of the north. 
In 1570, when the young queen of Spain 
went from Flanders, Howard was appointed 
to command a strong squadron of ships of 
war, nominally as a guard of honour for her 
through the English seas, but really to pro- 
vide against the possibility of the queen's 
voyage being used as the cloak of some act 
of aggression (Camden in KENNETT, History 
of England, ii. 430; Gal. State Papers, Dom., 
29 and 31 Aug. and 2 Oct. 1570). Hakluyt 
adds that he ' environed the Spanish fleet in 
most strange and warlike sort, and enforced 
them to stoop gallant and to vail their bon- 
nets for the queen of England ' (Principal 
Navigations, vol. i. Epistle Dedicatorie ad- 
dressed to Howard). It is supposed that it 
was at this time that Howard was knighted. 
In the parliament of 1572 he was again 



knight of the shire for Surrey ; and on the 
death of his father, 29 Jan. 1572-3, he suc- 
ceeded as second Lord Howard of Effingham. 
On 24 April 1574 he was installed a knight 
of the Garter, and about tju^fijm^tjffl^was 
wad* lord chamberlain of QiB'Tiuiifcyhuld, a 
dignity which he held till May 1585, when 
he vacated it on being appointed lord admiral 
of England in succession to Edward Fiennes 
de Clinton, earl of Lincoln [q. v.], who died 
on 16 Jan. 1584-5. In 1586 Howard was 
one of the commissioners appointed for the 
trial of Mary Queen of Scots, and, though not 
actually present at the trial, seems to have 
conducted some of the examinations in Lon- 
don, According to William Davison (1541 ?- 
1608) [q. v.l it was due to his urgent repre- 
sentations thatElizabeth finally signed Mary's 
death-warrant (NicOLAS,iz/c of 'Davison, pp. 
232, 258, 281). From Friday, 17 Nov. 1587, 
till the following Tuesday night, Howard 
entertained the queen at his house at Chelsea. 
Pageants were performed in her honour, and 
in the ' running at tilt ' which she witnessed 
'my Lord of Essex and my Lord of Cumber- 
land were the chief that ran' (Philip Gawdy 
to his father, 24 Nov., Hist. MSS. Comm. 
7th Rep. p. 520). 

In December 1587 Howard received a 
special commission as 'lieutenant-general 
and commander-in-chief of the navy and 
army prepared to the seas against Spain,' 
and forthwith hoisted his flag on board the 
Ark, a ship of eight hundred tons, which, 
having been built by Ralegh as a private 
venture and afterwards sold to the queen, 
seems to have been called indifferently Ark 
Ralegh, Ark Royal, and Ark (EDWARDS, 
Life of Ralegh, i. 83, 147). Howard's second 
in command was Sir Francis Drake [q. v.], of sea affairs secured 
for him a very large share of authority, but 
Howard's official correspondence through the 
spring, summer, and autumn of 1588 much 
of it in his own hand shows that the re- 
sponsibility as commander-in-chief was vested 
in himself alone. His council of war, which 
he consulted on every question of moment, 
consisted of Sir Francis Drake, Lord Thomas 
Howard, Lord Sheffield, Sir Roger Williams, 
Hawkyns, Frobiser, and Thomas Fenner (cf. 
his letter 19 June). When looking out for 
the approach of the Spanish fleet on 6 July, 
Howard divided the fleet into three parts, him- 
self, as commander-in-chief, after prescriptive 
usage, in mid-channel, Drake off Ushant, and 
Hawkyns off Scilly, according to their ranks 
as second and third in command respectively. 
In the several encounters with the Spaniards 
off Plymouth, off St. Alban's Head, and off 
St Catherine's, Howard invariably acted as 

leader, though his colleagues, and Drake- 
more particularly, were allowed considerable 
license. The determination to use the fire- 
ships off Calais was come to in a council of 
war, including besides those already named, 
with the exception of Williams, who had 
joined the Earl of Leicester on shore Lord 
Henry Seymour, Sir William Wynter [q. v.] r 
and Sir Henry Palmer [q. v.] ; but the attack 
on the San Lorenzo, when stranded off Calais, 
I was ordered and directed by Howard in 
person, contrary, it would appear, to the 
opinion of his colleagues, This action was 
severely criticised (cf. FROTTDE, xii. 416 and 
note) ; 'it was urged that the commander-in- 
! chief should then have been, rather, off Grave- 
[ lines, where the enemy was in force. But the 
I incident serves to mark the independence of 
Howard, as well as the sense of responsibility 
which tempered his courage. That the prudent 
tactics adopted throughout the earlier battles 
were mainly Howard's, we know, on the direct 
testimony of Ralegh, who highly commends- 
him as ' better advised than a great many 
malignant fools were that found fault with 
j his demeanour. The Spaniards had an army 
j aboard them, and he had none ; they had 
more ships than he had, and of higher build- 
ing and charging ; so that had he entangled 
himself with those great and powerful ves- 
sels, he had greatly endangered this kingdom 
of England. . . . But our admiral knew his 
advantage and held it ; which had he not 
done, he had not been worthy to have held 
his head' {History of the World, Book v. 
chap. i. sect. vi. ed. 1786, ii. 5*65). In the 
last great battle off Gravelines the credit of 
the decisive result appears to be due, in per- 
haps equal proportion, to Seymour and to 
Drake. It is quite possible that they were 
carrying out a plan previously agreed on, 
but Howard, having waited on the San 
Lorenzo, was later in coming into action. 
Neither he nor his colleagues understood till 
long afterwards the fearful loss sustained by 
the Spaniards. ' We have chased them in 
fight/ he wrote, 'until this evening late, and 
distressed them much ; but their fleet con- 
sisteth of mighty ships and great strength. 
. . . Their force is wonderful great and strong, 
and yet we pluck their feathers by little and 
little' (Howard to Walsingham, 29 July, 
State Papers, Dom., ccxiii. 64). On the 
return of the fleet to the southward, vast 
numbers of the seamen fell sick, chiefly of 
an infectious fever of the nature of typhus 
(Howard to lord treasurer, 10 Aug., State 
Papers, Dom. ccxiv. 66 ; Howard to queen, 
Howard to council, 22 Aug., State Papers, 
Dom. ccxv. 40, 41), aggravated by feeding 
on putrid beef and sour beer. Many of the 



sick were sent ashore at Margate, where 
there were no houses provided for their re- 
ception ; and it was only by Howard's per- 
sonal exertions that lodging was found for 
them in f barns and such outhouses.' ' It 
would grieve any man's heart/ he wrote, 
' to see them that have served so valiantly 
to die so miserably.' The queen demurred 
to the expenses thus involved. Howard had 
already paid part of the cost of maintaining 
the fleet at Plymouth, sooner than break it 
up in accordance with the queen's command, 
and his available means, which were not 
large considering his high rank, were ex- 
hausted (Cal. State Papers, Dom., 19 June); 
but ' I will myself make satisfaction as well as 
I may/ he said in reference to this additional 
outlay, ' so that her Majesty shall not be 
charged withal' (FROTJDE, xii. 433-4). 

During the years immediately following 
the destruction of the ' Invincible Armada ' 
Howard had no employment at sea. His 
high office prevented his taking part in the 
adventurous cruising then in vogue [cf. CLIF- 
and no expedition on a scale large enough to 
call for his services was set on foot, though 
one to the coast of Brittany was -proposed in 
the spring of 1591 (Cal. State Papers, Dom., 
12 March 1591). He was meantime occupied 
with the defence of the country and the ad- 
ministration of the navy. He has the offi- 
cial, and probably also the real, credit of or- 
ganising the charity Ion g known as ' The Chest 
at Chatham' [cf. HAWKINS, SIR JOHN], which 
was founded by the queen in 1590 * by the 
incitement, persuasion, approbation, and good 
liking of the lord admiral and of the prin- 
cipal officers of the navy' (Chatham Chest 
Entry Book, 1617-1797, p. 1). 

In 1596 news came of preparations in 
Spain for another attempt to invade this 
country, and a fleet and army were prepared 
and placed under the joint command of 
Howard and the Earl of Essex [see DEVE- 
RETFX, ROBERT, second EARL OF ESSEX], equal 
in authority, the lord admiral taking prece- 
dence at sea and Essex on shore, although in 
their joint letters or orders Essex's signature, 
by right of his earldom, stands first. The fleet, 
consisting of seventeen ships and numerous 
transports, arrived off Cadiz on 20 June and 
anchored in St. Sebastian's Bay. It was de- 
termined to force the passage into the har- 
bour on the following morning. After a 
stubborn contest the Spanish ships gave way 
and fled towards Puerto Real. The larger 
vessels grounded in the mud, where their 
own men set them on fire. Two of the 
galeons only, the St. Andrew and St. Mat- 
thew, were saved and brought home to be 

added to the English navy. An ' argosy,' 
' whose ballast was great ordnance/ was also 
secured. The other vessels, including several 
on the point of sailing for the Indies with 
lading of immense value., which were de- 
stroyed, might have been taken had not Es- 
sex landed as soon as the Spanish ships gave 
way. Howard, who had been charged by the 
queen to provide for her favourite's safety, 
was obliged to land in support of him (MoN- 
SON, 'Naval Tracts/ in CHURCHILL'S Voyages, 
iii. 163). The town was taken by storm, and 
was sacked, but without the perpetration of 
any serious outrage. The principal officers of 
the expedition, to the large number of sixty- 
six, were knighted by the generals, the forts 
were dismantled, and the fleet again put to 
sea. The council of war, contrary to the 
views of Essex, agreed with the admiral that 
it was the sole business of the expedition to 
destroy Spanish shipping, and they returned 
quietly to England without meeting any 
enemy on the way. Howard's caution, which 
was with him a matter of temperament rather 
than (as is sometimes asserted) of age, was un- 
doubtedly responsible for the comparatively 
small results of the enterprise. He declined 
all needless risk, and his judgment, in the 
queen's opinion, was correct. f You have made 
me famous, dreadful, and renowned/ she wrote 
to the generals on their return, ' not more for 
your victory than for your courage, nor more 
for either than for such plentiful liquor of 
mercy, which may well match the better of 
the two ; in which you have so well performed 
my trust, as thereby I see I was not forgotten 
amongst you.' Elizabeth, however, was, after 
her wont, very angry when Howard applied 
for money to pay the sailors their wages. She 
asserted that the men had paid themselves 
by plunder, and that she had received no 
benefit from the expedition. 

An angry feeling which had arisen between 
Essex and Howard was increased the follow- 
ing year, when, on 22 Oct., Howard was 
created Earl of Nottingham, the patent ex- 
pressly referring not only to his services 
against the Armada in 1588, but to his 
achievements in conjunction with Essex at 
Cadiz. Essex claimed that all that had been 
done at Cadiz was his work alone, and re- 
sented the precedence which the office of lord 
admiral gave Howard over all non-official 
earls. The queen appointed Essex earl mar- 
shal, thus restoring his precedence ; but the 
relations between the two were still strained 
(CHAMBERLAIN, p. 38). 

In February 1597-8 some small reinforce- 
ments sent to the Spanish army in the LOM 
Countries were magnified by report into* 
large force intended for the invasion of Eng 

B 2 



land, and Howard was suddenly called on to 
take measures for the defence of the king- 
dom. Nothing was ready. With the ex- 
ception of the Vanguard, Nottingham wrote, 
all the ships in the Narrow Seas are small, 
' fit to meet with Dunkirkers, but far unlit 
for this that now happens unlooked for. In 
my opinion, these ships will watch a time to 
do something on our coast ; and if they hear 
our ships are gone to Dieppe, then I think 
them beasts if they do not burn and spoil 
Dover and Sandwich. What four thousand 
men may do on the sudden in some other 
places I leave to your lordships' judgments' 
(Nottingham to Burghley and Essex, 17 Feb. 
1598, Cal State Papers, Dom.) Eighteen 
months afterwards there was a similar alarm, 
with many false rumours, springing out of a 
gathering of Spanish ships at Corunna. They 
were reported off Ushant and in the Channel 
(id. August 1599). A strong fleet was fitted out 
and sent to sea, ' in good plight for so short 
warning ' (CHAMBERLAIN, p. 61) ; a camp 
was ordered to be formed, troops were raised 
(ib.\ and Nottingham was appointed to the 
chief command by sea or land, his commis- 
sion constituting him ' lord lieutenant-general 
of all England,' an exceptional office, which 
Elizabeth had destined for Leicester at the 
time of his death, but which had been actually 
conferred on no one before. Howard now * held 
[it] with almost regal authority for the space 
of six weeks, being sometimes with the fleet 
in the Downs, and sometimes on shore with 
the forces ' (CAMPBELL, i. 397). 

Nottingham was one of the commissioners 
at Essex's trial (19 Feb. 1600-1), and after 
the execution of Essex served on the com- 
mission with the lord treasurer and the Earl 
of Worcester for performing the office of earl 
marshal (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 10 Dec. 
1601). He was in high favour with the 
queen. On 13 or 14 Dec. 1602 he entertained 
her at Arundel House. The feasting, we are 
told, 'had nothing extraordinary, neither 
were his presents so precious as was expected, 
being only a whole suit of apparel, whereas 
it was thought he would have bestowed his 
rich hangings of all the fights with the Ar- 
mada in 1588 ' (CHAMBERLAIN, p. 1 69) . These 
hangings were afterwards in the House of 
Lords, and were burnt with it in 1834, though 
copies still exist in the engravings made by 
Pine in 1 739. It was to Nottingham that the 
queen on her deathbed named the king of Scots 
as her successor (CAMPBELL, i. 398), and it was 
at his house that the privy council assembled 
to take measures for moving the queen's body 
to London (GARDINER, i. 86). He had probably 
been already in communication with James, 
and from the first he was marked out as a reci- 

pient of the royal favour. He was continued 
in his office of lord admiral. He was appointed 
(20 May 1603) a commissioner to consider the 
preparations for the coronation ; in May 1604 
he was a commissioner for negotiating the 
peace with Spain, and in March 1605 was sent 
to Spain as ambassador extraordinary, to inter- 
change ratifications and oaths. His embassy 
was of almost regal splendour. He had the 
title of excellency, and a money allowance 
of 15,OOOJ. All the gentlemen of his staff 
wore black velvet cloaks, and his retainers 
numbered five hundred (WiNWOOD, Memo- 
rials, ii. 39, 52). His firmness, his calm 
temper, and his unswerving courtesy, backed 
up by the prestige of his military achieve- 
ments, carried the treaty through most satis- 
factorily. ( My lord's person,' wrote Sir 
Charles Cornwallis [q. v.], 'his behaviour 
and his office of admiral hath much graced 
him with this people, who have heaped all 
manner of honours that possibly they can 
upon him. The king of Spain has borne all 
charges for diet, carriage, &c., and bestowed 
upon him in plate, jewels, and horses at his 
departure to the value of 20,000/.' ( WINWOOD, 
ii. 74, 89). Liberal presents of chains and 
jewels were made to the officers of his staff, 
and Nottingham won golden opinions from 
the Spanish courtiers by his open-handed 

No important commission seems to have 
been considered complete unless Nottingham 
was a member of it. He was appointed to 
the commission formed to prevent persons of 
low birth assuming the armorial bearings of 
the nobility., 4 Feb. 1603-4 ; to consider the 
union of England and Scotland, 2 June 1604 ; 
for the trial of the parties concerned in the 
Gunpowder plot, 27 Jan. 1604-5 ; to grant 
leases of his majesty's woods and coppices, 
24 Sept. 1606; and to take an inventory of, 
jewels in the Tower, 20 March 1606-7. On 
the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth to the 
Elector Palatine, 14 Feb. 1612-13, ' she was 
conducted from the chapel betwixt him and 
the Duke of Lennox ' (COLLINS, v. 123), and 
was afterwards escorted to Flushing by a 
squadron under his command. This was his 
last naval service. The last commission of 
which he was a member was that appointed on 
26 April 1618 to review the ancient statutes 
I and articles of the order of the Garter (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 674). He was now 
an old man, and it may be conceived that the 
cares of office sat heavily on him. Many 
abuses crept into the administration of the 
navy, as indeed into other public depart- 
ments, and a commission was appointed to 
inquire into them on 23 June 1618 (GARDI- 
NER, iii. 204 ; Patent Roll, 16 Jac. I, pt. i. 



It may be noted that immediately following , 
this appointment in the Roll is that of an- | 
other commission, in almost identical terms, ; 
to inquire into abuses in the treasury). After 
the report of the naval commission in the Sep- 
tember following (CaL State Papers, Dom. j 
vol. ci. ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. j 
pt. i. p. 99), though no blame was attributed 
to Nottingham, even by current gossip, he 
probably felt that he was not equal to the 
task of cleansing the sink of iniquity which 
stood revealed. Buckingham was anxious 
to relieve him of the burden, and a friendly I 
arrangement was made, by the terms of I 
which he was to receive 3,(X)0/. for the sur- 
render of his office, and a pension of 1,000/. 
?er annum (CaL State Papers, Dom. 6 Feb. 
619) ; he was also during life to take pre- 
cedence as Earl of Nottingham of the ori- 
ginal creation of John Mowbray (temp. 
Richard II), from whom, in the female line, 
he claimed descent (ib. 19 Feb.) This pre- 
cedency seems to have been purely personal 
(COLLINS, v. 123), and not to have extended 
to his wife; for two months later, on the 
occasion of the queen's funeral, there was a 
warm controversy on the subject, Notting- 
ham arguing that a woman necessarily took 
the same precedence as her husband, except 
when that was official (CaL State Papers, 
Dom. 14, 24, 25 April). In his retirement 
he continued to act as lord-lieutenant of 
Surrey, and held numerous posts connected 
with the royal domains (ib. 14 April 1608), 
the gross emoluments of which were large. 
Despite his high and remunerative offices he 
was not accused of greed, but was said to 
have exercised a noble munificence and 
princely hospitality, and to have used the 
income of his office in maintaining its 
splendour. He died at the ripe age of 
eighty-eight, at Harling, near Croydon, on 
13 Dec. 1624. It appears that he preserved 
his faculties to the last. A letter dated 
20 May 1623, though written by his secre- 
tary, was signed by himself, l Nottingham,' in 
a clear bold hand. He was buried in the 
family vault in the church at Reigate, but no 
monument to his memory is there. One in 
the church of St. Margaret, Westminster, has 
sometimes given rise to a false impression that 
he was buried there. 

It has been frequently stated that Howard 
was a Roman catholic. The presumption is 
strongly against it, for the Act of Uniformity 
passed in 1559, declaring the queen the su- 
preme head of the church, required a sworn 
admission to that effect from every officer of 
the crown. The statement itself seems to be 
of recent origin. Dodd, Tierney, Charles But- 
ler, and Lingard, among catholics ; Camden, 

Stow, Collins, Campbell, and Southey, among 
protestants give no hint of it. The story was 
not improbably coined during the discussions 
on catholic emancipation, and suggested by 
the known religious belief of recent dukes of 
Norfolk. A number of circumstances combine 
to give it positive contradiction. He helped 
to suppress the rebellion of the north, a catho- 
lic rising, in 1569 ; was a commissioner for 
the trial of those implicated in the Babington 
plot, and of Mary Queen of Scots ; on 2 Oct. 
1597, and again 9 May 1605, was appointed 
on a commission to hear and determine ecclesi- 
astical causes in the diocese of Winchester ; 
was on the commission for the trial of the 
men implicated in the Gunpowder plot in 
1605, and for the trial of Henry Garnett [q. v.], 
the Jesuit (HAEGEAVE, i. 231, 247) ; was in 
the beginning of the reign of James I at the 
head of a commission to discover and expel all 
catholic priests (HOWARD, Memorials, p. 90). 
An Englishman in Spain, in the course of a 
letter of intelligence addressed to Howard, 
wrote : ' I hope to acquaint you with all the 
papists of account and traitors in England ' 
( CaL State Papers, Dom. 13 Aug. 1598). Ac- 
cording to information from Douay : ' The 
recusants say that they have but three enemies 
in England whom they fear, viz. the lord chief 
justice, Sir Robert Cecil, and the lord high 
admiral' (ib. 27 April 1602) ; and on 20 May 
1623 he reported to the archbishop of Can- 
terbury, as lieutenant of the county, that 
John Monson, son of Sir William Monson, 
was ' the most dangerous papist,' and was, 
therefore, committed to the Gatehouse (ib. 
30 May). His father, as lord admiral under 
Mary, was no doubt a catholic then, but in 
all probability conformed to the new re- 
ligion with his son on the accession of Eliza- 

Howard was twice married : first, to Ca- 
therine, daughter of Henry Carey, lord Huns- 
don [q. v.], first cousin of the queen on the 
mother's side. By her Howard had issue two 
sons and three daughters. Of the sons Wil- 
liam married in 1597 Anne, daughter of John, 
lord St. John of Bletsoe, and died 28 Nov. 
1615, leaving one daughter, Elizabeth, who 
married John Mordaunt, earl of Peterborough, 
and was grandmother of Charles Mordaunt, 
earl of Peterborough [q. v.] in the time of 
Queen Anne ; the younger, Charles, on the 
death of his father, succeeded as second Earl 
of Nottingham, and died without male issue 
in 1642. Of the daughters Frances married 
Sir Robert Southwell, who commanded the 
Elizabeth Jonas against the Armada in 1588 ; 
Elizabeth married Henry Fitzgerald, earl of 
Kildare, and Margaret married Sir Richard 
Leveson [q. v.] of Trentham, vice-admiral 



of England. Catherine, the first countess of 
Nottingham, died in February 1602-3, which, 
we are told, the admiral took 'exceeding 
grievously/ keeping his chamber, t mourning 
in sad earnest ' (CHAMBERLAIN, p. 179 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 9 March 1603). She was 
a favourite with the queen, and when she 
died in February 1602-3, Elizabeth fell into 
a deep melancholy, and herself died 20 March 
following. The story that the countess in- 
tercepted a ring sent by Essex to Elizabeth, 
and confessed the deceit to the queen on her 
deathbed, is doubtless apocryphal [see DEVE- 
fore June 1604 Howard married his second 
wife Margaret, daughter of James Stuart, earl 
of Murray, great-granddaughter through the 
female line of the Regent Murray. On 12 June 
1604 she was granted the manor and man- 
sion-house of Chelsea for life (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom.) ; she is again mentioned in 
December 1604 as having a ' polypus in her 
nostril, which some fear must be cut off' 
(WixwooD, ii. 39). By her Ho ward had two 
sons : James, who died a child in 1610, and 
Charles, born 25 Dec. 1610, who, on the death 
of his half-brother and namesake, succeeded 
as third Earl of Nottingham ; he died without 
issue in 1681, when the title became extinct, 
the barony of Effingham passing to the line 
of Howard's younger brother. 

A portrait of Howard by Mytens is at 
Hampton Court ; another, full length, life size, 
in Garter robes, collar of the Garter with 
George, with the Armada seen in the back- 
ground through an open window, belongs to 
the Duke of Norfolk ; a third, three-quarter 
length, life size, is the property of Mr. G. 
Milner-Gibson Cullum ; a fourth is in the 
possession of the Earl of Effingham. They 
all represent Howard as an old man. 

[By far the best Memoir of Howard is that in 
the Biographia Britannica, which exhausts the 
older sources of information ; the memoir in 
Campbell's Lives of the Admirals (i. 392) is a 
condensed version of it. The notice in Qollins's 
Peerage (edit, of 1768), v. 121, is also good; that 
in Southey's Lives of the British Admirals, ii. 
278, is, as a biography, meagre. Much new 
matter is in the Calendars of State Papers, Dom. 
There is some interesting correspondence in 
Winwood's Memorials, vol. ii., and in Chamber- 
lain's Letters (Camden Soc. 1861). Treswell's 
Relation of the Embassy to Spain (1605) is re- 
published in Somers's Tracts, 1809, ii. 70. The 
story of the Armada and of the sacking of Cadiz 
is in Hakluyt's Principal Navigations" and the 
whole naval history of the period is brought to- 
gether in Lediard's Naval History. Other au- 
thorities bearing on parts of Howard's extended 
career are Monson's Naval Tracts in Churchill's 
Voyages, vol. iii. ; Devereux's Lives of the Deve- 

reux, Earls of Essex ; Naunton's Fragmenta 
Kegalia in Harleian Miscellany, ii. 98 ; Howard's 
Memorials of the Howard family, which makes 
some strange blunders in dates ; G. Leveson- 
Grower's Howards of Effingham, in vol. ix. of 
Surrey Arch. Coll. p. 395 ; Froude's Hist, of Eng- 
land (cabinet edit.) ; Gardiner's Hist, of England 
(cabinet edit,)] J. K. L. 

CARLISLE (1629-1685), born in 1629, was 
the second son, and eventually heir, of Sir 
William Howard, knt., of Naworth, Cum- 
berland,.by Mary, eldest daughter of William, 
lord Eure. His father was grandson of Lord 
William Howard (1563-1640) [q. v.] In 1646 
he was charged with having borne arms for 
the king, but was cleared of his delinquency 
by ordinance of parliament, and on payment 
of a fine of 4,000/. (Lords' Journals, viii. 296, 
469, 477, 499) . Lady Halkett,who visited Na- 
worth in 1649, gave particulars of Howard's 
household in her * Autobiography ; ' he was 
married at that date. In 1650 he was ap- 
pointed high sheriff of Cumberland. Though 
professing to be a supporter of the Common- 
wealth, his known loyalist predilections led to 
several charges of disaffection being brought 
against him before the commissioners for se- 
questrations in Cumberland in the beginning 
of 1650 (T. C., Strange Newes from the North, 
pp. 5-6). His explanation seems to have 
satisfied the council of state (25 March 1650), 
and in the following May directions were 
sent him respecting the trial and punish- 
ment of certain witches whom he professed 
to have discovered in Cumberland ( Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1650, pp. 58, 159). Sir Arthur 
Hesilrige was, however, instructed to sift the 
charges thoroughly and report the result (ib. 
p. 175). Howard bought for his residence 
Carlisle Castle, a crown revenue, and became 
governor of the town. At the battle of Wor- 
cester he distinguished himself on the par- 
liamentarian side. ' Captain Howard of Na- 
ward, captain of the life guards to his ex- 
cellency, has received divers sore wounds, 
and Major Pocher, but both with hope of 
life, and some few others. Captain Howard 
did interpose very happily at a place of much 
danger, where he gave the enemy (though 
with his personal smarts) a very seasonable 
check, when our foot, for want of horse, 
were hard put to it ' (J. Scott and R. Sal- 
way to the president of the council of state, 
in CARY, Mem. of the Civil War, ii. 363). 
In 1653 he sat as M.P. for Westmoreland 
in Barebone's parliament, and on 14 July in 
the same year was appointed a member of 
the council of state, and placed on various 
committees (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1653-4, 
p. 25). In 1654 and 1656 he represented Cum- 



berland in parliament. Cromwell despatched 
him to the north in April 1654 to check the 
inroads of the Scots. He was also to check 
horse-racing and prevent all meetings of 
papists or disaffected persons (ib. 1654, pp. 
100, 245). At that time he was captain of the 
Lord Protector's bodyguard. When Colonel 
Rich was deprived of his regiment its com- 
mand was given to Colonel Howard, January 
1655 (MereuriusPoliticus, p. 5607). In March 
1655, being then colonel of a regiment of 
horse, he was nominated a councillor of state 
for Scotland (ib. 1655, pp. 108, 152), and in 
the ensuing April was appointed a commis- 
sioner of oyer and terminer to try the rebels 
in the insurrection in Yorkshire, Northum- 
berland, and Durham (ib. 1655, p. 116). He 
became major-general of Cumberland, North- 
umberland, and Westmoreland in October 
1655 (ib. 1655, p. 387). In December 1657 
he was summoned to the House of Lords set 
up by Cromwell, and it is said that the Pro- 
tector conferred upon him the title of Baron 
G-ilsland and Viscount Morpeth, 21 July 1657 
(NOBLE, i. 378, 439 ; The Perfect Politician, 
ed. 1680, p. 291). 

In April 1659 he urged Richard Cromwell 
to act with vigour against the army leaders, 
and offered, if the Protector would consent, 
to take the responsibility of arresting Lam- 
bert, Desborough, Fleetwood, and Vane ; but 
his advice was rejected, and he was deprived 
of his regiment on Richard's fall (OLBMIXON, 
Hist, of England during the . . . Stuarts, 
pp. 433-4 ; NOBLE, House of Cromwell, i. 330 ; 
BAKER, Chron. ed. 1670, pp. 659-60 ; HEATH, 
Chron. p. 744). He was for a time imprisoned, 
was released on parole in August 1659 (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1659-60, p. 150), but on 
21 Sept. he was rearrested and sent to the 
Tower on a charge of high treason, being sus- 
pected of complicity with Sir George Booth's 
insurrection (ib. pp. 217-18, 253). He was 
set free without trial, and on 3 April 1660 was 
elected M.P. for Cumberland. After the Re- 
storation Howard became a privy councillor 
(2 June 1660), custos rotulorum of Essex 
(9 July- 24 Nov. 1660), and lord-lieutenant of 
Cumberland and Westmoreland (1 Oct. 1660). 
He was not reappointed to the governorship of 
Carlisle, that post being conferred on his old 
enemy, SirPhilipMusgrave, in December 1660 
(ib. 1660-1, p. 431). On 20 April 1661 he 
was created Earl of Carlisle, was constituted 
vice-admiral of Northumberland, Cumber- 
land, and Durham on 18 June following, and 
became joint-commissioner for office of earl- 
marshal on 27 May 1662. From 20 July 1663 
to December 1664 he was ambassador extra- 
ordinary to Russia, Sweden, and Denmark. 
He was appointed captain of a troop of horse I 

on 30 June 1666, captain in Prince Rupert's 
regiment of horse on 13 June 1667, and on 
the 20th of the same month lieutenant-general 
of the forces and joint commander-in-chief of 
the militia of the four northernmost counties. 
On 29 Nov. 1668 he was sent ambassador 
extraordinary with the Garter to Charles XI 
of Sweden. He succeeded to the lord-lieu- 
tenancy of Durham on 18 April 1672, colonel 
of a regiment of foot on 22 Jan. 1673, and 
deputy earl-marshal of England in June. 
From 25 Sept. 1677 to April 1681 he was 
governor of Jamaica (LTJTTBELL, Relation, i. 
77). On 1 March 1678 he was reappointed 
governor of Carlisle. Howard died on 24 Feb. 
1685, and was buried in York Minster, where 
is his monument (DRAKE, Eboracum, p. 502). 
He married Anne, daughter of Edward, first 
lord Howard of Escrick [q. v.], by whom he 
had three sons (Edward, who succeeded him, 
Frederick Christian, d. 1684, and Charles, 
d. 1670) and three daughters. Lady Carlisle 
died in December 1696. A curious ' Rela- 
tion ' of Howard's embassies was published 
in English and French in 1669 by Guy Miege, 
who accompanied him. Of three portraits 
in oil of Howard, one, painted probably 
when he was colonel of Cromwell's life- 
guards, is at Naworth ; another, of the time 
of Charles II, is at Castle Howard ; a third 
is in the town hall at Carlisle. There is also 
an enamel miniature. An engraving of him, 
by W. Faithorne, is prefixed to Miege's ' Rela- 
tion.' Another engraved portrait is by S. 
Blooteling, and there is a third in Dallaway's 

[Information from the Earl of Carlisle and 
C. H. Firth, esq. ; Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 
328-30; Noble's House of Cromwell, ed. 1787, 
i. 330, 378 ; Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, iii. 
503 ; Lady Halkett's Autobiography (Camden 
Soc.), pp. 31-8; Guizot's Eichard Cromwell, ed. 
Scoble, i. 122 ; several of Howard's letters are 
printed in the Thurloe Papers.] OK Or. 

CARLISLE (1674-1738), born in 1674, was the 
eldest son of Edward, second earl of Carlisle 
(1646 P-1692), by Elizabeth, dowager-lady 
Berkeley, daughter of Sir William Uvedale, 
knt., of Wickham, Southampton. As Vis- 
count Morpeth he sat for Morpeth in parlia- 
ment from 1690 until 23 April 1692, when 
he succeeded his father as third earl of Car- 
lisle, and on 1 March 1693 was appointed 
governor of Carlisle Castle. He was also 
lord-lieutenant of Cumberland and West- 
moreland (28 June 1694-29 April 1712), 
vice-admiral of Cumberland, gentleman of 
the king's bedchamber (23 June 1700- 
8 March 1702), deputy earl-marshal of Eng- 
land (8 May 1701-26 Aug. 1706), privy 




councillor (19 June 1701), first lord of the 
treasury (30 Dec. 1701-6 May 1702), and a 
commissioner for the union with Scotland 
(10 April 1706). At the death of Anne, 
1 Aug. 1714, Howard was appointed one of 
the lords justices of Great Britain until 
George I should arrive from Hanover. He 
was reappointed lord-lieutenant of Cumber- 
land and Westmoreland on 9 Oct. 1714, and 
again acted as first lord of the treasury from 
23 May until 11 Oct. 1715. He was also 
constable of the Tower of London (16 Oct. 
1715-29 Dec. 1722), lord-lieutenant of the 
Tower Hamlets (12 July 1717-December 
1722), constable of Windsor Castle and 
warden of the forest (1 June 1723-May 
1730), and master of the foxhounds (May 
1730). He died at Bath on 1 May 1738, and 
was buried at Castle Howard. On 5 July 
1688 he married Lady Anne Capel, daughter 
of Arthur, first earl of Essex, by whom he had 
two sons and three daughters. The second 
son Charles is separately noticed. The 
countess died on 14 Oct. 1752, aged 78, dis- 
tinguished for her extensive charities, and 
was buried at Watford. Howard occasionally 
amused himself by writing poetry. A short 
time before his death he addressed some moral 
precepts in verse to his elder son Henry 
(see below). These are printed in Walpole's 
' Royal and Noble Authors/ ed. Park, iv. 170- 
173. There are two oil portraits of Howard 
at Naworth, and two at Castle Howard; 
there is also an engraved portrait. 

(1694-1758), eldest son of the above, was 
M.P. for Morpeth 1722, 1727, and from 1734 
to 1738. He succeeded to the earldom in 
1738, became E.G. 1756, died 4 Sept. 1758, 
and was succeeded by his only surviving son, 
Frederick Howard, fifth earl of Carlisle, who 
is separately noticed. Isabella, second wife 
of the fourth earl of Carlisle, daughter of Wil- 
liam, fourth lord Byron, etched with ability, 
and made several copies of works by Rem- 
brandt, She married, after the earl's death, Sir 
William Musgrave, and died 22 Jan. 1795. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 330-1 ; Redgrave's 
Diet. ; Political State of Great Britain Iv 481- 
4 2.] G. G. 

general, was second son of Charles Howard, 
third earl of Carlisle [q. v.] He entered the 
army in 1716, became captain and lieutenant- 
colonel CoMstream Guards in April 1719, 
and was appointed lieutenant-governor of 
Carlisle in 1725, and colonel and aide-de- 
camp to the king in 1734. In 1738 he became 
colonel of the 19th foot, now the Yorkshire 
regiment, which he held until transferred 

to the present 3rd dragoon guards in 1748, 
The 19th, then wearing grass-green facings, 
thus acquired its still familiar sobriquet of the 
' Green Howards/ distinguishing it from the 
24th foot, known as l Howard's Greens,' and 
the 3rd Buffs, known as 'Howards,' those 
regiments being successively commanded 
about the same period by Thomas Howard, 
father of Field-marshal Sir George Howard 
[q. v.] Charles Howard was many years about 
the court, where he held the post of a groom 
of the bedchamber. As a major-general he 
commanded a brigade at Dettingen and at 
Fontenoy, where he received four wounds, 
and afterwards under Wade and Cumberland 
in the north. He commanded the British 
infantry at the battles of Val and Roucoux, 
was made K.B. in 1749, and was governor 
of Forts George and Augustus, N.B. In 1760 
he was president of the court-martial on Lord 
George Sackville [see GERMAIN, GEORGE 
SACKVILLE]. He represented Carlisle in 
parliament from 1727 to 1761 (Off. Return of 
Members of Parliament, ii. 62 -125). He at- 
tained the rank of general in March 1765, and 
died at Bath unmarried on 26 Aug. 1765. 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. 1812, vol. iii. under' Car- 
lisle, Howard, Earl of;' Cannon's Hist.Rec. 3rd 
Prince of Wales's Dragoon Guards ; Maclachlan's 
Order-book of William, Duke of Cumberland (Lon- 
don, 1876). Some letters from Howard are in 
Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 32690, 32692, 32725, 
32897.] H. M. C. 

NORFOLK (1720-1786), born on 1 Dec. 1720, 
was the second son and eventually heir of 
Charles Howard of Greystoke, Cumberland, 
by Mary, daughter and coheiress of John 
Aylward (DOYLE, Official Baronage, ii. 600). 
He was thus great-grandson of Henry Frede- 
rick, earl of Arundel (1608-1652) [q.* v.] He 
was brought up in the Roman catholic faith. 
On 14 Jan. 1768 he was elected F.S.A., and 
on 24 March following F.R.S. On 20 Sept. 
1777 he succeeded, as tenth duke of Norfolk, 
his second cousin, Edward Howard, ninth 
duke (1686-1777) [q. v.], and died on 31 Aug. 
1 786. He married Katherine, second daughter 
and coheiress of John Brockholes of Claugh- 
ton, Lancashire, by whom he had a son and 
successor, Charles (1746-1815) [q. v.] The 
duchess died on 21 Nov. 1784. Howard lived 
chiefly in the country, and is said to have 
indulged in many eccentricities. 

He published: 1. 'Considerations on the 
Penal Laws against Roman Catholics in 
England and the new-acquired Colonies in 
America/ 1764, 8vo. 2. ' Thoughts, Essays, 
and Maxims, chiefly Religious and Political/ 
8vo, 1768. 3. Historical Anecdotes of some 
of the Howard Family' (with an account of 



the office of earl-marshal of England, taken 
from a manuscript in the possession of J. 
Edmondson), 8vo, 1769; new edit., 1817. 

[Collins's Peerage (Brydges), i. 141; H. K. S. 
Causton's Howard Papers ; Walpole's Royal and 
Noble Authors (Park), iv. 328-31.] G. G. 

or NORFOLK (1746-1815), born on 5 March 
1746, was the son of Charles, tenth duke of 
Norfolk (1720-1786) [q. v.], by Katherine, 
second daughter and coheiress of John Brock- 
holes of Claughton, Lancashire (DOYLE, Offi- 
cial Baronage, ii. 601-2). He received little 
regular education either from Roman catholic 
tutors at Greystoke Castle, Cumberland, 
where he was brought up, or in France, 
where he spent much of his youth. But he 
had much natural ability and a kind of rude 
eloquence. His person, l large, muscular, 
and clumsy, though active/ was rendered 
still less attractive by the habitual slovenli- 
ness of his dress, and figured frequently in 
Gillray's caricatures ; but his features were 
intelligent and frank. At a time when hair- 
powder and a queue were the fashion, he had 
the courage to cut his hair short and re- 
nounce powder except when going to court. 
Throughout his life he was celebrated for 
his conviviality, as Wraxall, who often met 
him at the Beefsteak Club, relates (Posthu- 
mous Memoirs, i. 29). His servants used to 
wash him in his drunken stupors, as he de- 
tested soap and water when sober. Com- 
plaining one day to Dudley North that he 
was a martyr to rheumatism, and had vainly 
tried every remedy, ' Pray, my lord/ said he, 
* did you ever try a clean shirt ? ' Among 
his associates he was known as ' Jockey of 

Howard became a protestant and a staunch 
whig. As Charles Howard, junior, he was 
chosen F.R.S. on 18 June 1767, and when 
Earl of Surrey was elected F.S.A. on 11 Nov. 
1779. In Cumberland he was immensely 
popular, and is still remembered there. At 
the Carlisle election of 1774 he encouraged 
the efforts of some of the freemen to take the 
representation of the borough out of the 
hands of the Lowthers. At the elections of 
1780 and 1784 he was himself returned for the 
borough. In parliament he joined Fox in ac- 
tively opposing the prosecution of the Ame- 
rican war. He became deputy lieutenant of 
Sussex on 1 June 1781 , deputy earl-marshal of 
England on 30 Aug. 1782, and lord-lieutenant 
of the West Riding of Yorkshire on 28 Sept. 
1782. He was a lord of the treasury in the 
Duke of Portland's administration (5 April to 
December 1783), and became colonel of the 
first West Yorkshire regiment of militia on 

10 Jan. 1784. On the death of his father, 
31 Aug. 1786, he succeeded as eleventh duke 
of Norfolk, and was appointed high steward 
of Hereford in 1790, recorder of Gloucester 
on 5 Sept. 1792, and colonel in the army 
during service on 14 March 1794. On 29 Dec. 
1796 he was nominated deputy lieutenant 
for Derbyshire. At the great political dinner 
at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, Arundel 
Street, Strand, on 24 Jan. 1798, at which 
nearly two thousand persons attended, the 
duke gave a toast, ' Our sovereign's health 
the majesty of the people.' The king, 
highly offended, caused him to be removed 
from his lord-lieutenancy and colonelcy of 
militia in the following February. The news 
reached the duke on the evening of 31 Jan., 
when he was entertaining the prince regent 
at Norfolk House (LONSDALE, Worthies of 
Cumberland, v. 57-64). The prince and the 
duke were for a time fast friends, and were 
the first to bring into fashion the late hours 
of dining. They subsequently quarrelled, 
but after some reconciliation, the prince in- 
vited Norfolk, then an old man, to dine and 
sleep at the Pavilion at Brighton, and with 
the aid of his brothers, the Dukes of Clarence 
and York, reduced him to a helpless condition 
of drunkenness (THACKEEAY, Four Georges). 

Howard was consoled for the loss of his 
former dignities by being made colonel of 
the Sussex regiment of militia (29 Dec. 1806) 
and lord-lieutenant of Sussex (14 Jan. 1807). 
Lord Liverpool, on the formation of his ad- 
ministration in 1812, tried in vain to secure 
the duke's support by an offer of the Garter. 
He died at Norfolk House, St. James's Square, 
on 16 Dec. 1815, and was buried on the 23rd 
at Dorking, Surrey. On 1 Aug. 1767 he 
married Marian, daughter and heiress of 
John Coppinger of Ballyvoolane, co. Cork, 
but she died on 28 May 1768. He married 
secondly, on 2 April 1771, Frances, daughter 
and heiress of Charles Fitz-Roy Scudamore 
of Holme Lacey, Herefordshire, who survived 
until 22 Oct. 1820. He left no issue, and 
was succeeded in the dukedom by his third 
cousin, Bernard Edward Howard (1765- 
1842) [q. v.] 

Despite his personal eccentricities, Norfolk 
lived in great splendour. He expended vast 
sums, though not in the best taste, on Arundel 
Castle, and bought books and pictures. He 
was deeply interested in everything that il- 
lustrated the history of his own family, and 
was always ready to assist any one of the 
name of Howard who claimed the remotest 
relationship (Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxxv. pt. ii. 
pp. 631-2, vol. Ixxxvi. pt. i. pp. 65-7, 104). 
He encouraged the production of works on 
local antiquities, like Duncumb's ' Hereford- 




shire ' and Dalla way's ' Sussex.' He was 
elected president of the Society of Arts on 
22 March 1794. 

His portrait was painted by Gainsborough 
in 1783, and by Hoppner in 1800. The former 
was engraved by J. K. Sherwin. An etched 
portrait is of earlier date. 

[Collins'sPeerage(Brydges),i. 141-2; H.K.S. 
Causton's Howard Papers; Gunning's Reminis- 
cences of Cambridge, ii. 52.] G. G. 

1513), lord high admiral, second son of 
Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey, and after- 
wards second duke of Norfolk [q. v.], served, 
when about fifteen, in the squadron which, 
under the command of Sir Edward Ponynges 
[q. v.l, co-operated with the troops of the 
Archduke Maximilian in the reduction of 
Sluys in 1492. In 1497 he served under his 
father in the army in Scotland, and was then 
knighted. At the jousts held at the corona- 
tion of Henry VIII he was one of the ' enter- 
prisers.' On 20 May 1509 he was appointed 
standard-bearer, with the yearly pay of 40/. 
(RYMER, xiii. 251). In July 1511 he is 
said to have commanded, in company with 
his elder brother Thomas, the ships which 
captured the two Scotch pirates, Robert 
and Andrew Barton [q. v.] Of the circum- 
stances of the action, round which much 
legend has grown, we have no contem- 
porary account. It is not mentioned in the 
State Papers. Later chroniclers speak of 
Howard as commanding by virtue of his rank 
as lord-admiral, and relate that the king re- 
ceived the news of the Bartons' piracies while 
at Leicester, a place which it is certainly 
known he did not visit in the early years of 
his reign (information from Mr. J. Gairdner). 
Moreover, Howard was not lord-admiral in 
1511, and it is not recorded that he had before 
that date any command at sea ; and it seems 
not improbable that the names of the Howards 
were introduced without justification, on ac- 
count of their later celebrity (HALLE (1548), 
Henry VIII, fol. xv, where the Christian 
name is given as Edmond; LESLEY, Hist, of 
Scotland, Bannatyne Club, p. 82). The 
details given in the ballad of < Sir Andrew 
Barton,' which were adopted by Sir Walter 
Scott {Tales of a Grandfather, chap, xxiv.), 
are unquestionably apocryphal. 

On 7 April 1512 Howard was appointed 
admiral of the fleet fitting out for the sup- 
port of the pope and of Ferdinand, king of 
Aragon, and to carry on hostilities against 
the French (RYMER, xiii. 326, 329). By the 
middle of May the fleet was collected at 
Portsmouth, to the number of twenty large 
ships, and, going over to the coast of Brittany, 
ravaged the western extremity with fire and 

sword. On Trinity Sunday he landed in 
Bertheaume Bay, drove the French out of 
their bulwarks, defeated them in several skir- 
mishes, and marched seven miles inland. On 
Monday, 23 May, he landed at Conquet, burnt 
the town and the house of the Sieur de 
j Portzmoguer. On 1 June he landed again, 
apparently in Crozon Bay. The neighbour- 
ing gentry sent a challenge, daring him to 
stay till they could collect their men. He 
replied that ' all that day they should find 
him in that place, tarrying their coming.' 
He had with him about 2,500 men, but these 
he posted so strongly that when the French 
levies, to the number of 10,000, came against 
him, they did not venture to attack, and re- 
solved to wait till Howard was compelled to 
move out of his entrenchments, and so take 
him at a disadvantage on the way to his boats. 
But while waiting, a panic seized the Breton 
militia ; they fled ; and Howard was left free 
to re-embark at his leisure. He declined ' to 
surcease his cruel kind of war in burning of 
towns and villages/ at the request of the 
lords of Brittany, or to grant them a truce of 
six days ; and having done as much harm as he 
could, he went along the coast of Brittany and 
Normandy, and returned to the Isle of Wight. 
In the beginning of August he sailed again 
for Brest with twenty-five great ships. The 
French had meantime prepared a fleet of 
thirty ships. It is impossible to form any 
correct estimate of the relative strength. 
Several of the French ships were large, espe- 
cially the Marie la Cordeliere, which is said 
to have had a crew of a thousand men. The 
largest of the English ships, the Regent and 
the Sovereign, seem to have had crews of 
seven hundred. Howard's own ship, the Mary 
Rose, was somewhat smaller. On 10 Aug. 
the French put to sea, under the command 
of Herv6, Sieur de Portzmoguer, known to 
French chroniclers as Primauguet, and to 
the English as Sir Piers Morgan. They had 
just got clear of the Goulet when the English 
fleet arrived, and at once attacked them. The 
fight was fiercely contested, especially among 
the larger ships; the Cordeliere, commanded 
by Portzmoguer in person, in avoiding the 
onslaught of the Sovereign, fell on board the 
Regent, which was commanded by Howard's 
brother-in-law, Sir Thomas Kny vet [q.v.] The 
two grappled each other, and while the fight 
was still raging caught fire, and burnt toge- 
ther. Of the seventeen hundred men on board 
very few escaped. The disaster struck a panic 
into the French, who fled confusedly into the 
harbour. The English pursued; anchored in 
Bertheaume Bay ; ravaged the coasts of Brit- 
tany, Normandy, and Picardy, and, taking 
and burning many French ships, returned to 



Portsmouth. On 26 Aug. Wolsey, writing 
to Foxe, bishop of Winchester, gave the ac- 
count of the action as the news of the day, 
adding : ' Sir Edward hath made his vow to 
God that he will never see the king in the face 
till he hath revenged the death of the noble 
and valiant knight, Sir Thomas Knyvet' 
(FiDDES, Life of Wolsey, Collections, p. 10). 
On 15 Aug. 1512 Howard, before the news 
of the victory reached home, received the 
reversion of the office of admiral of England, 
Ireland, and Aquitaine, held at the time by 
John, earl of Oxford. The patent confirming 
him in the office of admiral of England is dated 
19 March 1513 (Patent Roll, 4 Hen. VIII, 
pt. ii.) By Easter of 1513 (27 March) the fleet 
was again collected at Portsmouth (ELLIS, 
Original Letters, 2nd ser. i. 213), and, cross- 
ing over to Brest, anchored in Bertheaume 
Bay, in sight of the French, who lay in the 
roadstead within. Howard resolved to attack 
them there, but one of his ships, commanded 
by Arthur Plantagenet, in endeavouring to 
pass the Goulet, struck on a sunken rock and 
was totally lost. On this the fleet returned 
to its former anchorage, and contented itself 
with closely blockading the port ; while the 
French, on their side, anticipating a renewal 
of the attempt, moved their ships close in 
under the guns of the castle, mounted other 
batteries on the flanks, and placed a row of 
fireships in front. It is said that Howard 
took this occasion of writing to the king, 
suggesting that he might win great glory 
by coming over and taking the command 
himself, in the destruction of the French 
navy ; that the king referred it to his council, 
who considered the undertaking too dan- 
gerous, and wrote to Howard sharply repri- 
manding him for his dilatory conduct, and 
ordering him to lose no more time (HoLiNS- 
HED, p. 575). No such correspondence is 
now extant, and the story appears improbable. 
It seems, too, incompatible with the fact that 
he was at this time nominated a knight of the 
Garter, though he did not live to receive the 

Meanwhile he learned that a squadron of 
galleys had come round from the Mediter- 
ranean, under the command of the Chevalier 
Pregent de Bidoux, a knight of St. John, and 
had anchored in Whitsand Bay (les Blancs 
Sablons), waiting, presumably, for an oppor- 
tunity to pass into Brest. A council of war 
determined that they might be attacked, and 
as it was found that the galleys were drawn 
up close to the shore, in very shoal water, 
Howard resolved to cut them out with his 
boats and some small row-barges attached 
to the fleet (25 April 1513). He himself in 
person took the command of one of these, 

[ and, rowing in through a storm of shot, 
grappled Pregent's own galley, and, sword 
in hand, sprang on board, followed by about 
seventeen men. By some mishap the grap- 
pling was cut adrift, the boat was swept 
away by the tide, and Howard and his com- 
panions, left unsupported, were thrust over- 
board at the pike's point. The other boats, 
unable to get in through the enemy's fire, 
had retired, ignorant of the loss they had 
sustained. It was some little time before 
they understood that the admiral was missing. 
When they sent a flag of truce to inquire as 
to what had become of him, they were an- 
swered by Pr6gent that he had only one pri- 
soner, who had told him that one of those 
driven overboard was the admiral of Eng- 
land. The English drew back in dismay to 
their own ports, and Pregent, called by 
English chroniclers 'Prior John,' crossed over 
from Brest, and ravaged the coast of Sussex. 

Howard's death was felt as a national 
disaster. In a letter to the king of England, 
James IV of Scotland wrote : ' Surely, dearest 
brother, we think more loss is to you of your 
late admiral, who deceased to his great honour 
and laud, than the advantage might have 
been of the winning of all the French galleys 
and their equipage (ELLIS, Orig. Letters, 1st 
ser. i. 77). It is stated by Paulus Jovius 
(Historia sui Temporis, 1553, i. 99) that 
Howard's body was thrown upon the beach, 
and was recognised by the small golden horn 
(corniculum) which he wore suspended from 
his neck as the mark of his rank and office. 
No English writer mentions the recovery of 
the body; the ensign of his office was a 
whistle or ' pipe,' not a horn ; and it is re- 
corded that before he was forced overboard 
he took off the whistle and hurled it into the 
sea, to prevent its falling into the enemy's 
hands (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 
i. No. 4005). 

Howard married Alice, daughter of Wil- 
liam Lovel, lord Morley, widow of Sir Wil- 
liam Parker, and mother, by her first marriage, 
of Henry, lord Morley, but had no issue. He 
was succeeded in his office by his elder brother, 
Sir Thomas, afterwards earl of Surrey, and 
third duke of Norfolk [q. v.] 

[Collins's Peerage (1768), i. 77; Campbell's 
Lives of the Admirals, i. 279 ; Southey's Lives 
of the British Admirals, ii. 169-83 ; Howard's 
Memorials of the Howard Family; Lord Her- 
bert's Life and Eeign of Henry VIII in Kennett's 
Hist, of England, vol. ii. ; Holinshed's Chronicles 
(edit. 1808), iii. 565-75; Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII (Rolls Ser.), vol. i. ; Jal, in Annales 
Maritimes et Coloniales (1844), Ixxxvi. 993, and 
(1845), xc. 717; Troude's Batailles Navales de 
la France, i. 66.] J- K. L. 




HOWARD, EDWARD (fl. 1669), dra- 
matist, baptised at St.Martin's-in-the-Fields, 
2 Nov. 1624, was fifth son of Thomas Howard, 
first earl of Berkshire, and brother of Sir 
Robert Howard (1626 P-1698) [q. v.] He 
published in 1668 ' The Usurper; a Tragedy. 
As it was acted at the Theatre Royal by his 
Majesties Servants/ 4to. It was followed by 
' The Brittish Princes : an Heroick Poem,' 
8vo, dedicated to Henry, lord Howard, second 
brother to the Duke of Norfolk. Prefixed to 
this worthless poem, which was ridiculed by 
Rochester, are commendatory verses by Lord 
Orrery and Sir John Denham, with a prose 
epistle by Thomas Hobbes. ' Six Days' Ad- 
venture ; or the New Utopia,' a poor comedy, 
acted without success at the Duke of York's 
Theatre, was published in 1671, 4to. Mrs. 
Behn, Edward Ravenscroft, and others pre- 
fixed commendatory verses. * The Women's 
Conquest,' 1671, 4to, a tragi-comedy, acted by 
the Duke of York's servants, has some amusing 
scenes, and supplied hints (as Genest remarks) 
for Mrs. Inchbald's ' Every One has his Fault.' 
'The Man of Newmarket, 1678, 4to, was acted 
at the Theatre Royal. Howard also wrote 
three unpublished plays, 'The Change of 
Crowns/ ' The London Gentleman' (entered 
in the Stationers' Register, 7 Aug. 1667), 
and ' The United Kingdom.' Pepys saw the 
' Change of Crowns ' acted before a crowded 
house at the Theatre Royal on 12 April 1667. 
He describes it as ' the best that I ever saw 
at that house, being a great play and serious.' 
Some passages in the play gave offence, and 
the actor Lacy was ' committed to the porter's 
lodge.' Lacy indignantly told Howard that 
* he was more a fool than a poet.' The ' United 
Kingdom' was satirised in the 'Rehearsal.' 

Howard's other works are 'Poems and 
Essays, with a Paraphrase of Cicero's Laelius, 
or of Friendship,' 1673, 8vo,and 'Caroloiades, 
or the Rebellion of Forty One. In Ten 
Books. A Heroick Poem/ 1689, 8vo, reissued 
in 1695 with a fresh title-page (' Caroloiades 
Redivivus ') and a dedicatory epistle to the 
Princess of Denmark. He prefixed commen- 
datory verses to Mrs. Behn's ' Poems/ 1685, 
and Dryden's < Virgil/ 1697. There is a de- 
risive notice of ' Ned ' Howard in ' Session of 
the Poets/ among 'Poems on Affairs of State' 
(ed. 1703, i. 206). 

[Langbaine's Dram. Poets; Baker's Biog. 
Dram., ed. Jones ; Pepys's Diary; Genest's Eng- 
lish Stage; Gent. Mag. 1850, pt. ii. p. 369.] 

A. H. B. 

ARD OP ESCRICK (d. 1675), was the seventh 
son of Thomas, first earl of Suffolk (1561- 
1626) [q. v.], by his second wife, Catherine, 
widow of Richard, eldest son of Robert, lord 

Rich, and eldest daughter and coheiress of 
Sir Henry Knevet of Charlton, Wiltshire. 
At the creation of Charles, prince of Wales, 
3 Nov. 1616, he was made K.B. (METCALFE, 
Book of Knights, p. 168), and was raised to 
the peerage as Baron Howard of Escrick in 
Yorkshire on 29 April 1628. With the Earl 
of Berkshire he enjoyed the sinecure office of 
farmer of his majesty's greenwax (Gal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1638-9, p. 624). On 8 Feb. 
1639 he expressed his readiness to attend 
Charles on his journey to York with such 
equipage as he could command (ib. Dom. 
1638-9, p. 439) ; but when it was moved in 
the House of Lords on 24 April 1640 that 
supply should have precedence over other 
questions he voted against the king (ib. 1640, 
p. 66). He was one of the twelve peers who 
signed on 28 Aug. 1640 a petition to the king, 
which set forth the popular grievances and 
the dangers attendant on the expedition 
against the Scots. With Lord Mandeville 
he presented it to Charles at York, and be- 
sought him to summon a parliament and 
settle matters without bloodshed (ib. Dom. 
1640-1, p. 15). In May 1642 he was again 
despatched to the king at York to deliver the 
declaration of both houses of parliament re- 
specting the messages sent to them by Charles 
concerning Sir John Hotham's refusal to ad- 
mit him into Hull. He refused to obey the 
king's order to carry back his answer to par- 
liament, on the ground that his instructions 
were to remain at York, and use his best 
endeavours in averting war. Charles, after 
warning him not to ' make any party or hin- 
der his service in the country/ bade him at- 
tend the meeting of county gentlemen on 
12 May (ib. Dom. 1641-3, p. 317). The com- 
mons ordered reparation to be made to him 
for his losses in the war in 1644 (Commons' 
Journals, iii. 659), and on 2 June 1645 re- 
solved that he should have the benefit of the 
two next assessments of the twentieth part 
discovered by his agents (ib. iv. 159). After 
the abolition of the House of Lords in 1649 
Howard consented to become a member of 
the commons, where he represented Carlisle 
(ib. vi. 201). He was also appointed a mem- 
ber of the council of state 20 Feb. 1650, and 
served on various committees (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1650, pp. 5, 17). On Colonel 
Rich's death he was given the command of 
his regiment (ib. Dom. 1655, p. 377). In July 
1650 Howard was accused by Major-general 
Harrison of taking bribes from wealthy de- 
linquents. A year later he was convicted, 
discharged from being a member of the house, 
and from bearing any office of trust, and sen- 
tenced to be imprisoned in the Tower, and 
to pay a fine of 10,000 J. He, however, es- 



caped imprisonment on the plea of ill-health, 
and the fine was not exacted, but he passed 
the remainder of his life in obscurity (Com- 
mons' Journals, vols. vi. vii.) He died on 
24 April 1675, and was buried in the Savoy 
(CLUTTERBTTCK, Hertfordshire, ii. 46-7). By 
his marriage in December 1623 to Mary, fifth 
daughter of Sir John, afterwards Lord, Bote- 
ler, of Hatfield, Woodhall, and Braintfield, 
Hertfordshire (Col. State Papers, Dom. 1623- 
1625, pp. 132, 134), he had four sons and a 
daughter. Thomas (d. 1678) and William 
[q. v.], the first and second sons, became suc- 
cessively second and third barons, and on the 
death, without issue, in 1715, of William's 
eldest son Charles, who succeeded his father 
as fourth baron in 1694, the title became ex- 

[Authorities cited ; Burke's Extinct Peerage.] 

a. o. 

HOWARD, EDWARD (d. 1841), no- 
velist, entered the navy, where Captain 
Marryat was his shipmate (Athenceum, 8 Jan. 
1842, p. 41). On obtaining his discharge he 
became a contributor of sea stories to perio- 
dical literature. When Marryat took the 
editorship of the ' Metropolitan Magazine ' in 
1832, he chose Howard for his sub-editor 
(MRS. Ross CHURCH, Life of Marryat, i. 
227). He subsequently joined the staff of 
the 'New Monthly Magazine,' then edited by 
Thomas Hood. Howard died suddenly on 
30 Dec. 1841. In reviewing Howard's pos- 
thumous and best work, ' Sir Henry Morgan,' 
Hood wrote sympathetically of the author as 
1 one of the most able and original-minded 
men' of the day, who had but 'just felt the 
true use of his powers when he was called 
upon to resign them' (New Monthly Maga- 
zine, Ixiv. 439). In one of the volumes of 
the same periodical is a portrait of Howard 
engraved after Osgood by Freeman, with a 
facsimile of his autograph ; it has also been 
published separately (EvAtfS, Cat. of En- 
graved Portraits, ii. 210). 

Howard's greatest success was his ' Rattlin 
the Reefer,' 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1836, a 
maritime novel of considerable power. To 
insure for it a large sale it was published as 
'edited by the author of "Peter Simple,"' 
and on this account has been erroneously 
assigned to Marryat. Howard's other works, 
which were mostly issued as ' by the author 
of " Rattlin the Reefer," 'are: 1. ' The Old 
Commodore,' 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1837. 
2. ' Outward Bound ; or, a Merchant's Ad- 
ventures,' 12mo, London, 1838. 3. ' Memoirs 
of Admiral Sir Sidney Smith, K.C.B.,' 2 vols. 
8vo, London, 1839. 4. < Jack Ashore,' 3 vols. 
12mo, London, 1840. 5. 'The Centiad: a 
Poem in four books,' 12mo, London, 1841. 

G. ' Sir Henry Morgan, the Buccaneer,' 3 vols. 
12mo, London, 1842 (another edit., 1857). 
7. ' The Marine Ghost,' in part i. of ' Tales 
from Bentley,' 8vo, 1859. 

[Gent. Mag. new ser. xyiii. 436 ; Notes and 
Queries, 7th ser. vii. 486, viii. 58-9 ; Cat. of 
Advocates' Library.] GK Q. 

(1818-1883),was second son of Henry Charles, 
thirteenth duke of Norfolk [q. v.], by his 
wife, Lady Charlotte Sophia Leveson-Gower, 
eldest daughter of George Granville, first 
duke of Sutherland. He was born on 20 Jan. 
1818, and, though a catholic by birth, finished 
his education at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
On the death, on 16 March 1842, of his grand- 
father, Bernard Edward, twelfth duke of 
Norfolk [q. v:], his father succeeded to the 
titles and estates, and Howard became known 
as Lord Edward Howard. He was a liberal 
in politics. In July 1846, when the first 
Russell administration came into power, he 
was appointed vice-chamberlain to the queen 
and a privy councillor, and retained his office 
until March 1852. After unsuccessfully con- 
testing Shoreham at the general election of 
1847, Howard was returned in 1848 to the 
House of Commons as M.P. for Horsham. 
From 1853 to 1868 he was M.P. for Arundel, 
but was rejected by that constituency in the 
general election of 1868. On 9 Dec. 1869 
he was created a peer of the United King- 
dom as Baron Howard of Glossop. Howard 
rendered signal service to the cause of 
Roman catholic primary education. From 
1869 to 1877 he was chairman of the Catholic 
Poor Schools Committee, in succession to the 
Hon. Charles Langdale. As chairman of the 
committee he set on foot the Catholic Educa- 
tion Crisis Fund, not only subscribing 5,000 
to it himself, but securing 10,000/. from his 
nephew the fifteenth and present Duke of 
Norfolk, and another 10,000/. from his son- 
in-law the Marquis of Bute. Seventy thou- 
sand scholars were thus added to the Roman 
catholic schools in England at a cost of at 
least 350,000/. During the eight years' mi- 
nority of his nephew, the fifteenth duke of 
Norfolk (1860-8), he presided over the Col- 
lege of Arms as deputy earl marshal. In 
1871 Howard bought from James Robert 
Hope-Scott [q. v.], for nearly 40,000/., his 
highland estate at Dorlin, near Loch Shiel, 
Salen, N.B. Howard died, after a long ill- 
ness, on 1 Dec. 1883, at his town house, 
19 Rutland Gate, Knightsbridge. 

Howard married, first, on 22 July 1851, 

Augusta Talbot, only daughter (and heiress 

I to a fortune of 80,000/.) of George Henry 

| Talbot, half-brother of John, sixteenth earl 



of Shrewsbury; and secondly, on 16 July 
1863, Winifred Mary, third daughter of Am- 
brose Lisle March Phillipps de Lisle, esq., 
of Garendon Park and Gracedieu Manor in 
Leicestershire. By his first wife, who died 
3 July 1862, he had two sons, Charles Ber- 
nard Talbot, who died in 1861, aged 9, and 
Francis Edward, who succeeded as second 
baron ; and five daughters. 

[Memorial Notice in the Tablet, 8 Dec. 1883, 
p. 882; Times, December 1883; Men of the 
Time, llth ed. p. 595.] C. K. 

NORFOLK (1494-1558). [See under HOWAED, 
THOMAS, third DUKE.] 

HOWARD, FRANK (1805 P-1868), 
painter, son of Henry Howard, R.A. [q. v.], 
was born in Poland Street, London, about 
1805. After being educated at Ely he became 
a pupil of his father and a student of the Royal 
Academy, and was subsequently an assistant 
of Sir Thomas Lawrence. He exhibited at 
the British Institution from 1824 to 1843, 
his earliest contribution being two subjects 
from Shakespeare. He first exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1825, when he sent 
'Othello and Desdemona' and three por- 
traits, and he continued to exhibit portraits 
and Shakespearean and poetical subjects until 
1833. In 1827 he commenced the publication 
of a series of clever outline plates, entitled 
'The Spirit of the Plays of Shakspeare,' 
which was completed in five quarto volumes 
in 1833. After the death of Lawrence he 
began to paint small-sized portraits, and to 
make designs for goldsmith's work for Messrs. 
Storr & Mortimer. In 1839 he exhibited 
again at the Academy, and in 1842 he sent 
' The Adoration of the Magi/ ' Suffer little 
Children to come unto Me,' and ' The Rescue 
of Cymbeline.' He contributed in the same 
year to the British Institution ' Spenser's 
Faerie Queene, containing Portraits of Queen 
Elizabeth and her Court.' In 1843 he sent 
three cartoons to Westminster Hall in com- 
petition for the prizes offered in connection 
with the rebuilding of the Houses of Parlia- 
ment, and for one, ' Una coming to seek the 
assistance of Gloriana,' an allegory of the re- 
formed religion seeking the aid of England, 
suggested by Spenser's ' Faerie Queene,' he 
was awarded one of the extra prizes of 100Z. 
The other cartoons were ' The Introduction 
of Christianity into England ' and ' Bruce's 
Escape on the Retreat from Dairy.' He 
did not compete in 1844, but in 1845 he sent 
' The Baptism of Ethelbert ' and ' The Spirit 
of Chivalry,' and in 1847 ' The Night Sur- 
prise of Cardiff Castle by Ivor Bach ; ' but 
this work did not add to his reputation. 

About the same time he removed to Liverpool, 
where he earned during the remainder of his 
life a precarious livelihood by painting and 
teaching drawing, as well as by lecturing on 
art and writing dramatic articles in a local 
newspaper. He wrote some books on art, 
the first of which, ' The Sketcher's Manual/ 
published in 1837, went through several 
editions. It was followed by ' Colour as a 
Means of Art/ 1838, < The Science of Draw- 
ing/ 1839-40, and 'Imitative Art/ 1840. 
He likewise edited Byres's ' Hypogaei, or 
Sepulchral Caverns of Tarquinia/ 1842, folio, 
and, with a memoir, his father's ' Course 
of Lectures on Painting/ 1848. He also 
drew on stone the plates for Sir William C. 
Harris's ' Portraits of the Game and Wild 
Animals of Southern Africa/ 1840, and made 
some designs for church and memorial win- 
dows for ' The St. Helen's Crown Glass Com- 
pany's Trade Book of Patterns for Ornamental 
Window Glass/ 1850. 

He died of paralysis at Liverpool on 
29 June 1866 in much distress. 

[Art Journal, 1866, p. 286 ; Gent. Mag. 1866, 
ii. 280 ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of the Eng- 
lish School, 1878; Royal Academy Exhibition 
Catalogues, 1825-46 ; British Institution Exhi- 
bition Catalogues (Living Artists), 1824-43 ; 
Exhibition Catalogues of the Society of British 
Artists, 1829-31 ; Catalogues of the Cartoons 
and Works of Art exhibited in "Westminster Hall, 
1843-7.] K. E. G-. 

CARLISLE (1748-1825), only son of Henry, 
fourth earl of Carlisle, by his second wife, 
Isabella, daughter of William Byron, fourth 
lord Byron, was born on 28 May 1748, and 
succeeded his father as fifth earl on 4 Sept. 
1758 [see under HOWARD, CHARLES, third 
EARL]. At an early age he was sent to Eton, 
where he was the contemporary and friend 
of Lord Fitzwilliam, Charles James Fox, 
James Hare, and Anthony Morris Storer, and 
in 1764 proceeded to King's College, Cam- 
bridge. He left Cambridge without taking 
any degree, and after a flirtation with Lady 
Sarah Lennox, which was commemorated 
in verse by Lord Holland, started on a con- 
tinental tour, being accompanied during part 
of the time by Fox. While on his tra- 
vels he was elected a knight of the Thistle 
(23 Dec. 1767), and was invested with the 
insignia of the order at Turin by the king 
of Sardinia on 27 Feb. 1768. Returning to 
England in the following year he took his 
seat in the House of Lords for the first time 
on 9 Jan. 1770 (Journals of the House of 
Lords, xxxii. 394). For several years Car- 
lisle continued to "be known only as a man of 
pleasure and fashion. He and Fox were 



accounted the two best dressed men in town. 
His passion for play led him into the greatest ' 
extravagance. He became surety for Fox's 
gambling debts (WALPOLE, Letters, v. 485), 
and ultimately was compelled to retire to 
Castle Howard for a year or two in order to 
repair the disasters in which his improvidence 
and his generosity had involved him. 

Emancipating himself from the gaming- 
table he gave his attention to politics, and 
on 13 June 1777 was appointed treasurer of 
the household, and sworn a member of the 
privy council. On 13 April 1778 he was 
nominated the chief of the commission sent 
out to America by Lord North 'to treat, 
consult, and agree upon the means of quiet- 
ing the disorders ' in the American colonies 
(London Gazette, 1778, No. 11865). While 
there he became involved in a misunderstand- 
ing with Lafayette, who, enraged at some 
strong expressions reflecting on the conduct 
of the French, which had been, published in 
one of the proclamations of the commissioners, 
challenged Carlisle, as the principal commis- 
sioner, to a duel. Carlisle very properly de- 
clined the meeting, and informed Lafayette 
in a letter that he considered himself solely 
responsible to his country and king, and not 
to any individual, for his public conduct and 
language. The American demands being in 
excess of the powers vested in the commis- 
sioners, Carlisle returned without having en- 
tered into negotiations with the congress, 
a result which Horace Walpole predicted 
when, in announcing Carlisle's appointment 
on the commission to Mason, he described 
him as being { very fit to make a treaty that 
will not be made ' (WALPOLE, Letters, vii. 

Soon after his return from America, having 
resigned the treasurership of the household, 
Carlisle became president of the board of 
trade in the place of Lord George Germaine 
(6 Nov. 1779). On 9 Feb. 1780 he was ap- 
pointed lord-lieutenant of the East Riding 
of Yorkshire, and on 13 Oct. in the same 
year was nominated lord-lieutenant of Ire- 
land in succession to John Hobart, second 
earl of Buckinghamshire. He was succeeded 
in December 1780 at the board of trade by 
Lord Grantham, and arrived in Dublin at 
the close of that month, taking with him as 
his chief secretary William Eden, afterwards 
Lord Auckland, who in the previous year 
had addressed ' Four Letters to the Earl of 
Carlisle ' on English and Irish political ques- 
tions. Though inexperienced in official life, 
Carlisle soon gained a clear insight into the 
true condition of Irish affairs, and won the re- 
spect of the Irish people. In his official des- 
patches he did not conceal his opinion that it 

was impossible to maintain the old sys-tem of 
government, and vehemently urged that Ire- 
and should not be included in British acts 
of parliament. 'Should any regulations/ 
wrote Carlisle to Hillsboiough, on 23 Feb. 
1782, l be necessary to extend to this king- 
dom as well as Great Britain, I have not the 
least reason to doubt that the nation would 
immediately enact them by her own laws ; ' 
and in another letter, dated 19 March 1782, 
he asserts : ' It is beyond a doubt that the 
practicability of governing Ireland by Eng- 
lish laws is become utterly visionary. It is 
with me equally beyond a doubt that Ireland 
may be well and happily governed by its 
own laws.' 

On the accession of Rockingham to office 
in March 1782, Carlisle was abruptly dis- 
missed from the lord-lieutenancy of the East 
Riding, and replaced by the Marquis of Car- 
marthen, who had been removed from that 
office by the late government. In conse- 
quence of this slight Carlisle resigned the 
post of lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and on 
16 April 1782 the Irish House of Commons 
passed a hearty vote of thanks to him ' for 
the wisdom and prudence of his adminis- 
tration, and for his uniform and unremitted 
attention to promote the welfare of this king- 
dom ' (Journals of the Irish Souse of Com- 
mons, x. 336). Carlisle was succeeded in the 
viceroyalty by the Duke of Portland, and on 
11 May 1782 was appointed lord steward of 
the household. When Lord Shelburne brought 
forward his Irish resolutions on 17 May 1782 
in the House of Lords, they were received 
with warm approval by Carlisle, who ' bore 
ample testimony to the zeal and loyalty of 
the Irish, and particularly stated the honour- 
able conduct of the volunteers and the liberal 
I offers made of their service, when Ireland 
I was threatened with an attack ' (Parl. Hist. 
xxiii. 38). On learning the terms of the 
peace with France and America, Carlisle re- 
signed his office in Lord Shelburne's adminis- 
tration, and in the House of Lords, on 17 Feb. 
1783, proposed an amendment to the address 
of thanks, condemning the preliminary ar- 
I tides ' as inadequate to our just expectations 
and derogatory to the honour and dignity of 
Great Britain.' After a lengthy debate in a 
fuller house than had been known for many 
years the address was carried at half-past 
four in the morning by a majority of thirteen 
(ib. xxiii. 375-80, 435). On the formation 
of the coalition ministry Carlisle was made 
lord privy seal (2 April 1783), a post which 
he retained until Pitt's accession to power in 
December 1783. During the discussions on 
the regency question in the winter of 1788-9 
Carlisle took an active part against the re- 




strictions of the Prince of Wales's authority, 
and continued to act in opposition to Pitt's 
ministry until the outbreak of the French 
revolution. On 26 L>ec. 1792, ' though not 
accustomed to agree with the present ad- 
ministration,' he supported the third reading 
of the Alien Bill (ib. xxx. 164), and in Fe- 
bruary 1793 declared that he entertained no 
doubt ' of the necessity and justice of the war 
with France ' (ib. xxx. 324). On 12 June 
1793 he was invested with the order of the 
Garter, and in May 1794 defended the Ha- 
beas Corpus Suspension Bill ' as being essen- 
tial to the safety of the constitution' (ib. 
xxxi. 597). On 26 Feb. 1799 he was reap- 
pointed lord-lieutenant of the East Riding 
(London Gazettes, p. 191), and in March of 
that year spoke in favour of the union with Ire- 
land (Par/. Hist . xxxiv. 710-11). In January 
1811 he supported Lord Lansdowne's amend- 
ment to the first regency resolution, contend- 
ing that by imposing any limitation and re- 
striction ' the country could only draw the 
conclusion that there was a suspicion that 
the Prince of Wales would make an improper 
use of the power ' (Par/. Debates, xviii. 692-3, 
747). In March 1815 he both spoke and voted 
against the third reading of the Corn Bill, 
and with Grenville and nine other peers en- 
tered a protest on the journals against it 
(ib. xxx. 261, 263-5). From this date Car- 
lisle appears to have retired from public life 
and to have taken no further part in the de- 
bates of the House of Lords. He died at 
Castle Howard on 4 Sept. 1825 in his seventy- 
eighth year. 

Carlisle married, on 22 March 1770, Lady 
Margaret Caroline Leveson-Gower, daughter ! 
of Granville, first marquis of Stafford, by 
whom he had four sons and three daughters. I 
His wife died on 27 Jan. 1824, and he was I 
succeeded in his honours by his eldest son, ' 
George Howard (1773-1848) [q. v.] At 
Castle Howard there are three portraits of 
Carlisle by Sir Joshua Reynolds, as well as 
others by Hoppner and Jackson. In the first 
volume of Cadell's ' British Gallery of Con- 
temporary Portraits ' there is an engraving 
by H. Meyer after the portrait by Hoppner. 
Two other engravings are referred to in 
Bromley's ' Catalogue.' 

In 1798 Carlisle was appointed by the court 
of chancery guardian of Lord Byron, who 
was his first cousin once removed. He 
undertook the charge with much reluctance, 
and interfered little in the management of 
his ward. The second edition of Byron's 
' Hours of Idleness ' was dedicated to Car- 
lisle ' by his obliged ward and affectionate 
kinsman, the author.' Enraged, however, by 
Carlisle's refusal to take any trouble in in- 

troducing him to the House of Lords, Byroi 
erased from his ' English Bards and Scotch 
Reviewers/ which was then going througl 
, the press, the complimentary couplet 
On one alone Apollo deigns to smile, 
And crowns a new Eoscommon in Carlisle, 

| and substituted the bitter attack commenc 
I ing with the lines, 

No muse will cheer with renovating smile 

The paralytic puling of Carlisle. 

Though no formal reconciliation ever took 
place between them, Byron afterwards made 
a handsome apology while referring to th( 
death of Carlisle's third son, Frederick, a* 
Waterloo, in the third canto of ' Childt 
Harold ' (stanzas xxix. xxx.) Carlisle wa , 
a liberal patron of the fine arts, with a cu] 
tivated mind, polished manners, and a tast 
for writing poetry. He purchased a larg 
part of the Orleans gallery, and was one o 
the pall-bearers at Sir Joshua Reynolds'* 
funeral. His literary work was praised botl: 
by Johnson and Horace Walpole. The former 
in a letter to Mrs. Chapone, dated 28 Nov 
1783, declares, in reference to 'The Father'* 
Revenge,' that ' of the sentiments I remembe 
not one that I wished omitted . . . with th '. 
characters, either as conceived or preserved 
I have no fault to find ' (BoswELL, Johnson 
iv. 247-8); while the latter, in a letter ti' 
the Countess of Ossory, dated 4 Aug. 1788 
says of the same tragedy that ' it has greas 
merit ; the language and imagery are beauti- 
ful, and the two capital scenes are very fine 
(WALPOLE, Letters, viii. 394). Several oi 
Carlisle's letters are printed in Jesse's ' George 
Selwyn and his Contemporaries,' and in Lord 
Auckland's 'Journal and Correspondence.'' 
Those to George Selwyn, with whom he was 
very intimate, are bright and lively, and 
' rouse a regret that the writer did not de- 
vote himself to a province of literature in 
which he might have been mentioned witl 
Walpole, instead of manufacturing poetrj 
which it was flattery to compare with Ros- 
common's' (SiK G. 0. TKEVELYAIT, Early 
History of Charles James Fox, p. 59). Several 
of Carlisle's poetical pieces appeared in ' The 
New Foundling Hospital for Wit,' 1784 (i. 
7-22), < The Asylum for Fugitive Pieces/ 
1785 (i. 28-9, iv. 17-21), and in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine ' (1804, pt. ii. p. 954, 1821. 
pt. ii. pp. 457-8), all of which, with the ex- 
ception of the last piece, were included ir 
one or other of his collections. 

Carlisle was the author of the following : 
1. * Poems, consisting of the following pieces 
viz. : i. Ode . . . upon the Death of Mr. Gray 
ii. For the Monument of a favourite Spaniel, 
&c., London, 1773, 4to ; 2nd edition, London 



773, 4to; 3rd edition. London, 1773, 4to; 
mother edition, Dublin, 1781, 8vo ; new edi- 
ion, with additions, London, 1807, 8vo, pri- 
ately printed. 2. ' The Father's Revenge, 
tragedy ' (in five acts and in verse), London, 
783, 4to, privately printed ; another edition, 
r ith other poems, London, 1800, 4to, pri- 
ately printed, and containing four engrav- 
ngs after Westall ; new edition, London, 
812, 8vo, privately printed. 3. ' To Sir J. 
Reynolds, on his late resignation of the Pre- 
ident's Chair of the Royal Academy ' (verses) 
London], 1790, 8vo. 4. ' A Letter ... to 
ilarl Fitz William, in reply to his Lordship's 
;wo letters ' (concerning his administration 
f the government of Ireland), London, 1795, 
vo; 2nd edition, London, 1795, 8vo. 5. 'The 
irisis and its alternatives offered to the free 
loice of Englishmen. Being an abridgment 
~ " Earnest and Serious Reflections "... 
;c.,' the 3rd edition, anon., London, 1798, 8vo. 

' Unite or Fall,' 5th edition, anon., Lon- 

>n, 1798, 12mo. 7. 'The Stepmother, a 

ragedy' (in five acts and inverse), London, 

800, 8vo ; a new edition, with alterations, 

mdon, 1812, 8vo, privately printed. 8. i The 
ragedies and Poems of Frederick, Earl of Car- 
sle,'&c., London, 1801, 8vo. 9. 'Verses on the 
>eath of Lord Nelson,' 1806. 10. < Thoughts 
pon the present Condition of the Stage, and 
pon the construction of a New Theatre,' 
non., London, 1808, 8vo ; a new edition, 
ith additions (appendix), London, 1809, 
vo. 11. ' Miscellanies,' London, 1820, 8vo, 
rivately printed. 

[Annual Biography and Obituary for 1826, 
3. 291-319; Annual Kegister, 1825, App. to 
hron. pp. 277-9; Gent. Mag. 1825, vol. xcv. 
t. ii. pp. 369-71 ; Walpole's Letters, ed. Cun- 
inghain ; Boswell's Johnson, ed. G. B. Hill, 
r. 113-14, 246-8; Jesse's George Selwyn and 
is Contemporaries ; Sir G. 0. Trevelyan's Early 
istory of Charles James Fox ; Life of Henry 
rattan by his son, 1839, ii. 153, 182-213; Lecky's 
.1st. of England, vol. iv. chap. xvii. ; Morris's 
ife of Byron ; Doyle's OmcialBaronage, i. 332-3 ; 
)llins's Peerage, 1812, iii. 508-9; Notes and 
.ueries, 7th ser. viii. 208, 331 ; London Gazettes; 
[artin's Catalogue of Privately Printed Books, 
854; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. R. B. 

796), field-marshal, was son of Lieutenant- 
eneral Thomas Howard. His father, nephew 
I Francis, lord Howard of Effingham (see 
DOLLINS, Peerage, vol. iv.), entered the army 
n 1703 ; was taken prisoner at Almanza 
n 1707; was detained two years in France; 
ecarne lieutenant-colonel of the 24th foot 
nder Marlborough ; was dismissed for his 
political opinions ; was reinstated by George I ; 
urchased the colonelcy of the 24th foot in 


1717; became colonel 3rd buffs in 1737; was 
a lieutenant-general at Dettingen ; and died 
in Sackville Street, London, 31 March 1753, 
leaving by his wife Mary, only daughter of 
Dr. Morton, bishop of Meath, a family in- 
cluding four sons. 

George Howard obtained his first com- 
mission in his father's regiment in Ireland 
in 1725, and rose to the lieutenant-colonelcy 
3rd buffs 2 April 1744. He commanded the 
buffs at the battles of Fontenoy, Falkirk, and 
Culloden. Chambers says that he merited 
c everlasting execration ' by his treatment of 
those to whom Lord Loudoun had promised 
indemnity after Culloden (Hist. Rebellion in 
Scotland,174:5-Q,rev. ed. p. 328). On another 
page, speaking of a wager with General Henry 
Hanley, Chambers confuses him with Major- 
general (Sir) Charles Howard [q. v.] Howard 
commanded the buffs at the battle of Val, 
and in the Rochfort expedition ten years 
later. He succeeded his father as colonel of 
the regiment 21 Aug. 1749. He appears to 
have been on the home staff, under Sir John 
Ligonier, during the earlier part of the seven 
years' war. He commanded a brigade under 
Lord Granby in Germany in 1760-2, at War- 
burg, the relief of Wesel, and elsewhere. He 
was deputed by the Duke of Newcastle in 
May 1762 to confer with Prince Ferdinand 
of Brunswick concerning the expenses of the 
allied troops (Addit. MS. 32938, f. 255), and 
signed the convention of BrunckerMuhlwith 
the French general Guerchy in the September 
following. In some accounts he is again con- 
fused with Sir Charles Howard, who was 
senior to Granby, and was not employed in 
Germany. He was made K.B. and transferred 
to the colonelcy 7th dragoons in 1763. He 
was governor of Minorca in 1766 -8 ; and sat 
in parliament for Lostwithiel in 1762-6, and 
for Stamford from 1768 until his death. 
Wraxall states (Memoirs, iii. 202) that in 
1784, when General Henry Seymour Conway 
[q. v.] resigned the office of commander-in- 
chief with a seat in the cabinet (to which 
he had been appointed under the Rocking- 
ham administration), George Howard was 
appointed to succeed him, but neither Howard 
nor the Duke of Richmond, who went to the 
ordnance at the same time, had seats in 
Pitt's new cabinet. Howard's appointment, 
if made, was never publicly recognised, the 
office of commander-in-chief remaining in 
abeyance until the reappointment, in 1794, 
of Jeffrey Amherst, lord Amherst [q. v.], the 
adjutant-general, William Fawcett [q.v.], 
being in the meantime the ostensible head 
of the army-staff under the king. Wraxall 
describes Howard as f a man of stature and 
proportions largely exceeding the ordinary 




size ... an accomplished courtier and a gal- 
lant soldier/ and adds that in the house he 
was understood to .be the mouthpiece of the 
king's personal opinions {Memoirs, ut supra). 
Howard had wealth and a more than ordinary 
share of public honours and preferment. Be- 
sides his general's pay, his red ribbon and the 
colonelcy of the 1st or king's dragoon guards, 
to which he was transferred in 1779, he was 
a privy councillor, an honorary D.C.L. Oxon. 
(7 July 1773), and was governor of both 
Chelsea Hospital and of Jersey at one time. 
He was advanced to the rank of field-mar- 
shal in 1793. He died at his residence in 
Grosvenor Square, London, 16 July 1796. 

Howard married, first, Lady Lucy Went- 
worth, sister of the Earl of Sheffield, who 
died in 1771 leaving issue ; secondly, Eliza- 
beth, widow of the second Earl of Effingham. 
[Collins's Peerage, 1812 ed., vol. iv., under 
'Effingham;' Cannon's Hist. Kec. 3rd Buffs; 
Cal. State Papers, Home Office, 1766-9, under 
'Howard, George;' Ann. Keg. 1760-2; Gent. 
Mag. 1796, pt. ii. p. 621 ; Howard's Corresp. 
with the Duke of Newcastle is in Brit. Mus. 
Add. MSS. 32852 f. 373, 32935 f. 176, 32937 
f. 457, 32938 ff. 255, 293, a letter to Lord 
Granby in 1760 is in 32911, f. 425, and one to 
Sir J. Yorke in 1762, 32940,f. 126. Memorials of 
a namesake, a certain Lieutenant-colonel George 
Howard, a veteran officer of the 3rd foot-guards, 
dated about 1740, are in the same collection.] 

H. M. C. 

CARLISLE (1773-1848), the eldest son of 
Frederick Howard, fifth earl of Carlisle [q.v.], 
was born in London on 17 Sept. 1773. He 
was styled Lord Morpeth from 1773 to 1825. 
He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he matriculated on 19 Oct. 
1790, and was created M.A. 30 June 1792, 
and D.C.L. 18 June 1799. At a by-elec- 
tion in January 1795 he was returned in 
the whig interest to the House of Commons 
for the family borough of Morpeth, for which 
he continued to sit until the dissolution in 
October 1806. At the opening of the new 
parliament in October 1796, Lord Morpeth 
moved the address in the House of Commons 
(Parl. Hist, xxxii. 1190-4), and in May 1797 
he opposed Fox's motion for the repeal of the 
Treason and Sedition Acts (ib. xxxiii. 630-1). 
In February 1799 he spoke warmly in favour 
of the union with Ireland, a measure which 
he declared ' would, if effected, extinguish 
all religious feuds and party animosities and 
distinctions ' (ib, xxxiv. 501-2). On the 
formation of the ministry of All the Talents 
Morpeth was sworn a member of the privy 
council (7 Feb. 1806), and appointed a com- 
missioner for the affairs of India (11 Feb 

1806). In July 1806 he introduced the In- 
dian budget into the house (Parl. Debates, 
vii. 1044-53), and at the general election in 
November was returned for the county of 
Cumberland, together with the tory candi- 
date, John Lowther,while Sir Henry Fletcher, 
the old whig member, lost his seat. 

On the formation of the Duke of Portland's 
ministry, in March 1807, Morpeth resigned 
his post at the India board, and on 3 Feb. 
1812 brought forward his motion on the 
state of Ireland, in a speech in which he ad- 
vocated l a sincere and cordial conciliation 
with the catholics.' The motion, after two 
nights' debate, was defeated by a majority of 
ninety-four (ib. xxi. 494-500, 669). In conse- 
quence of the allusion to the Roman catholic^ 
claims in the speaker's speech at the close 
of the previous session, Morpeth, in April 
1814, brought forward a motion regulating 
the conduct of the speaker at the bar of the 
House of Lords, but was defeated by 274 to 
106 (ib. xxvii. 465-75, 521-2). On 3 March 
1817, while moving for a new writ for the 
borough of St. Mawes, he paid a high anc 
eloquent tribute to the memory of his frienc 
Francis Horner [q. v.j (ib. xxxv. 841-4)' 
In December 1819 he supported the govern' 
ment on the third reading of the Seditious 
Meetings Prevention Bill (ib. xli. 1078-81) 
At the general election in March 1820 tht 
whigs of Cumberland, being dissatisfied with 
the political conduct of their member, put 
up another candidate, and Morpeth retiree 
from the poll at an early stage. In No- 
vember 1824 he was appointed, through 
Canning's influence, lord-lieutenant of the 
East Riding of Yorkshire (London Gazettes 
1824, pt. ii. 1929), and on 4 Sept. 1825 sue 
ceeded his father as the sixth earl of Car 
lisle. He took his seat in the House o 
Lords for the first time on 21 March 182( 
(Journals of the House of Lords, Iviii. 128} 
and on 18 May 1827 was appointed chie 
commissioner of woods and forests, with 
seat in Canning's cabinet. On 16 July 1827 
he succeeded the Duke of Portland as lore 
privy seal, and continued to hold this pos 
until the formation of the Duke of Welling 
ton's administration in January 1828. When 
the whigs came into power in Novembe 
1830, Carlisle accepted a place in Lord Grey' 
cabinet without office, and upon Lord Ripon' 
resignation, in June 1834, was appointed t( 
his old post of lord privy seal. On the dis 
solution of the ministry in the following: 
month, Carlisle retired altogether from poli-. 
tical life, owing to ill-health, and spent the 
remainder of his days principally in thej 
country. He was invested with the order off 
the Garter on 17 March 1837, and in the' 


I 9 


following year was appointed a trustee of 
the British Museum. He resigned the lord- 
lieutenancy of the East Riding in July 1847, 
and dying at Castle Howard, near Malton, 
on 7 Oct. 1848, aged 75, was buried in the 
mausoleum in the park. 

Carlisle married, on 21 March 1801, Lady 
Georgiana Dorothy Cavendish, eldest daugh- 
ter and coheiress of William, fifth duke 
of Devonshire, by whom he had six sons 
and six daughters. His wife survived him 
several years, and died on 8 Aug. 1858, 
aged 75. He was succeeded in the peerage 
by his eldest son, George William Frederick 
Howard [q. v.] Carlisle was an accomplished 
scholar, and an amiable, high-minded man. 
Of an exceedingly retiring disposition, he 
took little part in the debates in either 
house. His last speech, which is recorded 
in l Hansard/ was delivered on 5 Oct. 1831 
(Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. vii. 1329), seventeen 
years before his death. 

He was the author of the following con- 
tributions to the i Anti- Jacobin : ' 1. ' Son- 
net to Liberty' (No. v.) 2. The transla- 
tion of the Marquis of Wellesley's Latin 
verses contained in the preceding number 
(No. vii.) 3. 'Ode to Anarchy' (No. ix.)' 
4. ' A Consolatory Address to his Gunboats 
by Citizen Muskein ' (No. xxvii.) 5. t Ode 
to Director Merlin' (No. xxix.) 6. 'An 
Affectionate Effusion of Citizen Muskein to 
Havre de Grace ' (No. xxxii.) There is a 
portrait of Carlisle by Sir Thomas Lawrence 
at Castle Howard. His portrait, painted by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds in 1786, was engraved 
in the following year by Thomas Trotter 
(Cat. of the Exhibition of Old Masters, 1878, 
No. 372). An engraving after a painting by 
J. Jackson, R. A., which includes his son Lord 
Morpeth, and is at Castle Howard, will be 
found in the second volume of Jerdan's ( Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery,' 1831. 

[Ferguson's Cumberland and Westmoreland 
M.P.'s, 1871, pp. 384-5; Wilson's Biographical 
Index to the present House of Commons, 1808, 
pp. 172-3 ; Diary, and Correspondence of Lord 
Colchester; Gent. Mag. 1801 pt. i. p. 275, 1848 
pt. ii. 537-8, 1858 pt. ii. 317 ; Annual Register, 
1848, App. to Chron. pp. 256-7; Times, 9 Oct. 
1848; Illustrated London News, 14 Oct. 1848 
(with portrait) ; Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 333- 
334; Burke's Peerage, 1888, p. 248; Foster's 
Alumni Oxonienses,ii. 698; Parliamentary His- 
tory and Debates, 1795-1848; Official Return of 
Members of Parliament, pt.ii. 192, 205, 220,231, 
244, 259, 273.] Gr. F. R. B. 

(1802-1864), eldest son of George Howard, 
sixth earl of Carlisle [q. v.], by his wife, 
Lady Georgiana Dorothy Cavendish, eldest 

daughter of William, fifth duke of Devon- 
shire, was born in Hill Street, Berkeley 
Square, London, on 18 April 1802, and was 
educated at Eton. He matriculated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, on 15 Oct. 1819, and in 1821 
obtained the university prizes for Latin and 
English verse respectively. He took a first class 
in classics in the following year, and graduated 
B. A. 1823, M.A. 1827. On the death of his 
grandfather in September 1825 his father 
succeeded as the sixth earl, while he himself 
became known by the courtesy title of Lord 
Morpeth. In 1826 he accompanied his uncle 
William, sixth duke of Devonshire, on his 
mission to St. Petersburg to attend the coro- 
nation of Emperor Nicholas. While abroad 
he was returned at the general election in 
June 1826 for the borough of Morpeth in 
the whig interest. In a maiden speech on 
5 March 1827 he seconded Sir Francis Bur- 
dett's resolution for the relief of the Roman 
catholic disabilities (Parl. Debates, new ser. 
xvi. 849-54), and in April 1830 he supported 
Robert Grant's motion for leave to bring in 
a bill for the repeal of Jewish disabilities 
(ib. xxiii. 1328-30). At the general election 
in August 1830 Morpeth was returned at the 
head of the poll for Yorkshire, and in March 
1831 spoke in favour of the ministerial Re- 
form Bill, which he described as 'a safe, 
wise, honest, and glorious measure ' (ib. 3rd 
ser. ii. 1217-20). At the general election in 
May 1831 he was again returned for York- 
shire, and in the succeeding general election 
in December of the following year was elected 
one of the members for the West Riding, 
which constituency he continued to repre- 
sent until the dissolution in June 1841. In 
February 1835 Morpeth proposed an amend- 
ment to the address, which was carried 
against the government by a majority of 
seven (ib. xxvi. 165-73, 410), and upon the 
formation of Lord Melbourne's second ad- 
ministration in April 1835 he was appointed 
chief secretary for Ireland. His re-election 
for the West Riding was unsuccessfully op- 
posed by the Hon. J. S. Wortley (afterwards 
second Baron Wharncliffe) in the tory in- 
terest. On 20 May 1835 Morpeth was ad- 
mitted to the English privy council, and in the 
following month introduced the Irish Tithe 
Bill in a speech which raised his reputation 
in the house (ib. xxviii. 1319-44). He held 
the difficult post of chief secretary for Ire- 
land for more than six years during the lord- 
lieutenancies of the Marquis of Normanby and 
Earl Fortescue. During this time he carried 
through the House of Commons the Irish 
Tithe Bill, the Irish Municipal Reform Bill, 
and the Irish Poor Law Bill, and showed, 
contrary to expectation, that he was perfectly 





able to hold his own in the stormy debates 
of the day. He treated the Irish party with 
considerable tact, and did his best to carry 
out the policy initiated by Thomas Drum- 
mond (1797-1840) [q. v.] Morpeth was ad- 
mitted to the cabinet in February 1839, upon 
the retirement of Charles Grant, afterwards 
created Baron Glenelg. At the general elec- 
tion in July 1841 he was defeated in the 
West Riding, and in September resigned 
office with the rest of his colleagues. Shortly 
afterwards Morpeth spent a year in North 
America and Canada. During his absence 
he was nominated a candidate for the city of 
Dublin at a by-election in January 1842, 
but was defeated by his tory opponent. At 
a by-election in February 1846 he was re- 
turned unopposed for the West Riding, and 
upon the downfall of Sir Robert Peel's second 
administration in June 1846 was appointed 
chief commissioner of woods and forests 
(7 July) with a seat in Lord John Russell's 
first cabinet. He was sworn in as lord-lieu- 
tenant of the East Riding on 22 July 1847, 
and at the general election in the following 
month was once more returned for the West 
Riding, this time with Richard Cobden as a 
colleague. In February 1848 Morpeth re- 
introduced his bill for promoting the public 
health (ib. 3rd ser. xcvi. 385-403), which be- 
came law at the close of the session (11 & 12 
Viet. c. 63). On the death of his father 
in October 1848 Morpeth succeeded as the 
seventh earl of Carlisle, and took his seat in 
the House of Lords on 1 Feb. 1849 (Journals 
of the House of Lords, Ixxxi. 4). On the ap- 
pointment of Lord Campbell as lord chief 
justice of England, Carlisle became chan- 
cellor of the duchy of Lancaster (6 March 
1850). On the accession of Lord Derby to 
power in February 1852 Carlisle resigned 
office. He was installed rector of the uni- 
versity of Aberdeen on 31 March 1853, and 
in the following summer began a twelve- 
month's continental trip. 

On 7 Feb. 1855 Carlisle was invested with 
the order of the Garter, and in the same 
month was appointed by Lord Palmerston 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He retained this 
office until February 1858, and resumed it 
on Palmerston's return to office in June 1859. 
Ill-health compelled his final retirement in 
October 1864. He died at Castle Howard 
on 5 Dec. 1864, aged 62, and was buried in 
the family mausoleum. He never married, 
and was succeeded by his brother, the Hon. 
and Rev. William George Howard, rector of 
Londesborough, Yorkshire. Carlisle was able 
and kind-hearted, with cultivated tastes and 
great fluency of speech. Without command- 
ing abilities or great strength of will, his 

gentleness endeared him to all those with 
whom he came into contact. As lord-lieu- 
tenant he devoted his efforts to improve the 
agriculture and manufactures of Ireland, and 
was successful and popular there. 

At Castle Howard there is a head of the 
earl in chalk, which has been engraved by 
F. Holl, also a large miniature by Carrick, 
and a small full-length water-colour portrait 
painted when Howard was in Greece. A 
portrait by John Partridge is in the possession 
of Lady Taunton. A bronze statue of Carlisle 
by J. H. Foley was erected by public sub- 
scription in Phoenix Park, Dublin, in 1870, 
and in the same year another statue by the 
same artist was erected on Brampton Moat, 
Carlisle. There is a bust of Carlisle by Foley 
in the town hall at Morpeth; another, when 
Lord Morpeth, at Castle Howard ; and a third, 
also by Foley, at Castle Howard, executed 
when Howard was lord lieutenant. A me- 
morial column was erected upon Bulmer 
Hill, at the edge of the Carlisle estate. 

Carlisle presided at the Shakespeare ter- 
centenary at Stratford-on-Avon in April 1864. 
He took a great interest in mechanics' insti- 
tutes, and established a reformatory upon his 
own estate at Castle Howard. He was the 
author of the following works : 1. ' Eleusis ; 
poema Cancellarii praemio donatum, et in 
Theatro Sheldoniano recitatum die Jul. iv 
A.D. 1821' [Oxford, 1821], 8vo. 2. ' Pses- 
tum : a Prize Poem recited in the Thea- 
tre, Oxford, in the year 1821 ' [Oxford, 
1821], 8vo. 3. ' The Last of the Greeks ; or 
the Fall of Constantinople, a Tragedy ' [in 
five acts, and in verse], London, 1828, 8vo. 
4. ' Sanitary Reform. Speech ... in the 
House of Commons ... 30 March 1847, on 
moving for leave to bring in a Bill for Im- 
proving the Health of Towns in England,' 
London, 1847, 8vo. 5. < Public Health Bill. 
Speech ... in the House of Commons . . . 
10 Feb. 1848, on moving for leave to bring 
in a Bill for Promoting the Public Health/ 
London, 1848, 8vo. 6. 'Two Lectures on 
the Poetry of Pope, and on his own Travels 
in America . . . delivered to the Leeds Me- 
chanics' Institution and Literary Society, 
December 5th and 6th, 1850,' London, 1851, 
8vo ; the lecture on Pope was reviewed by 
De Quincey. 7. ' Diary in Turkish and Greek 
Waters,' London, 1854, 8vo, edited by C. C. 
Felton, Boston [U.S.], 1855, 8vo. 8. < The 
Second Vision of Daniel. A Paraphrase in 
Verse,' London, 1858, 4to. 

Carlisle was a frequent contributor in prose 
and verse to the annuals of the day, and de- 
livered a number of addresses and lectures. 
His ' Lectures and Addresses in Aid of Popular 
Education,' &c., form the twenty-fifth volume 




of the ' Travellers Library ' (London, 1856, 
8vo), while his 'Vice-regal Speeches and Ad- 
dresses, Lectures, and Poems ' were collected 
and edited by J. J. Gaskin (Dublin, 1866, 8vo, 
with portrait). A collection of his poems, 
* selected by his sisters,' was published in j 
1869 (London, 8vo). Carlisle wrote a pre- ' 
face to an English edition of Mrs. Stowe's 
' Uncle Tom's Cabin ' (London, 1853, 8vo). 

[Lonsdale's Worthies of Cumberland the 
Howards, 1872, with portrait, pp. 125-88; Mar- ' 
tineau's Biographical Sketches, 1869, pp. 131-42 ; 
"Walpole's History of England, vols. iii. iv. ; 
Gent. Mag. 1865, new ser. xviii. 99-101 ; Ann. 
Eeg. 1864, pt. ii. pp. 183-4 ; Times, 6 and 14 Dec. 
1864; Illustrated London News, 17 Dec. 1864; 
Stapylton's Eton School Lists, 1864, pp. 81, 89; 
Alumni Oxon. 1888, ii. 699 ; Historical Eegister 
of the University of Oxford, 1888, pp. 138, 147, 
326; Doyle's Official Baronage, 1886, i. 334-5; 
Foster's Peerage, 1883, p. 125; Official Eeturn 
of Lists of Members of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 305, 
322, 335, 346, 358, 372, 390, 406; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] G. F. E. B. 

1786), miscellaneous writer, son of Francis 
Howard, captain of dragoons, by his wife, 
Elizabeth Jackson, was born at Coleraine on 
28 Aug. 1715. He was educated at Thomas 
Sheridan's school at Dublin. After brief 
service as apprentice in the exchequer at 
Dublin, Howard enlisted in an infantry regi- 
ment, but at the end of a year returned to 
the exchequer, became a solicitor, and ac- 
quired a minute knowledge of legal procedure, 
as well as of the complicated systems of the 
exchequer, revenue, and forfeiture depart- 
ments. He secured a lucrative business as a 
solicitor and land agent, and published pro- 
fessional works by which he lost money, 
although they were highly commended by 
competent critics. His laborious efforts at 
the same time to achieve reputation as a poet, 
dramatist, and literary moralist failed sig- 
nally. The pertinacity with which he wrote 
and printed contemptible tragedies, none of 
which were acted, and occasional verse, led 
to the publication of facetious satires, written 
mainly by Robert Jephson [q. v.] in 1771. 
They appeared in the form of a mock corre- 
spondence in verse between Howard and his 
friend George Faulkner, the printer [q. v.] 
The text was copiously supplemented with 
foot-notes, in which the confused and jumbled 
styles of Howard and Faulkner were success- 
fully imitated. The satires passed through 
many editions at Dublin, and were believed 
to have been partially inspired by the vice- 
roy, Lord Townshend, who was personally 
acquainted with Howard and Faulkner. 
Howard's dramatic compositions formed the 

subject of an ironical letter addressed by 
Edmund Burke to Garrick in 1772. As a 
law official Howard rendered valuable ser- 
vices to government, which were scantily 
rewarded. He was active in promoting struc- 
tural improvements in Dublin, having some 
skill as an architect, and the freedom of the 
city was conferred on him in 1766. He was 
among the earliest of the protestant advo- 
cates for the partial relaxation of the penal 
laws against Roman catholics in Ireland, and 
members of that church presented him with 
a handsome testimonial. He died in affluen 
circumstances at Dublin in June 1786. 

His published literary works, apart from 
contributions to periodical literature, were : 

1. ' A Collection of Apothegms and Maxims 
for the Good Conduct of Life, selected from 
the most Eminent Authors, with some newly 
formed and digested under proper heads,' Dub- 
lin, 1767, 8vo, dedicated to the king and queen. 

2. ' Almeyda, or the Rival Kings,' Dublin, 
1769, 8vo ; a tragedy adapted from Hawkes- 
worth's ; Almoran and Hamet.' 3. ' The Siege 
of Tamor,' Dublin, 1773, 8vo and 12mo, a 
tragedy. 4. ' The Female Gamester,' Dublin, 
1778, 12mo. 5. ( Miscellaneous Works in 
Verse and Prose,' with a portrait, Dublin, 
1782, 8vo, 3 vols. 

Howard's professional works are : 1. < Trea- 
tise of the Rules and Practice of the Pleas 
Side of the Exchequer in Ireland,' 2 vols. 8vo, 
Dublin, 1759. 2. l A Treatise on the Rules 
and Practice of the Equity Side of the Ex- 
chequer in Ireland, with the several Statutes 
relative thereto, as also several Adjudged 
Cases on the Practice in Courts of Equity 
both in England and Ireland,with the Reasons 
and Origin thereof, in many instances as they 
arose from the Civil Law of the Romans, or 
the Canon and Feudal Laws.' Inscribed to 
the chancellor, treasurer, lord chief baron, 
and barons of the court of exchequer, 2 vols. 
8vo, Dublin, 1760. 3. < The Rules and Prac- 
tice of the High Court of Chancery in Ire- 
land,' 8vo, Dublin, 1772. 4. ' A Supplement 
to the Rules and Practice of the High Court 
of Chancery in Ireland lately published. In- 
scribed to James, Lord Baron Lifford, Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland/ 8vo, Dublin, 1774. 
5. ' Special Cases on the Laws against the 
further growth of Popery in Ireland,' 8vo, 
Dublin, 1775. 6. ' An Abstract and Common 
Place of all the Irish, British, and English 
Statutes relative to the Revenue of Ireland, 
and the Trade connected therewith. Al- 
phabetically digested under their respective 
proper titles. With several Special Prece- 
dents of information, &c., upon the said 
Statutes and other matters, never before pub- 
lished. Inscribed to the Earl of Buckingham 




shire, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland,' 2 vols.'4to, 
Dublin, 1779. 

[Hibernian Mag., Dublin, 1786; Baker'sBio- 
graphia Dramatica; Garrick's Private Corre- 
spondence, 1831 ; Hist, of the City of Dublin, 
vol. ii. 1859; The Batchelor, 1772.1 J. T. G. 

SUFFOLK (1681-1767), mistress to George II, 
born in 1681, was eldest daughter of Sir 
Henry Hobart, of Blickling, Norfolk, bart., 
by Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Joseph 
Maynard, son of Sir John Maynard, commis- 
sioner of the great seal in the reign of Wil- 
liam III. She was married, Lord Hervey tells 
us, ' very young ' to Charles Howard, third son 
of Henry, fifth earl of Suffolk, whom Hervey 
describes as ' wrong-headed, ill-tempered, ob- 
stinate, drunken, extravagant, brutal.' The 
date of the marriage remains undetermined. 
Being poor for their station the pair went to 
live in Hanover towards the close of Queen 
Anne's reign, with the view of ingratiating 
themselves with the future sovereigns of 
England. Even there, however, they were 
sometimes in great straits for money, Mrs. 
Howard on one occasion selling her hair to 
pay for a dinner for the ministry. On the ac- 
cession of the elector to the English throne as 
George I, Howard was appointed his groom 
of the bedchamber, and his wife bedchamber- 
woman to the Princess of Wales (BoTEK, 
Poltt. State of Great Britain,. 347,475). 
The rooms which in this capacity she occupied 
in St. James's Palace and, after the expulsion 
of the prince, at Leicester House were the 
favourite place of reunion for the prince and 
princess and their little court. Pope and 
Gay were frequently to be found there, and 
Swift when he was in England. The Prince 
of Wales soon made advances to Mrs. Howard, 
and was graciously received, and Howard's 
efforts to remove his wife from the prince's 
household proved ineffectual. In 1724 Mrs. 
Howard built herself a villa at Marble Hill, 
Twickenham, where she was a near neigh- 
bour of Pope. The house was designed by 
Lords Burlington and Pembroke, the gardens 
were laid out by Pope and Lord Bathurst. 
The Prince of Wales contributed 12,000/. 
towards the cost. Pope, Swift, and Arbuth- 
not took it in turns to act as her major-domo. 
On his accession to the throne George II 
quieted Howard with an annuity of 1,200/., 
and installed his wife in St. James's Palace 
as his lady favourite. She was formally sepa- 
rated from her husband, who made a settle- 
ment upon her. 

In Lord Peterborough Mrs. Howard had 
an admirer of a very different stamp from 
George II. It is not clear when their intimacy 
commenced, how long it lasted, or whether 

it was ever carried beyond the bounds of 
flirtation. It seems, however, from the cor- 
respondence which passed between them, 
and which includes forty letters from Peter- 
borough, written in the most romantic strain, 
to have been of some duration. All the 
letters are undated, but they are probably to 
be referred to the reign of George I. 

For some time after the accession of 
George II Mrs. Howard was much courted by 
those who thought the king would be governed 
by her. This, however, ceased when it became 
apparent that the queen's influence was to pre- 
vail. Her society continued nevertheless to 
be cultivated by the wits and the opposition. 
About 1729 she began to decline in favour 
with the king, but poverty compelled her to 
keep her post. On the death of Edward, 
eighth earl of Suffolk, without issue, 22 June 
1731, Howard succeeded to the earldom, and 
Lady Suffolk was thereupon advanced to the 
post of groom of the stole to the queen, with a 
salary of 800/. a year (BoYEK, Polit. State of 
Great Britain, xli. 652). Her circumstances 
were further improved by the death of her 
husband (28 Sept. 1733), and in the follow- 
ing year she retired from court. In 1735 
she married the Hon. George Berkeley, 
youngest son of the second earl of Berkeley, 
with whom she lived happily until his death, 
16 Jan. 1747. She began to grow deaf in 
middle life, and in her later years almost lost 
her hearing. Nevertheless Horace Walpole 
loved much to gossip with her in the autumn 
evenings. She died on 26 July 1767 in 
comparative poverty, leaving, besides Marble 
Hill, property to the value of not more than 
20,000/. By her first husband she had issue 
an only son, who succeeded to the earldom, 
and died without issue in 1745. She had no 
children by her second husband. Horace 
Walpole describes her as ' of a just height, 
well made, extremely fair, with the finest 
light brown hair,' adding that ' her mental 
qualifications were by no means shining' 
(Reminiscences, cxxvii.) Elsewhere he says 
that she was l sensible, artful, agreeable, but 
had neither sense nor art enough to make 
him [George II] think her so agreeable as 
his wife ' (Memoirs, ed. Lord Holland, 1847, 
i. 177 ; cf. CHESTERFIELD, Letters, ed. Mahon, 
ii. 440). Pope wrote in her honour the well- 
known verses ' On a certain Lady at Court,' 
and Peterborough the song ' I said to my heart 
between sleeping and waking.' Both praise 
her reasonableness and her wit. Swift, in his 
somewhat ill-natured ' Character' of her, also 
recognises her wit and beauty, represents 
her as a latitudinarian in religion, a consum- 
mate courtier, and by so much the worse 
friend, and ' upon the whole an excellent 



companion for men of the best accomplish- 
ments who have nothing to ask.' Except 
the contribution towards the cost of Marble 
Hill she took little from George II, either 
as king or prince, except snubs and slights; 
and the queen avenged herself for her hus- 
band's infidelity by humiliating her, employ- 
ing her until she became Countess of Suffolk 
in servile offices about her person. ' It hap- 
pened more than once,' writes Horace Walpole 
(Reminiscences, cxxix.), 'that the king, while 
the queen was dressing, has snatched off the 
handkerchief, and, turning rudely to Mrs. 
Howard, has cried, " Because you have an 
ugly neck yourself, you hide the queen's." ' 
Nor was she able to do much to advance her 
friends. For Gay she could procure only the 
place of gentleman-usher to the Princess 
Louisa, which, though worth 2001. a year, he 
declined. She obtained, however, an earl- 
dom for her brother [see HOBAKT, JOHN, 
was strictly truthful, and in conversation 
minutely accurate to the point of tedious- 
ness. She behaved with such extreme pro- 
priety that her friends affected to suppose 
that her relations with the king were merely 
platonic. A selection from her correspond- 
ence, entitled ' Letters to and from Henrietta, 
Countess of Suffolk, and her second husband, 
the Hon. George Berkeley, from 1712 to 
1767,' was edited anonymously by John Wil- 
son Croker in 1824, 2 vols. 8vo. The corre- 
spondence, which comprises letters from Pope, 
Swift, Gay, Peterborough, Bolingbroke, Ches- 
terfield, Horace Walpole, the Duchess of 
Marlborough, and Lady Hervey, deals mainly 
with private affairs, and sheds little light on 
politics. The volume contains an engraving 
of her portrait preserved at Blickling. 

[Blomefield's Norfolk, ed. 1805,vi.402; Gent 
Mag. 1 767, p. 383 ; Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, 
iii. 159, iv. 368; Horace Walpole's Reminiscences 
in Cunningham's edition of his Letters ; Horace 
Walpole's Memoirs, ed. Lord Holland, 1847 ; 
Hervey's Memoirs ; Pope's Correspondence, ed. 
Elwin and Courthope ; Chesterfield's Letters; 
Coxe's Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole, i. 279 et 
seq.; Suffolk Correspondence, ed. Croker; Swift's 
Memoirs, ed. Scott. Her relations with Lord 
Peterborough are discussed in Russell's Earl of 
Peterborough and Monmouth.] J. M. R. 

(1517 P-1547), poet, born about 1517, was 
eldest son of Lord Thomas Howard, after- 
wards third duke of Norfolk (1473 F-1554) 
[q. v.], by his second wife, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham. 
Thomas Howard, second duke of Norfolk 
[q. v.J, was his grandfather, and he was 
usually known in youth as * Henry Howard 

of Kenninghall,' one of his grandfather's re- 
sidences in Norfolk, which may have been his 
birthplace. He spent each winter and spring, 
until he was seven, at his father's house, 
Stoke Hall, Suffolk, and each summer with 
his grandfather at Hunsdon, Hertfordshire. 
On the death of the latter in 1524 his father 
became Duke of Norfolk, and he was thence- 
forth known by the courtesy title of Earl of 
Surrey. He was with his family at Kenning- 
hall between 1524 and 1529. On 23 July 
1529 he visited the priory of Butley, Suffolk, 
, with his father, who was negotiating the sale 
1 of Staverton Park to the prior. Surrey was 
carefully educated, studying classical and 
modern literature, and making efforts in verse 
from an early age. L eland was tutor to his 
brother Thomas about 1525, and may have 
given him some instruction. John Clerk (d. 
1552) [q. v.], who was domesticated about 
the same time with the family, seems to have 
been his chief instructor. In dedicating his 
'Treatise of Nobility' (1543) to Norfolk, 
Clerk commends translations which Surrey 
made in his childhood from Latin, Italian, 
and Spanish. In December 1529 Henry VIII 
asked the Duke of Norfolk to allow Surrey 
to become the companion of his natural son, 
Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond [q. v.], 
who was Surrey's junior by sixteen months 
(BAPST, pp. 164-5). He thus spent, in the 
words of his own poems, his ' childish 
years ' (1530 to 1532) at Windsor ' with a 
king's son.' As early as 1526 Norfolk pur- 
i chased the wardship of Elizabeth, daughter 
i of John, second lord Marney, with a view to 
marrying her to Surrey. But at the end of 
! 1529 Anne Boleyn urged Henry VIII to 
affiance his daughter, the Princess Mary, to 
the youth. On 14 Sept. 1530 Chappuys, the 
imperial ambassador in London, wrote to his 
master for instructions as to the attitude he 
should assume towards the scheme. But in 
October Anne Boleyn's views changed, aad 
she persuaded the duke, who reluctantly con- 
sented, to arrange for Surrey's marriage with 
Frances, daughter of John Vere, fifteenth earl 
of Oxford. The contract was signed on 13 Feb. 
1531-2, and the marriage took place before 
April, but on account of their youth hus- 
band and wife did not live together till 
1 535. In October 1532 Surrey accompanied 
Henry VIII and the Duke of Richmond to 
Boulogne, when the English king had an 
interview with Francis I. In accordance 
with arrangements then made, Richmond and 
Surrey spent eleven months at the French 
court . Francis first entertained them at Chan- 
tilly, and in the spring of 1533 they travelled 
with him to the south. The king's sons were 
their constant companions, and Surrey im- 



pressed the king and the princes very favour- 
ably. In July 1533 Pope Clement VII tried 
to revive the project of a marriage between 
Surrey and Princess Mary, in the belief that 
he might thus serve the interests of Queen 
Catherine. Surrey returned to London to 
carry the fourth sword before the king at the 
coronation of Anne Boleyn in June 1533, 
and finally quitted France in September 1533 
(Chron. of Calais, 1846, Camden Soc., p. 41), 
when Richmond came home to marry Sur- 
rey's sister Mary. In March 1534 Surrey's 
mother separated from his father on the ground 
of the duke's adultery with Elizabeth Hol- 
land, an attendant in the duke's nursery. In 
the long domestic quarrel Surrey sided with 
his father, and was denounced by his mother 
as an ' ungracious son ' (WOOD, Letters of 
Illustrious Ladies, ii. 225). In 1535 Surrey's 
wife joined him at Kenninghall. He was in 
pecuniary difficulties at the time, and bor- 
rowed money of John Reeve, abbot of Bury, 
in June. 

At Anne Boleyn's trial (15 May 1536) 
Surrey acted as earl marshal in behalf of his 
father, who presided by virtue of his office of 
lord treasurer (cf. WRIOTHESLEY, Chron. i. 
37). On 22 July 1536 his friend and brother- 
in-law, Richmond, died, and he wrote with 
much feeling of his loss. He accompanied 
his father to Yorkshire to repress the rebellion 
known as the Pilgrimage of Grace in October 
1536. A report went abroad that Surrey 
{ ecretly sympathised with the insurgents, and 
in June 1537 he struck a courtier who repeated 
the rumour in the park at Hampton Court. 
The privy council ordered him into confine- 
ment atWindsor, and there he devoted himself 
chiefly to writing poetry. He was released 
before 12 Nov. 1537, when he was a principal 
mourner in the funeral procession of Jane 
Seymour from Hampton to Windsor. On 
New-year's day 1538 he presented Henry VIII 
with three gilt bowls and a cover. Early in 

1539 there was some talk at court of sending 
Surrey into Cleves to assist in arranging the 
treaty for the marriage of Henry VIII with 
Anne of Cleves, and later in the year he was 
employed to organise the defence of Norfolk, 
in view of a threatened invasion. On 3 May 

1540 Surrey distinguished himself at the 
jousts held at Westminster to celebrate the 
marriage of Henry with Anne of Cleves (cf. 
ib. i. 118). Later in the year he rejoiced 
openly over the fall of Cromwell, which re- 
stored his father's influence with the king. 
On 21 May 1541 Surrey was installed knight 
of the Garter, and in September was ap- 
pointed steward of the university of Cam- 
bridge, in succession to Cromwell. On 8 Dec. 

1541 he was granted many manors in Suffolk 

and Norfolk, most of which he subsequently 
sold, and in February 1541-2, in order appa- 
rently to clear himself from the suspicions 
which attached to many of his kinsmen at 
the time, he attended the execution of his 
cousin, Queen Catherine Howard. 

In a recorded conversation which took 
place between two of Cromwell's agents in 
1539, Surrey was described by one of the in- 
terlocutors as ' the most foolish proud boy that 
is in England.' It was urged in reply that the 
earl was wise, and that, although his pride was 
great, experience would correct it (Archeeo- 
logia, xxiii. 62). That he could ill control 
his temper, and that his pride in his ancestry 
passed reasonable bounds, there is much to 
prove elsewhere. In 1542 he quarrelled with 
one John a Leigh, and was committed to the 
Fleet by the privy council. In a petition 
for release he attributed his conduct to ' the 
fury of reckless youth,' and promised hence- 
forward to bridle his ' heady will.' On 7 Aug. 
he was released on entering into recognisances 
in ten thousand marks to be of good beha- 
viour, and he accompanied his father on the 
expedition into Scotland in October. In the 
same month the death of Sir Thomas Wyatt 
the elder [q. v.] inspired a pathetic elegy by 
Surrey. But Surrey, although a student of 
Wyatt's literary work, was not personally 
very intimate with him. In political and 
religious questions they took opposite sides. 
Wyatt's son and Surrey were, however, well 
known to each other. 

On 1 April 1543 Surrey was charged before 
the privy council with having eaten flesh in 
Lent, and with having broken at night the 
windows of citizens' houses and of churches 
in the city of London by shooting small 
pebbles at them with a stone-bow. A ser- 
vant, Pickering, and the younger Wyatt were 
arrested as his accomplices. On the first 
charge he pleaded a license ; he admitted his 
guilt on the second accusation, but subse- 
quently, in a verse * satire against the citizens 
of London,' made the eccentric defence that 
he had been scandalised by the irreligious life 
led by the Londoners, and had endeavoured 
by his attack on their windows to prepare 
them for divine retribution. According to 
the evidence of a Mistress Arundel, whose 
house Surrey and his friends were accustomed 
to frequent for purposes of amusement, the 
affair was a foolish practical joke. The ser- 
vants of the house hinted in their deposition 
that Surrey demanded of his friends the signs 
of respect usual only in the case of princes. 
Surrey was sent to the Fleet prison for a few 

In October 1543 Surrey, fully restored to 
the king's favour, joined the army under Sir 



John Wallop, which was engaged with the 
emperor's forces in besieging Landrecy, then 
in the hands of the French. Charles V, in 
a letter to Henry VIII, praised Surrey's 
'gentil cueur' (21 Oct.). The campaign 
closed in November, and Surrey returned to 
England, after taking leave of the emperor in 
a special audience at Valenciennes (18 Nov.) 
Henry received him kindly, and made him 
his cupbearer. In February 1544 he was 
directed to entertain one of the emperor's 
generals, the Duke de Najera, on a visit to 
England. He was then occupying himself in 
building a sumptuous house, Mount Surrey, 
near Norwich, on the site of the Benedictine 
priory of St. Leonards, and there, or at his 
father's house at Lambeth, Hadrianus Junius 
resided with him as tutor to his sons, and 
Thomas Churchyard the poet as a page. Mount 
Surrey was destroyed in the Norfolk insurrec- 
tion of 1549 (cf. BLOMEFIELD, Norfolk, iv. 
427). In June 1544 he was appointed mar- 
shal of the army which was despatched to 
besiege Montreuil. The vanguard was com- 
manded by Norfolk, Surrey's father, who 
wrote home enthusiastically of his son's 
bravery. On 19 Sept. Surrey was wounded 
in a futile attempt to storm Montreuil, and 
his life was only saved by the exertions of 
his friend Thomas Clere. When the siege 
was raised a few days later, Surrey removed 
to Boulogne, which Henry VIII had just cap- 
tured in person, and seems to have returned 
to England with his father in December. On 
St. George's day 1545 he attended a chapter 
of the Garter at St. James's Palace, and in 
July 1545 he was at Kenninghall. 

In August Surrey was sent in command 
of five thousand men to Calais. On 26 Aug. 
he was appointed commander of Guisnes, and 
in the following month the difficult post of 
commander of Boulogne was bestowed on 
him, in succession to William, lord Grey de 
Wilton [q. v.], together with the office of 
lieutenant-general of the king by land and 
sea in all the English possessions on the con- 
tinent (RYMEK, Fcedera, xv. 3 Sept.) Surrey 
actively superintended many skirmishes near 
Boulogne, but he was reprimanded by Henry 
(6 Nov.) for exposing himself to needless 
danger. In his despatches home he strongly 
urged Henry VIII to use every effort to retain 
Boulogne, but his father, writing to him from 
Windsor on 27 Sept., warned him that his 
emphatic letters on the subject were resented 
by many members of the council, and were not 
altogether to the liking of the king. In Decem- 
ber he paid a short visit to London to consult 
with the king in council. In January 1545-6 
the French marched from Montreuil with the 
intention of revictualling a fortress in the 

neighbourhood of Boulogne. Surrey inter- 
cepted them at St. Etienne; a battle fol- 
lowed, and the English forces were defeated. 
In his despatch to the king, Surrey fully 
acknowledged his defeat, and Henry sent a 
considerate reply (18 Jan. 1546). Early in 
March his request that his wife might join him 
at Boulogne was refused, on the ground that 
'trouble and disquietness unmeet for woman's 
imbecillities ' were approaching. A week later 
Secretary Paget announced that Edward Sey- 
mour, lord Hertford, and Lord Lisle were 
to supersede him in his command. Surrey 
and Hertford had long been pronounced 
enemies, and Hertford's appointment to 
Boulogne destroyed all hope of reconcilia- 
tion. Negotiations which proved fruitless 
were pending at the time for the marriage of 
Surrey's sister, the widowed duchess of Rich- 
mond, to Hertford's brother, Sir Thomas Sey- 
mour. Surrey sarcastically denounced the 
scheme as a farce, and he indignantly scouted 
his father's suggestion that his own infant 
children might be united in marriage with 
members of Hertford's family. On 14 July 
Surrey complained to Paget that two of his 
servants, whom he had appointed to minor 
posts at Boulogne, had been discharged, and 
that false reports were abroad that he had 
personally profited by their emoluments. In 
August 1546 he took part in the reception at 
Hampton Court of ambassadors from France. 
In December Henry was known to be 
dying, and speculation was rife at court as 
to who should be selected by the king to fill 
the post of protector or regent during the 
minority of Prince Edward. The choice was 
admitted to lie between Surrey's father and 
Hertford. Surrey loudly asserted that his 
father alone was entitled to the office. Not 
only the Seymours and their dependents, 
but William, lord Grey of Wilton, whom he 
had superseded at Boulogne, his sister, and 
many early friends whom his vanity had 
offended, all regarded him at the moment 
with bitter hostility. In December 1546 
facts were brought by Sir Richard South- 
well, an officer of the court at one time on 
good terms with Surrey, to the notice of the 
privy council, which gave his foes an oppor- 
tunity of attack. Before going to Boulogne 
Surrey had discussed with Sir Christopher 
Barker, then Richmond Herald, his right to 
include among his numerous quarterings the 
arms of Edward the Confessor, which Ri- 
chard II had permitted his ancestor, Thomas 
Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, to bear. The Col- 
lege of Arms, it was stated, forbade the pro- 
posed alteration, but Surrey, in his anxiety 
to prove the superiority of his own ancestry 
to that of the Seymours or any of the new 



nobility, caused the inhibited change in his 
arms to be made on 7 Oct. 1546, when at his 
father's house at Kenninghall. His sister 
subsequently stated that he surmounted his 
shield with what seemed to her ' much like a 
close crown and a cipher, which she took to 
be the king's cipher H.R.,' but this statement 
received no corroboration. Moreover, by 
virtue of his descent from Thomas of Brother- 
ton, son of Edward I, Surrey, like all the 
Howards, and like many other noblemen who 
claimed royal descent, was entitled to quarter 
the royal arms. Hertford and his adherents 
affected to construe Surrey's adoption of new 
arms into evidence of the existence of a trea- 
sonable design. They declared, although 
there is no extant proof of the allegation, that 
Edward the Confessor's arms had always been 
borne exclusively by the heir-apparent to the 
crown, and that Surrey's action amounted to 
a design to endanger Prince Edward's suc- 
cession and to divert the crown into his own 
hands. Norfolk, it must be remembered, had, 
before Prince Edward's birth, been mentioned 
as a possible heir to the throne. The council 
at first merely summoned Surrey from Kenn- 
inghall to confront Southwell, his accuser. 
The earl passionately offered to fight South- 
well (2 Dec.), and both were detained in cus- 
tody. Other charges were soon brought be- 
fore the council by Surrey's personal enemies. 
According to a courtier, Sir Gawin Carew, 
he had tried to persuade his sister to offer 
herself* as the king's mistress, so that she 
might exercise the same power over him as 
1 Madame d'Estampes did about the French 
king.' Surrey had ironically given his sister 
some such advice when he was angrily re- 
buking her for contemplating marriage with 
Sir Thomas Seymour. Another accuser de- 
clared that Surrey affected foreign dress and 
manners, and employed an Italian jester. 
The council took these trivial matters 
seriously, and on 12 Dec. Surrey and his 
father were arrested and sent to the Tower. 
Commissioners were sent on the same day 
to Kenninghall to examine the Duchess of 
Richmond and Elizabeth Holland, the duke's 
mistress. Much that they said was in Norfolk's 
favour, but the duchess recklessly corrobo- 
rated the charges against her brother, assert- 
ing in the course of her examination that Sur- 
rey rigidly adhered to the old religion. Soon 
after Surrey's arrest Henry VIII himself 
drew up, with the aid of Chancellor Wriothes- 
ley, a paper setting forth the allegations made 
against him, and he there assumed, despite 
the absence of any evidence, that Surrey had 
definitely resolved to set Prince Edward aside, 
when the throne was vacant, in his own 
favour. On 13 Jan. 1546-7 Surrey was in- 

dicted at the Guildhall before Lord Chan- 
cellor Wriothesley and other privy coun- 
cillors, and a jury of Norfolk men, of high 
treason, under the act for determining the 
succession (28 Hen. VIII. c. vii. sect. 12). 
No testimony of any legal value was pro- 
duced beyond the evidence respecting the 
change in his arms. In a manly speech Sur- 
rey denied that he had any treasonable in- 
tention ; but he was proved guilty, was sen- 
tenced to death, and was beheaded on Tower 
Hill on 21 Jan. following. His personal pro- 
perty was distributed among the Seymours 
and their friends. Surrey's body was buried 
in the church of All Hallows Barking, in 
Tower Street, but was removed to the church 
of Framlingham, Suffolk, by his son Henry, 
who erected an elaborate monument there in 
1614, and left money for its preservation. In 
1835 his body was discovered lying directly 
beneath his effigy. 

Surrey left two sons, Thomas, fourth duke 
of Norfolk [q. v.], and Henry, earl of North- 
ampton [q. v.], and three daughters, Jane, 
wife of Charles Neville, earl of Westmor- 
land, Catherine, wife of Henry, lord Berke- 
ley, and Margaret, wife of Henry, lord Scrope 
of Bolton. His widow married a second hus- 
band, Thomas Steyning of Woodford, Suffolk, 
by whom she had a daughter Mary, wife of 
Charles Seckford, and died at Soham Earl, 
Suffolk, 30 June 1577. 

According to a poem by Surrey, which he 
entitled ' A Description and Praise of his 
love Geraldine,' he had before his confine- 
ment at Windsor in 1537 been attracted by 
the beauty of Lady Elizabeth [q.v.], youngest 
daughter of Gerald Fitzgerald, ninth earl of 
Kildare [q. v.] 

In 1537 Lady Elizabeth was only nine years 
old. It has been assumed that most of Sur- 
rey's ' songes and sonettes,' written between 
this date and his death, were inspired by his 
affection for her ; but only in the poem just 
quoted does Surrey mention Geraldine as the 
i name of his lady-love, and the insertion of 
the name in the titles of other poems is an 
unjustifiable license first taken by Dr. G. F. 
Nott in his edition of Surrey's poems in 1815. 
There is nothing to show positively that the 
verses inscribed by Surrey to l his lady ' or 
' his mistress ' were all addressed to the same 
person. At least two poems celebrate a pass- 
ing attachment to Anne, lady Hertford, who 
discouraged his attentions (BAPST, p. 371 sq.) ; 
but in any case his love-sonnets celebrate 
a platonic attachment, and imitate Petrarch's 
addresses to Laura. Surrey's married life 
was regular. The poetic ' complaint ' by 
Surrey in which a lady laments the absence 
of her lover, ' [he] being upon the sea,' de- 



scribes his own affectionate relations with 
his wife. Thomas Nashe, in his ' Unfortunate 
Traveller, or the Adventures of Jack Wilton' 
(1594), supplied an imaginary account of 
Surrey's association with Geraldine, and told 
how he went to Italy while under her spell ; 
consulted at Venice Cornelius Agrippa, who 
showed him her image in a magic mirror; 
and at Florence challenged all who disputed 
her supreme beauty . Dray ton utilised Nashe's 
incidents in his epistles of ' The Lady Geral- 
dine' and the Earl of Surrey, which appear in 
the 'Heroical Epistles' (1598). But Surrey, 
although he read and imitated the Italian 
poets, never was in Italy, and Nashe's whole 
tale is pure fiction. 

Surrey circulated much verse inmanuscript 
in his lifetime. But it was not published till 
1557, ten years after his death. On 5 June 
in that year (according to the colophon) Ri- 
chard Tottel published, ' cum privilegio/ in 
black letter (107 leaves), ' Songes and Sonettes 
written by the ryght honorable Lorde Henry 
Haward, late Earle of Surrey and other.' On 
21 June following (according to the colo- 
phon) Tottel issued in another volume ' Cer- 
tain Bokes [i.e. the second and fourth] of 
Virgiles Aenseis turned into English Meter ' 
(26 leaves in black letter) ; 'The fourth boke 
of Virgill . . . drawn into a straunge meter 
by Henry Earle of Surrey' was again printed 
by John Day without date, and a reprint of 
the two books of Virgil was issued by the 
Roxburghe Club in 1814. 

The ' Songes and Sonettes,' known later 
as 'Totters Miscellany,' contained 271 
poems, of which only forty were by Surrey 
thirty-six at the beginning and four to- 
wards the end of the volume. Ninety-six 
were by his friend Wyatt, forty were by Ni- 
cholas Grrimald [q. v.j, and ninety-five were by 
* uncertain authors,' who are known to have 
included Thomas Churchyard, Thomas, lord 
Vaux, Edward Somerset, John Hey wood, and 
Sir Francis Bryan [q. v.] According to Put- 
tenham, one of the poems ascribed to Surrey 
' When Cupid scaled first the fort ' was 
by Lord Vaux, and Surrey's responsibility 
for some others assigned to him by Tottel 
may be doubted. Of the first edition, Ma- 
lone's copy in the Bodleian Library is the 
only one known ; it was reprinted by J. P. 
Collier in his ' Seven English Poetical Mis- 
cellanies,' 1867, and by Professor Arber in 
1870. A second edition (120 leaves in black 
letter), in which, among many other changes, 
Surrey's forty poems, with some slight verbal 
alterations, are printed consecutively at the 
beginning of the volume, appeared (according 
to the colophon) on 31 July 1557. Of this 
two copies are extant one in the British 

Museum and the other in the Capel Collec- 
tion at Trinity College, Cambridge. A third 
edition was issued in 1559; a fourth in 1565; 
a fifth in 1567; a sixth in 1574 (the last 
printed by Tottel) ; a seventh in 1585 (printed 
by John Windet), and an eighth in 1587 
(printed by Robert Robinson, and disfigured 
by gross misprints). Surrey's ' Paraphrase on 
the Book of Ecclesiastes,' and his verse ren- 
dering of a few psalms, although well known 
in manuscript to sixteenth-century readers, 
were first printed by Thomas Park in his edi- 
tion of '.Nugee Antiques' (1804) from manu- 
scripts formerly belonging to Sir John Haring- 
ton. Two lines of the ' Ecclesiastes ' were 
prefixed to Archbishop Parker's translation 
of the Psalms (1569), and one line appears 
in Puttenham's < Arte of Poesie' (1589). 

The number of sixteenth-century editions 
of the ' Songs and Sonettes ' attests the popu- 
larity of the poems, and they were well ap- 
preciated by the critics of the time. George 
Turberville includes in his ' Epitaphs ' (1565), 
p. 9, high-sounding verses in Surrey's praise. 
Ascham, a rigorous censor, associates Surrey 
with Chaucer as a passable translator, and 
commends his judgment in that he, 'the first 
of all Englishmen in translating the fourth 
booke of Virgill,' should have avoided rhyme, 

when dedicating ( Churchyard's Charge,' 1580, 
to Surrey's grandson, describes him as a ' noble 
warrior, an eloquent oratour, and a second 
Petrarch.' Sir Philip Sidney, with whom 
Surrey's career has something in common, 
wrote that many of Surrey's lyrics ' taste of 
a noble birth and are worthy of a noble 
mind' (Apologiefor Poetrie, ed. 1867, p. 62). 
Puttenham devoted much space in his 'Arte 
of Poesie,' 1589, to the artistic advance in 
English literature initiated by Wyatt and Sur- 
rey. In 1627 Drayton, in his verses of ' Poets 
and Poesie,' mentions ' princely Surrey ' with 
Wyatt and Sir Francis Bryan as the ' best 
makers ' of their day ; and Pope, in his ' Wind- 
sor Forest' (1713), 11. 290-8, devoted eight 
lines to ' noble Surrey . . . the Granville of 
a former age,' which revived public interest 
in his career and his works, and led Curll to 
reprint the ' Songes and Sonettes ' in 1717 (re- 
issued in 1728), and Dr. T. Sewell to edit a 
very poor edition of Howard's and Wyatt's 
poems (1717). Bishop Percy and Steevens 
included Surrey's verse in an elaborate mis- 
cellany of English blank-verse poetry, prior 
to Milton, which was printed in two volumes, 
dated respectively 1795 and 1807, but the 
whole impression except four copies, one of 
which is now in the British Museum, was 




burnt in Nichols's printing office (February 
1808). A like fate destroyed another edition 
of Surrey's and Wyatt's poems prepared by 
Dr. G. F. Nott and printed by Bensley at 
Bristol in 1812, but in 1815-16 Nott issued 
his elaborate edition of Surrey's and Wyatt's 
works, which contained some hitherto im- 
printed additions, chiefly from the Haring- 
ton MSS., and much new information in the 
preface and notes. Nicholas edited the 
poems in 1831, and Robert Bell in 1854. Of 
the later editions the best is that edited by J. 
Yeowell in the Aldine edition (1866). 

Surrey, who although the disciple of Wyatt 
was at all points his master's superior, was the 
earliest Englishman to imitate with any suc- 
cess Italian poetry in English verse. ' Wyatt 
and Surrey,' writes Puttenham, ' were novices 
newly crept out of the schooles of Dante, 
Arioste, and Petrarch, and greatly polished 
our rude and homely manner of vulgar poesie ' 
Their favourite model was un- 
ibtedly Petrarch, and two of Surrey's 
sonnets, 'Complaint of a lover rebuked' 
( AKBEE, p. 8), and ' Vow to love faithfully ' 
(ib. p. 11), are direct translations from 
Petrarch. Two lost works, attributed to Sur- 
rey by Bale, a translation of Boccaccio's con- 
solatory epistle to Pinus on his exile, and a 
book of elegant epistles, prove him to have 
been also acquainted with Boccaccio, and he 
imitates in one poem the banded three-lined 
staves of Dante. His verses entitled ' The 
Means to attain happy life ' (ib. p. 27) are a 
successful translation from Martial, and the 
poem that follows, ' Praise of meane and con- 
stant estates,' is apparently a rendering of 
Horace's odes, bk. ii. No. xi. His rendering 
of Virgil, especially of the second book, owes 
much to Gawin Douglas's earlier efforts. 
Despite the traces to be found in his verse 
of a genuinely poetic temperament, Surrey's 
taste in the choice of his masters and his 
endeavours to adapt new metres to English 
poetry are his most interesting characteristics. 
The sonnet and the l ottava rima ' were first 
employed by him and Wyatt. The high dis- 
tinction of introducing into England blank 
verse in five iambics belongs to Surrey 
alone. His translations from Virgil are (as 
the title-page of the second edition of the 
fourth book puts it) drawn into this ' straunge 
meter.' Surrey's experiment may have been 
suggested by Cardinal Hippolyto de Medici's 
rendering into Italian blank verse (' sciolti 
versi') of the second book of Virgil's '^Eneid/ 
which was published at Castello in 1539, and 
was reissued with the first six books by various 
authors, translated into the Italian in the 
same metre (Venice, 1540). Webbe, in his 
' Treatise of English Poetrie* (1579), asserts 

i that Surrey attempted to translate Virgil into 
| English hexameters, but the statement is 
I probably erroneous. ' The structure of [Sur- 
rey's blank verse is not very harmonious, and 
the flense is rarely carried beyond the line' 
(HALLAX). His sonnets are alternately 
! rhymed, with a concluding couplet. In his 
I religious verse he employed the older metre 
of alexandrines, alternating with lines of four- 
I teen syllables. 

Dr. Nott describes eleven portraits of Sur- 
rey. The best, by Holbein, with scarlet cap 
and feather, is at Windsor (engraved in 
Nott's edition) ; another painting by the 
same artist, dated 1534, belongs to Charles 
Butler, esq. ; and drawings both of Surrey 
and his wire, by Holbein, are at Buckingham 
Palace (cf. CHAMBERLATSTE, Heads). Two 
! original portraits belong to the Duke of 
! Norfolk; one by Guillim Stretes, which is 
assigned to the date of his arrest, is inscribed 
| ' Sat Superest JEt. 29,' and has been often 
i copied. A second portrait by Stretes, which 
i is often attributed to Holbein, seems to have 
j been purchased by Edward VI of the artist. 
j It is now at Hampton Court. There are en- 
; gravings by Hollar, Vertue, Houbraken, and 
| Bartolozzi. 

[The exhaustive life of Surrey, based on re- 
1 searches in the State Papers, in Deux Gentils- 
hommes-Poetes de la cour de Henry VIH [i.e. 
George Boleyn, viscount Rochford , and of Surrey] , 
' par Edmond Bapst, Paris, 1891, supersedes the 
i chief earlier authority, viz. Nott's memoir in his 
S edition of the poems of Surrey and Wyatt, 1815. 
I See also Wood's Athenae Oxon, ed. Bliss, i. 154- 
; 161; Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ; Lingard's Hist. ; 
j Hallam's Const. Hist. ; Warton's Hist, of Eng- 
| lish Poetry ; Hallam's Hist, of Literature ; Wai- 
pole's Royal and Noble Authors, ed. Park, i. 
255 sq. ; Howard's Anecdotes of the Howard 
Family, 1769; Collier's Bibl. Cat.; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bohn). For Howard's metrical ex- 
I periments.seeDr. J. Schipper's Englische Metrik, 
I Bonn, 1888, vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 256-70 (on Surrey's 
i blank verse) ; J. B. Mayor's Chapters on English 
j Metres, pp. 135-45 ; Guest's Hist, of English 
Rhythms, ed. Skeat,pp. 521 sq. 652 sq.] S. L. 

AMPTON (1540-1614), born at Shottesham, 
Norfolk, on 25 Feb. 1539-40, was second son 
of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey [q. v.] ; was 
younger brother of Thomas Howard, fourth 
duke of Norfolk [q. v.l, and was uncle of 
Thomas Howard, earl of Arundel [q. v.] On 
the death of his father in 1547 he and his 
brother and sisters were entrusted to the 
care of his aunt, the Duchess of Richmond, 
who employed Foxe the martyrologist as 
their tutor. With Foxe Howard remained 
at Reigate, a manor belonging to the Duke 
of Norfolk, throughout Edward VI's reign. 



On Mary's accession, the children's grand- 
father, the Duke of Norfolk, was released 
from prison, and he straightway dismissed 
Foxe. Henry was adm itted to the household 
of John White, bishop of Lincoln, an ardent 
catholic, and when White was translated to 
Winchester in 1556, Henry went with him. 
While with White, Howard read largely in 
philosophy, civil law, divinity, and history, 
and seems to have acquired a strong sym- 
pathy with Roman Catholicism. On Mary's 
death and Elizabeth's accession, White was 
deprived of his bishopric, and Elizabeth un- 
dertook the charge of Howard's education. 
He was restored in blood 8 May 1559. At 
the queen's expense he proceeded to King's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated M. A. 
in 1564. He afterwards joined Trinity Hall, 
obtained a good reputation as a scholar, read 
Latin lectures on rhetoric and civil law in 
public, and applied to a friend in London for 
a master to teach him the lute (Lansd. MS. 
109, f. 51). He protested in 1568 to Burgh- 
ley that his religious views were needlessly 
suspected of heterodoxy, and wrote for his 

gmngest sister, Catharine, wife of Lord 
erkeley, a treatise on natural and moral 
philosophy, which has not been published ; 
the manuscript (in Bodl. Libr. Arch. D. 113) 
is dated from Trinity Hall 6 Aug. 1569. On 
19 April 1568 he was incorporated M.A. at 
Oxford, and it was rumoured that he contem- 
plated taking holy orders in the vague hope 
of succeeding Young in the archbishopric of 
York (CAMDEN, Annals, an. 1571). Want of 
money, and a consciousness that he was living 
* beneath the compass of his birth,' brought him 
to court about 1570, but the intrigues of which 
his brother, Thomas Howard, fourth duke of 
Norfolk, was suspected at the time, depressed 
his prospects (c his Latin letter to Burgh- 
ley, 22 Sept. 1571, in Cott. MS. Cal. C. iii. 
f. 94). When in 1572 Norfolk was charged 
with conspiring to marry Mary Queen of Scots, 
Banister, Norfolk's confidential agent, de- 
clared in his confession that Howard was 
himself first proposed f for that object ' (MuK- 
DiN,p. 134). He was thereupon arrested, but, 
after repeated examinations, established his 
innocence to Elizabeth's satisfaction, was re- 
admitted to court, and was granted a yearly 
pension. It was generally reported, however, 
that he had by his evil counsel brought about 
his brother's ruin (BiRCH, Memoirs, i. 227). 
After the duke's execution Howard retired 
to Audley End, and directed the education of 
his brother's children. He visited Cambridge 
in July 1573, suffered from ill-health in the 
latter part of the year, tried by frequent 
letters to Burghley and to Hatton to keep 
himself in favour with the queen's ministers, 

and managed to offer satisfactory explana- 
tions when it was reported in 1574 that he 
was exchanging tokens with Mary Queen of 
Scots. But Elizabeth's suspicions were not 
permanently removed. His relations with 
Mary were undoubtedly close and mysterious. 
He supplied her for many years with political 
information, but, according to his own ac- 
count, gave her the prudent advice to ' abate 
the sails of her royal pride ' (cf. Cotton MS. 
Titus, c. vi. f. 138). Howard sought to regain 
Elizabeth's favour by grossly flattering her in 
long petitions. About 1580 he circulated a 
manuscript tract in support of the scheme for 
the marriage of Elizabeth with the Duke of 
Anjou, in answer to Stubbes's * Disco verie 
of a Gaping Gulf,' 1579 (Sari MS. 1$0), 
and at Burghley's request began a reply to 
a pamphlet denouncing female government, 
which he completed in 1589 (ib. 7021, and 
in Bodl. Libr. MS.) In 1582 his cousin 
Edward De Vere, seventeenth earl of Ox- 
ford, quarrelled with him, and revived the 
charges of heresy and of treasonable corre- 
spondence with the Scottish o^ueen. He was 
again arrested, and defended himself at length 
in a letter to Elizabeth, in which he admitted 
that he had taken part in Roman catholic 
worship owing to conscientious difficulties ' in 
sacramentary points,' but declared that it was 
idle to believe that ' so mean a man ' as he 
could win Mary Stuart's ' liking.' He was 
soon set free, and, retiring to St. Albans, spent 
a year (1582-3) in writing his l Preservative 
against the Poison of supposed Prophecies,' 
a learned attack on judicial astrology, dedi- 
cated to Walsingham, and said to have been 
suggested by the astrological exploits of Ri- 
chard Harvey [q. v.J The book, which was 
revised and reissued in 1621, was suspected 
of ' seeming heresies,' and of treason, * though 
somewhat closely covered' (STRYPE, Grrindal, 
p. 157), and in 1583 Howard was sent to the 
Fleet. For many months, as he piteouslv 
wrote to Hatton, he ' endured much harsh 
usage ' (NICOLAS, Hatton, pp. 368-9, 376-7). 
Mary, it was now asserted, had sent him a 
ring with a message that she ' did repute him 
as his brother' (cf. his examination, &c., on 
11 Dec. 1583 and January 1583-4 in Cott 
MS. Cal. C. vii. ff. 260, 269). Burghley de- 
clined to intervene in his behalf, but by the 
favour of Burghley's son Robert he was sent 
on parole to the house of Sir Nicholas Bacon 
at Redgrave. On 19 July 1585 he wrote 
thence to Burghley, begging permission to 
visit the wells at Warwick for the benefit of 
his health. He was soon set at liberty, and 
is said to have travelled in Italy, visiting 
Florence and Rome (LLOYD, Worthies, i. 
67). In 1587 his repeated requests to take 




an active part in resisting the threatened 
Spanish attack were refused. He was at 
the time without any means of livelihood, 
except his irregularly paid pension. The 
lord admiral gave him as an asylum a ' little 
cell at Greenwich/ and in 1 591 put under 
his charge ' a Spanish prisoner called Don 
Louis, who it was expected would divulge 
important secrets respecting the movements 
of the Spanish treasure fleet.' But Howard's 
relations with the Spaniard soon excited 
suspicion, and his prospects seemed utterly 
ruined. He thought of retiring to ' a grove 
and a prayer-book.' 

On the rise of Essex to power Howard was 
not slow to attach himself to the new favourite. 
He thus came into relations with both Francis 
and Anthony Bacon, much to the disgust of 
their mother, who warned her sons to avoid 
him as * a papist and a Spaniard.' At the 
same time, with characteristic adroitness, he 
managed to continue in good relations with 
Sir Robert Cecil, and through his influence 
was readmitted to court in 1600, when Eliza- 
beth treated him considerately. He took no 
part in Essex's schemes of rebellion, although 
Cecil believed him to be meditating com- 
munication with the earl on his release on 
parole from York House in August 1600 
(Corresp. of Sir R. Cecil, Camd. Soc. p. 23). 
After the earl's execution he took part with 
Cecil in a long secret correspondence with 
James of Scotland. Howard's letters of advice 
to the king are long and obscure. James 
called them t Asiatic and endless volumes.' 
Following Essex's example he tried to poison 
James's mind against his personal enemies, 
chief among whom were Henry Brooke, eighth 
lord Cobham [q. v.], and Sir Walter Raleigh. 
In letters written to Cecil he made no secret 
of his intention, when opportunity offered, of 
snaring his rivals into some questionable ne- 
gotiation with Spain which might be made 
the foundation of a charge of treason (cf. 
MS. Cott. Titus, c. vi. ff. 386-92 ; EDWARDS, 
Ralegh, ii. 436 seq.) Howard also pressed 
on James the desirability of adopting, when 
he came to the English throne, a thorough- 
going policy of toleration towards Roman 
catholics. These communications convinced 
James of his fidelity ; he wrote to Howard 
repeatedly in familiar terms, and, as soon as 
Elizabeth's death was announced sent him a 
ruby t out of Scotland as a token ' (cf. Corresp. 
of James VI with Cecil and others from Hat- 
field MSS. ed. Bruce, Camden Soc.) 

The suppleness and flattery which had 
done him small service in his relations with 
Elizabeth gave Howard a commanding posi- 
tion from the first in James I's court. He 
attended James at Theobalds, and was made 

a privy councillor. On 1 Jan. 1604 he be- 
came lord warden of the Cinque ports in 
succession to his enemy Lord Cobham [see 
BROOKE, HENRY], and on 13 March Baron 
Howard of Marnhull, Dorsetshire, and Earl 
of Northampton. On 24 Feb. 1605 he was in- 
stalled knight of the Garter, and on 29 April 
1 608, when Salisbury became treasurer, he was 
promoted to the dignified office of lord privy 
seal. Grants of the tower in Greenwich Park 
and of the bailiwick of the town were made in 
1605. In 1609 the university of Oxford ap- 
pointed him high steward, and in 1612 he and 
Prince Charles were rival candidates for tho 
chancellorship of Cambridge University in 
succession to Salisbury. His wealth and 
learning seem to have easily secured his 
election ; but he at once resigned on learning 
that the king resented the university's action. 
He managed, however, to convince James I 
that he intended no disrespect to the royal 
family, and at a new election he was reap- 
pointed (HACKET, Life of Bishop Williams, 
pt. i. p. 21 ; COOPER, Annals of Cambridge, 
iii. 47-52). When, on Salisbury's death in 
1612, the treasurership was put into com- 
mission, Northampton was made one of the 

Northampton took an active part in poli- 
tical business, and exhibited in all his actions 
a stupendous want of principle. He was a 
commissioner for the trial of his personal 
enemies SirWalter Raleigh and Lord Cobham 
in 1 603, for that of Guy Fawkes in 1 605, and of 
Garnett, with whose opinions he was in agree- 
ment, in 1606. His elaborate and effective 
speeches at the latter two trials appear in the 
< State Trials ' (i. 245, 266). He supported 
the convictions of all. It was rumoured 
afterwards that he had privately apologised 
to Cardinal Bellarmine for his speech at Gar- 
nett's trial, in which he powerfully attacked 
the papal power, and had told the cardinal 
that he was at heart a catholic. The re- 

Eort gained very general currency, and the 
lilure of contemporary catholic writers to 
denounce Northampton in their comments 
on the proceedings against Garnett appeared 
to confirm its truth. In 1612 Archbishop 
Abbot is said to have produced in the coun- 
cil-chamber a copy of Northampton's com- 
munication with Bellarmine. In the same 
year Northampton summoned six persons 
who had circulated the story before the Star- 
chamber on the charge of libel, and they were 
heavily fined. Meanwhile, in May 1604, he 
acted as a commissioner to treat for peace 
with Spain, and in the autumn of the same 
year accepted a Spanish pension of 1,0007. a 
year. In September 1604, with even greater 
boldness, he sat on the commission appointed 



to arrange for the expulsion of Jesuits and ' 
seminary priests. In 1606 he supported the 
union of England and Scotland (cf. Seiners' 
Tracts, ii. 132). When, in 1607, the commons j 
sent up to the House of Lords a petition from | 
English merchants, complaining of Spanish 
cruelties, Northampton, in a speech in the \ 
upper chamber, superciliously rebuked the . 
lower house for interfering in great affairs of j 
state. In 1611 he strongly supported the j 
Duke of Savoy's proposal to arrange a mar- 
riage between his daughter and Henry, prince ! 
of Wales, in the very sanguine belief that 
a union of the heir-apparent with a Eoman 
catholic might effectually check the aggres- 
siveness of the democratic puritans. At the 
same time he did good service by urging re- 
form in the spending department of the navy. 
In 1613 Northampton, in accordance with 
his character, gave his support to his grand- 
niece, Lady Frances, daughter of Thomas 
Howard, earl of Suffolk, in her endeavours 
to obtain a divorce from her husband, the Earl 
of Essex. The lady was desirous of marrying 
the king's favourite, Robert Car, earl of So- 
merset, and Northampton doubtless thought, 
by promoting that union, to obtain increased 
influence at court. Northampton and Lady 
Frances's father represented the wife in an 
interview with Essex held at Whitehall in 
May 1613, in the hope of obtaining his assent 
to a divorce. Essex proved uncompliant, and 
Northampton contrived that the case should 
be brought before a special commission. When, 
however, the divorce was obtained, Somerset's 
intimate acquaintance, Sir Thomas Overbury, 
dissuaded him from pursuing the project of 
marriage with Lady Frances. Northampton 
thereupon recommended, on a very slight 
pretext, Overbury's imprisonment in the 
Tower, and contrived that a friend of the 
Howard family, Sir Gervase Helwys [q.v.], 
should be appointed lieutenant of the Tower. 
Helwys frequently wrote to Northampton 
about Overbury's conduct and health, but 
neither of them seems to have been made 
explicitly aware of Lady Frances's plot to 
murder the prisoner. Doubtless Northamp- 
ton had his suspicions. In his extant letters 
to Helwys he writes with contempt of Over- 
bury and expresses a desire that his own 
name should not be mentioned in connection 
with his imprisonment, but he introduced 
to Helwys Dr. Craig, one of the royal phy- 
sicians, to report on the prisoner's health 
(Cott. MS. Titus B. vii. f. 479), When, in 
1615, after Northampton's death, the matter 
was judicially investigated, much proof was 
adduced of the closeness of the relations that 
had subsisted between Northampton and his 
grandniece, and his political enemies credited 

him with a direct hand in the murder. But 
the evidence on that point was not conclu- 
sive (AMOS, Great Oyer of Poisoning,^. 167, 
173-5, 353). 

In the king's council Northampton pro- 
fessed to the last his exalted views of the 
royal prerogative, and tried to thwart the 
ascendency of protestantism and democracy. 
In February 1614 he deprecated with great 
spirit the summoning of a parliament, and 
when his advice was neglected and a parlia- 
ment was called together, he, acting in con- 
junction with Sir Charles Cornwallis [q. v.], is 
believed, in June 1614, to have induced John 
Hoskins [q. v.], a member of the new House 
of Commons, to use insulting language about 
the king's Scottish favourites, in the hope 
that James would mark his displeasure by 
; straightway dissolving the parliament. North- 
' ampton remained close friends with James to 
the last. He interested himself in the erec- 
tion of a monument to Mary Queen of Scots 
in Westminster Abbey, and wrote the Latin 
inscription. In 1613 he drew up James's 
well-known edict against duelling, and wrote 
about the same time * Duello foild. The 
whole proceedings in the orderly dissolveing 
of a design for single fight betweene two 
valient gentlemen ' (cf. Ashmole MS. 856, ff. 
126-45), which is printed in Hearne's < Col- 
lection of Curious Discourses,' 1775, ii. 225- 
242, and is there assigned to Sir Edward Coke. 
Northampton long suffered from ' a wen- 
nish tumour ' in the thigh, and an unskilful 
operation led to fatal results. One of his 
latest acts was to send Somerset expressions 
of his affection, He died on 15 June 1614 
at his house in the Strand, and, as warden of 
the Cinque ports, was buried in the chapel 
of Dover Castle. A monument erected above 
his grave was removed in 1696 to the chapel 
of the college of Greenwich by the Mercers' 
Company (cf. STOW, London, ed. Strype, App. 
i. pp. 93-4). 

According to Northampton's will, he died 
1 a member of the catholic and apostolic 
church, saying with St. Jerome, In qua 
fide puer natus fui in eadem senex morior.' 
Although the expression is equivocal, there 
can be little doubt that he lived and died 
a Roman catholic. To the king he left, with 
extravagant expressions of esteem, a golden 
ewer of 100Z. value, with a hundred Jacobin 
pieces, each of twenty-two shillings value. 
The Earls of Suffolk and Worcester and Lord 
William Howard were overseers (cf. Harl. 
MS. 6693, ff. 198-202 : and Cott. MS. Jul. 
F. vi. f. 440). He left land worth 3,000/. a 
year to Arundel. His London house, after- 
wards Northumberland House, by Charing 
Cross, he gave to Henry Howard, Suffolk's 


3 2 


son, but he revoked at the last moment a be- 
quest to Suffolk of his furniture and movables 
because he and Suffolk were rival candidates 
for the treasurership, and it was reported 
when he was dying that Suffolk was to be 

Despite his lack of principle, Northampton 
displayed a many-sided culture, and was 
reputed the most learned nobleman of his 
time. His taste in architecture is proved 
by his enlargement of Greenwich Castle, by 
the magnificence of his London residence, 
afterwards Northumberland House, which 
was built at his cost from the designs of 
Moses Glover [q. v.], and by his supervision 
of Thorpe's designs for Audley End, the re- 
sidence of his nephew Suffolk. He planned 
and endowed three hospitals, one at Clun, 
Shropshire ; a second at Castle Rising, Nor- 
folk, for twelve poor women (cf. BLOMEFIELD, 
Norfolk, ix. 55-6), and a third at Greenwich, 
called Norfolk College, for twelve poor natives 
of Greenwich, and for eight natives of Shottes- 
ham, Northampton's birthplace. He laid the 
foundation-stone of the college at Greenwich, 
25 Feb. 1613-14, and placed its management 
under the Mercers' Company. He was a witty 
talker, and his friend Bacon has recorded some 
of his remarks in his 'Apophthegms' (BACON, 
Works, ed. Spedding, vii. 154, 164, 171). 
Bacon chose him as ' thelearnedest councillor ' 
in the kingdom to present his l Advancement 
of Learning ' to James I (SPEEDING, Bacon, 
iii. 252). George Chapman inscribed a sonnet 
to him which was printed before his trans- 
lation of Homer (1614). Ben Jonson and he 
were, on the other hand, bitter foes ( JONSON, 
Conversations, p. 22). 

Besides the work on astrology and the 
manuscript treatises by Northampton al- 
ready noticed, there are extant a translation 
by him of Charles V's last advice to Philip II, 
dedicated to Elizabeth (Harl. MSS. 836 and 
1056 ; Cott. MS. Titus C. xviii. ; and Bodl. 
Libr. Rawl. MS. B. 7, f. 32, while the dedi- 
catory epistle appears alone in Lambeth MS. 
DCCXI. 20) ; and devotional treatises (Harl. 
MS. 255, and Lambeth MS. 660). Cottonian 
MS. Titus, c. 6, a volume of 1200 pages, con- 
tains much of Northampton's correspondence, 
a treatise on government, a devotional work, 
notes of Northampton's early correspondence 
with James and Cecil, and a commonplace 
book entitled < Concilia Privata.' 

A portrait dated 1606 belongs to the Earl 
of Carlisle. 

[The fullest account appears in Nott's edition 
of Surrey's and Wyatt's Poems, 1815, i. 427-74 ; 
it is absurdly laudatory. See also Gardiner's 
Hist, of England ; Birch's Memoirs ; "Walpole's 
Koyal and Noble Authors, ed. Park ii. 148 sq. ; 

Sanderson's Life of James I ; Winwood's Me- 
morials ; Court of James I, 1812; D'Ewes's 
Autobiography; Wotton's Eemains, 1685, p. 385; 
Doyle's Baronage ; Brydges's Memoirs of Peers 
of James I ; Nichols's Progresses of James I ; 
Edwards' s Life of Sir W. Ealegh ; Spedding's 
Bacon ; Amos's Trial of the Earl of Somerset, 
pp. 42-5 ; Causton's Howard Papers ; Good- 
man's Court of James I. ; Cat. Cottonian MSS.] 


NORFOLK (1628-1684), born on 12 July 1628, 
was the second son of Henry Frederick 
Howard, second earl of Arundel [q. v.], by 
Lady Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of Esme, 
third duke of Lennox (DOYLE, Official Ba- 
ronage, ii. 597-8). Before the Restoration 
he passed much time abroad. In October 
1645 he journeyed from Venice to visit John 
Evelyn (1620-1706) [q. v.] at Padua. He 
again went abroad in company with his elder 
brother, Thomas, in January 1652 and Au- 
gust 1653 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1651-2 
p. 548, 1653-4 p. 434). By 10 Aug. 1655 
he was settled at his villa at Albury, Surrey, 
where Evelyn visited him and admired his 
pictures and curiosities. According to Evelyn, 
Howard was mainly instrumental in per- 
suading the king to restore the dukedom of 
Norfolk, 29 Dec. 1660, which fell to his 
brother Thomas (1627-1677), and, jealous 
of the family honour, he compounded a debt 
of 200,000/. contracted by his grandfather, 
Thomas, earl of Arundel (1586-1646) [q. v.j 
(EVELYN, Diary, 19 June 1662). As Lord 
Henry Howard he became a member of Lin- 
coln's Inn on 4 Nov. 1661, and was high 
steward of Guildford, Surrey, from 1663 to 
1673. On 21 Feb. 1663-4 he left London 
with his brother Edward to visit his friend 
Walter, count Leslie, whom the emperor 
Leopold I had lately nominated his ambas- 
sador extraordinary to Constantinople. At 
Vienna he was introduced by Leslie to the 
emperor, and was liberally entertained (cf. 
A Relation of a Journey of . . . Lord Henry 
Howard, &c., London, 1671 ; COLLINS, Peer- 
age, ed. Brydges, i. 133-5). 

He returned to England in 1665, and on 
28 Nov. 1666 became F.R.S. After the fire 
of London Howard granted the Royal So- 
ciety the use of rooms at Arundel House in 
the Strand, and, on 2 Jan. 1667, at Evelyn's 
suggestion presented it with the greater part 
of his splendid library, which he had much 
neglected. A portion of the manuscripts 
was given to the College of Arms, of which 
a catalogue was compiled by Sir C. G. Young 
in 1829. The Royal Society sold their share 
of the Arundel manuscripts (excepting the 
Hebrew and Oriental) to the trustees of the 
British Museum in 1830 for the sum of 3,559/., 




which was devoted to the purchase of scien- 
tific books. In 1668, when it was proposed 
to build a college for the society's meetings, 
Howard, who was on the committee, gave a 
piece of ground in the garden of Arundel 
House for a site, and drew designs for the 
building (WELD, Hist, of Roy. Soc.} During 
September 1667 Evelyn persuaded Howard to 

five the Arundelian marbles, which were 
ying neglected in the same garden, to the 
university of Oxford. The university made 
him a D.C.L. on 5 June 1668, at the same 
time conferring on his two sons, Henry and 
Thomas, of Magdalen College, the degree of 
M.A. Howard was raised to the peerage, 
with the title of Baron Howard of Castle 
Eising in Norfolk, on 27 March 1669, and in 
the following April went as ambassador ex- 
traordinary to Morocco. On the death of his 
first wife, Lady Anne Somerset, elder daugh- 
ter of Edward, second marquis of Worcester, 
in 1662, he is said to have fallen into a deep 
melancholy, which was increased by the loss 
of his friend Sir Samuel Tuke on 25 Jan. 
1671. He sought relief in a course of dissi- 
pation, which impaired both his fortune and 
reputation. On 19 Oct. 1677 he was advanced 
to be earl of Norwich, earl-marshal, and here- 
ditary earl-marshal, and on 1 Dec. following he 
succeeded his brother Thomas as sixth duke 
of Norfolk. In 1678 he married his mistress, 
Jane, daughter of Robert Bickerton, gentle- 
man of the wine cellar to Charles II. He 
died at Arundel House on 11 Jan. 1684, and 
was buried at Arundel, Sussex. By his first 
wife he had two sons, Henry, seventh duke 
[q. v.], and Thomas, and three daughters. By 
his second wife, who died on 28 Aug. 1693, 
he had four sons and three daughters. Though 
good-natured he was a man of small capacity 
and rough manners. l A Relation of a Jour- 
ney of ... Lord Henry Howard from London 
to Vienna, and thence to Constantinople/ was 
published under Howard's name, 12mo, Lon- 
don, 1671 . There is a picture of him by Mary 
Beale in the National Portrait Gallery, and 
It has been engraved. 

[Evelyn's Diary ; Hamilton's Memoirs of Count 
de Grammont ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of Eng- 
land (6th edit.), iii. 186.] G. G. 

NORFOLK (1655-1701), born on 11 Jan. 1655, 
was the son of Henry, sixth duke of Norfolk 
(1628-1684) [q.v.], by his first wife, Lady 
Anne Somerset, elder daughter of Edward, 
second marquis of Worcester (DoTLE, Official 
Baronage, ii. 598-9). He was educated at 
Magdalen College, Oxford, and was created 
M.A. on 5 June 1668. From 1678 until 1684 
lie was styled Earl of Arundel, but he was 
summoned to parliament as Baron Mowbray 


on 27 Jan. 1679. On the death of Prince 
Rupert he was constituted constable of Wind- 
sor Castle and warden of the forest and parks, 

16 Dec. 1682, and became on the same day 
lord-lieutenant of Berkshire and Surrey. He 
was chosen high steward of Windsor on 

17 Jan. 1683, lord-lieutenant of Norfolk on 
5 April in the same year, and succeeded his 
father as seventh duke of Norfolk on 11 Jan. 
1684. The university of Oxford created him 
a D.C.L. on 1 Sept. 1684. On the accession 
of James II he signed the order, dated at 
Whitehall on 6 Feb. 1685, for proclaiming 
him king, and was made K.Gr. on 6 May fol- 
lowing. He was appointed colonel of a regi- 
ment of foot on 20 June 1685, but resigned 
his command in June 1686. One day James 
gave the duke (a staunch protestant) the 
sword of state to carry before him to the 
popish chapel, but he stopped at the door, 
upon which the king said to him, ' My lord, 
your father would have gone further;' to 
which the duke answered, * Your majesty s 
father was the better man, and he would not 
have gone so far ' (BuENET, Own Time, Oxf . 
ed., i. 684). In 1687 the duke undertook to 
act as James's agent in Surrey and Norfolk, 
for the purpose of obtaining information as 
to the popular view of the Declaration of In- 
dulgence. On 24 March 1688 he went to 
France, but returning home by way of Flan- 
ders on 30 July joined in the invitation to 
the Prince of Orange. In November follow- 
ing he was among the protestant lords in 
London who petitioned James II to call a 
parliament ' regular and free in all respects.' 
The petition was presented on 17 Nov., and 
the same day the king, after promising to 
summon such a parliament, left for Salis- 
bury to put himself at the head of his army. 
Thereupon the duke, attended by three hun- 
dred gentlemen armed and mounted, went to 
the market-place of Norwich, and was there 
met by the mayor and aldermen, who en- 
gaged to stand by him against popery and 
arbitrary power. He soon brought over the 
eastern counties to the interest of the Prince 
of Orange, and raised a regiment, which was 
afterwards employed in the reduction of Ire- 
land. Howard accompanied William to St. 
James's Palace on 18 Dec., and on the 21st 
was among the lords who appealed to him 
to call a free parliament. He voted for the 
settlement of the crown on the Prince and 
Princess of Orange, who were proclaimed on 
13 Feb. 1689, and the next day was sworn 
of their privy council. He was also continued 
constable of Windsor Castle, and became 
colonel of a regiment of foot (16 March 1689), 
lord-lieutenant of Norfolk, Surrey, and Berk- 
shire (6 May 1689), acting captain-general of 




the Honourable Artillery Company of London 
(3 June to September 1690), a commissioner of 
Greenwich Hospital (20 Feb. 1695), colonel in 
the Berkshire, Norwich, Norfolk, Surrey, and 
South wark regiments of militia (1697), and 
during that year captain of the first troop of 
Surrey horse militia. On 18 Jan. 1691 he 
attended William III to Holland. 

Norfolk died without issue at Norfolk 
House, St. James's Square, on 2 April 1701, 
and was buried on the 8th at Arundel, 
Sussex. His immediate successors in the 
title were his nephews, Thomas, eighth duke 
(1683-1732), and Edward, ninth duke (1680- 
1777). On 8 Aug. 1677 he married Lady 
Mary Mordaunt, daughter and heiress of 
Henry, second earl of Peterborough, but, 
owing to her gallantries with Sir John Ger- 
main [q. v.] and others, he separated from her 
in 1685, ' He did not succeed in divorcing her 
until 11 April 1700, in consequence of the 
opposition of her first cousin, Lord Monmouth 
(afterwards Earl of Peterborough). The 
duchess assisted Lord Monmouth in his in- 
trigue with Sir John Fenwick [q. v.], and 
afterwards confessed to it (1697). Mon- 
mouth, in the House of Lords, violently 
denied the truth of her story. Her husband 
.thereupon rose, and said, with sour pleasan- 
try, that he gave entire faith to what she 
had deposed. 'My lord thought her good 
enough to be wife to me ; and, if she is good 
enough to be wife to me, I am sure that she 
is good enough to be a witness against him.' 

[Collins's Peerage (Brydges),i. 136-8 ; Burnet's 
Own Time (Oxf.ed.); Evelyn's Diary; Luttrell's 
Historical Relation of State Affairs, 1857 ; Mac- 
aulay's Hist, of England ; see art. GERMAIN, SIB 
JOHN.] G. G. 

HOWARD, HENRY (1684-1720), 
Roman catholic bishop-elect, born 10 Dec. 
1684, was second son of Lord Thomas 
Howard of Worksop, by Elizabeth Marie, 
daughter of Sir John Saville of Copley, York- 
shire, and therefore grandson of Henry, sixth 
duke of Norfolk [q. v.] He'entered the English 
College at Douay, where he studied with his 
brothers Thomas, Edward, and Philip. Tho- 
mas and Edward Howard afterwards became 
successively eighth and ninth dukes of Nor- 
folk. On 7 Sept. 1706 he took the mission 
oath, and at Advent 1709 was ordained priest. 
He had passed with praise, it was afterwards 
asserted, through the courses of philosophy 
and theology. In 1710 he joined the Peres 
de la Doctrine Chretienne at Paris, at the time 
that the Jansenist controversy was raging 
there. The English Jesuits were strongly 
orthodox; and they persuaded Howard to 
remove in the same year (May 1710) to the 
Jesuit seminary of St. Gregory. Here he re- 

sided till July 1713, when he came to Eng- 
land on a mission, and is said, while living 
at Buckingham House, to have effected many 

On 2 Oct. 1720 he was appointed coadju- 
tor to Bishop Bonaventure Giffard [q. v.] of 
the London district, with the title of Bishop 
of Utica in partibus (BEADY, Episcopal Suc- 
cesszVw,iii.l56). He died, however, of a fever 
caught while visiting the poor, before his con- 
secration, on 22 Nov. 1720, and was buried 
at Arundel. ' Such charity,' said Bishop Gif- 
fard, ' such piety, has not been seen in our 
land of a long time.' There is a portrait at 
Greystoke believed to represent either Henry 
Howard or his brother Richard. 

In the ' Howard Papers ' it is asserted (p 
313) that Henry Howard died at Rome. The 
statement obviously refers to his brother Ri- 
chard Howard (1687-1722), also a priest in the 
Roman communion, who died at Rome, where 
he was a canon of St. Peter's, on 22 Aug. 1722: 

[Gillow's Bibl. Diet. iii. 426; Knox's Douay 
Diaries, pp. 54, 88, 90; Causton's Howard Papers ; 
Howard's Memorials of the Howard Family.] 

W. A. J. A. 

HOWARD, HENRY (1757-1842), 
author of the * Memorials of the Howard 
Family,' born at Corby Castle, Cumberland, 
2 July 1757,was eldest son of Philip Howard 
(1730-1810) of Corby Castle, who wrote the 
'Scriptural History of the Earth and of 
Mankind,' London, 1797. His mother was 
Anne, daughter of Henry Witham of Cliff, 
Yorkshire. Howard was educated at the 
college of the English Benedictines at Douay, 
and for a short time in 1774 studied at the 
university of Paris. On 17 Dec. 1774 he en- 
tered the Theresian Academy at Vienna, and 
there became a friend of Monticucolli and 
Marsigli. He left Vienna in September 1777, 
but failing to obtain permission to serve in 
the English army, he travelled for a time 
with his father and mother. At Strasburg 
the governor, M. de la Salle, and General 
Wurmser showed him kindness, and during 
the two or three years that he passed in 
study there, living with his father and 
mother, he often visited Cardinal Rohan. 
General Wurmser tried to induce him to ac- 
cept a commission in the Austrian service, 
but he refused, in the hope that he might yet 
obtain an English commission. In 1782, 
however, he went with Prince Christian of 
Hesse-Darmstadt to the camp before Prague. 
In 1784 a final attempt on the part of the 
Earl of Surrey to get him admitted into the 
German detachment of the Duke of York's 
forces failed, and in the year following he re- 
tired to Corby. 

Howard spent the rest of his life as a 




country gentleman and antiquary. In poli- 
tics he was a whig ; he signed the petition in 
favour of parliamentary reform, and con- 
tinually advocated the repeal of the penal 
laws against Roman catholics. When in 
1795 it became possible, Howard was made 
captain in the 1st York militia, with which 
he served for a time in Ireland. In 1802 he 
raised the Edenside rangers, and in 1803 the 
Cumberland rangers, for which regiment he 
wrote a little work on the drill of light in- 
fantry (1805). In later life he was a friend 
and correspondent of Louis-Philippe. He 
was a F.S.A., and in 1832 high sheriff of 
Cumberland. He died at Corby Castle on 
1 March 1842. His portrait, by James Oliver, 
R.A., was engraved by C. Turner, A.R.A.,in 

Howard married first, 4 Nov. 1788, Maria, 
third daughter of Andrew, last lord Archer 
of Umberslade. She died in 1789, leaving 
one daughter ; the monument by Nollekens 
erected to her memory in Wetheral Church, 
Cumberland, is the subject of two of Words- 
worth's sonnets. Howard's second wife, whom 
he married 18 March 1793, was Catherine 
Mary (d. 1849), second daughter of Sir Ri- 
chard Neave, bart., of Dagnam Park, Essex. 
She kept extensive journals, and printed pri- 
vately at Carlisle from 1836 to 1838 ' Remi- 
niscences' for her children, 4 vols. 8vo. By 
her he left two sons and three daughters. 

Howard's chief works were : 1. ' Remarks 
on the Erroneous Opinions entertained re- 
specting the Catholic Religion,' Carlisle, 
1825, 8vo ; other later editions. 2. ' Indica- 
tions of Memorials ... of Persons of the 
Howard Family,' 1 834, fol., privately printed. 
He also contributed to ' Archeeologia ' in 1800 
and 1803, and assisted Dr. Lingard, Miss 
Strickland, and others in historical work. 

[Gillow's Bibl. Diet. iii. 427 ; Gent. Mag. 
1842, i. 437 ; Martin's Cat. of Privately Printed 
Books, 1854, p. 449.] W. A. J. A. 

HOWARD, HENRY (1769-1847), por- 
trait and historical painter, was born in Lon- 
don on 31 Jan. 1769. He received his ele- 
mentary education at a school at Hounslow, 
and at the age of seventeen became a pupil 
of Philip Reinagle, R.A., whose daughter he 
afterwards married. In 1788 he was ad- 
mitted a student of the Royal Academy, 
where in 1790 he gained the first silver medal 
for the best drawing from the life, and at the 
same time the gold medal for historical paint- 
ing, the subject, taken from Mason's dramatic 
poem ' Caractacus/ being ' Caractacus recog- 
nising the Dead Body of his Son.' He went 
to Italy in 1791, taking with him a letter of 
introduction from Sir Joshua Reynolds to 
Lord Hervey, then British minister at Flo- 

rence, in which Sir Joshua said of his l Ca- 
ractacus ' that ' it was the opinion of the 
Academicians that his picture was the best 
that had been presented *o the Academy ever 
since its foundation.' At Rome he met Flax- 
man and John Deare, and joined them in a 
diligent study of sculpture. In 1792 he painted 
the ' Dream of Cain' from Gesner's ' Death of 
Abel,' and sent it to England in competition 
for the travelling studentship of the Royal 
Academy j but, although his picture was ad- 
mitted to be the best, the studentship was 
awarded to the second, but less affluent, candi- 
date. He returned home in 1794 by way of 
Vienna and Dresden, and exhibited at the 
Royal Academy his ' Dream of Cain.' In 1795 
he sent three small pictures and a portrait, 
and in 1796 a finished sketch, from Milton's 
' Paradise Lost,' of ' The Planets drawing 
Light from the Sun,' and other works. He 
made some designs for Sharpe's 'British 
Essayists,' Du Roveray's edition of Pope's 
translation of Homer, and other books, and 
he painted some of his own designs on the 
vases made at Wedgwood's pottery. In 
1799 he exhibited a sketch from Shake- 
speare's l Midsummer Night's Dream ; ' ' A 
Mermaid sitting on a Dolphin's back,' one 
of his most beautiful compositions; and in 
the same year he was first employed by the 
Dilettanti Society to make drawings from 
ancient sculpture for their publications. He 
was afterwards engaged on similar work 
for the Society of Engravers. In 1800 he 
exhibited at the Royal Academy ' Eve ' and 
1 The Dream of the Red Cross Knight,' and 
was elected an associate. His contribu- 
tions to the exhibition of 1801 included 
* Achilles wounded by Paris from behind the 
Statue of Apollo,' ' The Angel awaking Peter 
in the Prison,' and ' Adam and Eve ; ' to that 
of 1802, 'Love animating the Statue of Pyg- 
malion,' now in the South Kensington Mu- 
seum; and to that of 1803, 'Love listening 
to the Flatteries of Hope ' and a portrait of 
Sir Humphry Davy. In 1805 he exhibited 
1 Sabrina,' the first of a series of pictures from 
Milton's ' Comus,' which furnished him with 
subjects almost to the end of his career ; he 
also commenced the artistic supervision of 
Forster's 'British Gallery of Engravings/ 
and the 'British Gallery of Contemporary 
Portraits.' In 1805, too, he painted for Mr. 
Hibbert an extensive frieze representing the 
story of Cupid and Psyche, and exhibited a 
picture of ' Hero and Leander,' engraved by 
F. Engleheart for the ' Gem ' of 1829, which 
was followed in 1807 by 'The Infant Bacchus 
brought by Mercury to the Nymphs of Nysa.' 
In 1806 he removed to 5 Newman Street, 
which had been the residence of Thomas 



Banks, R.A., the sculptor, and resided there 
until the end of his life. He was elected a 
Royal Academician in 1808, and presented 
as his diploma work 'The Four Angels loosed 
from the Great River Euphrates/ which had 
been exhibited at the British Institution in 
1806, and engraved by William Bond. In 
the same year he sent to the Royal Aca- 
demy * Peasants of Subiaco returning from 
the Vineyard on a Holiday,' now in the 
South Kensington Museum. In 1809 he ex- 
hibited 'Titania' and 'Christ blessing Young 
Children,' which forms the altar-piece at St. 
Luke's, Berwick Street, London. He became 
secretary of the Royal Academy in 1811, and 
exhibited in that year ' Iris and her train ; ' in 
1813 a large picture of ( Hebe,' and in 1814 
that of ' Sunrise,' since better known as ' The 
Pleiades,' and engraved by W. D. Taylor. 
This picture he afterwards sent to the British 
Institution in competition for the premiums 
offered, receiving only the second premium 
of one hundred guineas, the first having been 
awarded to Sir George Hayter [q. v.] for a 
head ; but he sold the picture to the Marquis 
of Stafford, and painted a replica of it for Sir 
John Leicester. In 1814 also, on the occasion 
of the visit of the allied sovereigns, he was com- 
missioned to paint the large transparencies 
for the Temple of Concord erected in Hyde 
Park ; he was assisted by Stothard, Hilton, 
and others. Among his contributions to the 
exhibition of 1815 was 'Morning,' and to that 
of 1816 'The Punishment of Dirce.' In 1818 
he painted for Lord Egremont ' The Apo- 
theosis of the Princess Charlotte,' and sent 
to the Royal Academy ' Fairies,' the best of 
his smaller works, now in the collection of 
Sir Matthew White Ridley, to whom belongs 
also 'The Birth of Venus,' exhibited in 1819, 
the finest of all Howard's pictures . 'Lear and 
Cordelia,' now in the Soane Museum, and a 
' Study of Beech Trees in Knole Park,' bought 
by Lord Egremont, appeared at the Academy 
in 1820 ; ' The House of Morpheus,' also bought 
by Lord Egremont, in 1821 ; 'Ariel released 
by Prospero' and 'Caliban teased by the 
Spirits of Prospero' in 1822; and ' The'Solar 
System ' in 1823. These were followed in 
1824 by ' A Young Lady in the Florentine 
Costume of 1500,' a portrait of the painter's 
daughter, engraved by Charles Heath for the 
' Literary Souvenir ' of 1827, and purchased 
by Lord Colborne ; it was so much admired 
that Howard painted some replicas of it, and 
other portraits in a similar style. In 1825 he 
exhibited at the Royal Academy ' Guardian 
Angels ; ' in 1826, ' Hylas carried off by the 
Nymphs,' bought by Lord Egremont ; in 1829, 
' Night,' a companion to the ' Solar Systen 
in 1830, ' Shakespeare nursed in the Lap of 

Fancy ;' in 1831, 'Circe;' and in 1832, 'The 
Contention of Oberon and Titania ; ' the last 
three are in the Soane Museum. 

In 1833 Howard was appointed to the pro- 
fessorship of painting in the Royal Academy, 
and the lectures which he delivered were 
published by his son, Frank Ho ward [q. v.], in 
1848. In 1833, also, he exhibited his ' Chal- 
dean Shepherd contemplating the Heavenly 
Bodies,' and in 1834 ' The Gardens of Hespe- 
rus.' His next important work was an adapta- 
tion of the ' Solar System ' for the ceiling of the 
Duchess of Sutherland's boudoir at Stafford 
House, executed in 1834, and followed in 
1835 by subjects from the story of ' Pandora/ 
and in 1837 by a modification of Guido's 
' Aurora ' for ceilings in the Soane Museum. 
He also drew from life the illustrations for 
Walker's work on ' Beauty /published in 1836. 
Among his later works may be noted ' The 
Infant Bacchus brought by Mercury to the 
Nymphs of Nysa/ exhibited in 1836 ; ' The 
Rising of the Pleiades/ 1839 ; ' The Rape of 
Proserpine/ 1840 ; and ' A Mermaid sitting 
on a Dolphin's back/ 1841 ; the first and last 
being replicas on a larger scale of earlier works. 
Ho ward took part unsuccessfully in theWest- 
minster Hall competition of 1842, He con- 
tinued to exhibit, but with rapidly failing 
powers, until 1847, when, much to the regret 
of his friends, he sent to Westminster Hall a 
second cartoon, ' Satyrs finding a Sleeping 
Cyclops.' Howard died at Oxford on 5 Oct. 

As an artist Howard was never popular. 
His early works were his best, and many of 
them were engraved for the ' Literary Souve- 
nir/ ' Keepsake/ ' Gem/ and other annuals. 
His art is seen to highest advantage in the 
Soane Museum, Lincoln's Inn Fields, and 
in Lord Leconfield's collection at Petworth 
House, Sussex. The Vernon Collection at 
the National Gallery includes ' The Flower 
Girl/ a replica of the portrait of the painter's 
daughter exhibited in 1824; it has been en- 
graved by F. R. Wagner, and is now on loan 
to the Corporation of Stockport. The South 
Kensington Museum contains his ' Sabrina/ 1 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1821 ; I 
and 'Pygmalion.' The National Portrait! 
Gallery possesses portraits by him of James 
Watt, William Hayley, John Flaxman, R. A., j 
Mrs. Flaxman, and Mrs. Trimmer. 

[Memoir by his son, Frank Howard, prefixed 
to his 'Course of Lectures on Painting/ 1848; 
Times, 9 Oct. 1847 ; Athenaeum, 1847, pp. 1059, 
1176, partly reprinted in Gent. Mag. 1847, ii. 
646-8 ; Art Journal, 1847, p. 378 ; Bryan's 
Diet, of Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves, 
1886-9, i. 684; Sandby's Hist, of the Royal 
Academy of Arts, 1862, i. 329-31 ; Kedgrave's ; 




Century of Painters, 1866, ii. 164-7 ; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists of the English School, 1878; 
Royal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 1794- 
1847 ; British Institution Exhibition Catalogues 
(Living Artists), 1806-43.] R. E. G. 

teenth DUKE OP NOKFOLK (1791-1856), only 
son of Bernard Edward, twelfth duke [q.v.], by 
his wife Elizabeth Bellasyse, third daughter 
of Henry, the second and last earl of Faucon- 
berg, was born on 12 Aug. 1791 in George 
Street, Hanover Square. Three years after 
his birth his parents were divorced, in May 
1794, by act of parliament, his mother then 
marrying Richard, second earl of Lucan. On 
27 Dec. 1814 he married Lady Charlotte 
Leveson-Gower, the eldest daughter of George 
Granvi lie, first duke of Sutherland, K.G. His 
father having succeeded to the title and estates 
of the dukedom of Norfolk on the death, on 
16 Dec. 1815, of his cousin Charles, the 
eleventh duke, he, as heir, became known as 
the Earl of Arundel and Surrey. The Act 
of Catholic Emancipation having been passed 
in April 1829, the earl was the first Roman 
catholic since the Reformation to take the 
oaths and his seat in the House of Commons. 
He sat as M.P. for Horsham from 1829 to 
1832, Hurst, the sitting member, having re- 
signed in 1829 to afford him the opportunity. 
He was elected in 1832, in 1835, and in 1837 
as member for the western division of Sussex. 
In politics he was a staunch whig. From 
July 1837 to June 1841 he was treasurer of 
the queen's household in Lord Melbourne's 
ministry, being admitted to the privy council 
on his appointment; and from July to Sep- 
tember 1841 was captain of the yeomen of 
the guard, resigning that office with Lord 
Melbourne's ministry. In August 1841 he 
was summoned to the House of Peers as 
Baron Maltravers. Upon his father's death, on 
16 March 1842, he succeeded to the dukedom, 
and was master of the horse from July 1846 
until February 1852, during the administra- 
tion of Lord John Russell. On 4 May 1848 
he was created a knight of the Garter; and, 
under the Earl of Aberdeen's ministry, was 
lord steward of the household (4 Jan. 1853 to 
10 Jan. 1854). He supported Lord John 
Russell's Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, and was 
little more than a catholic in name, but when 
on his deathbed was reconciled to the Roman 
catholic religion. He died at Arundel Castle 
on 18 Feb. 1856, and was buried in the family 
vault in the parish church on 26 Feb. Canon 
Tierney attended him on his deathbed. The 
duke was at one time president of the Royal 
Botanic Society. Sir George Hayter painted 
his portrait. 

Norfolk had three sons, Henry Granville 

Fitzalan Howard [q.v.], his heir and successor, 
Edward George Fitzalan Howard [q.v.j, after- 
wards Baron Howard of Glossop, and Lord 
Bernard Thomas Howard, born 30 Dec. 1825, 
who died during his travels in the East at 
Cairo 21 Dec. 1846 ; and two daughters, Lady 
Mary Charlotte, married in 1849 to Thomas 
Henry, fourth lord Foley, and Lady Adeliza 
Matilda, married in October 1855 to Lord 
! George John Manners, third son of the fifth 
Duke of Rutland. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, ii. 603 ; Times, 
19 Feb. 1856; Gent. Mag. April 1856, p. 419; 
Annual Register for 1856, p. 242.] 0. K. 

D.D. (1795-1868), divine, youngest child 
of Frederick Howard, fifth earl of Carlisle 
[q. v.], and brother of George Howard, sixth 
earl of Carlisle [q. v.], was born at Castle 
Howard, Yorkshire, on 14 Dec. 1795, and 
entered at Eton College in 1805. He matricu- 
lated from Christ Church, Oxford, on 23 May 
1814, graduated B.A. 1818, M.A. 1822, B.D. 
1834, and D.D. 1838. In 1820 he was or- 
dained deacon and priest, and in 1822 ap- 
pointed succentor of York Cathedral, with 
the prebendal stall of Holme attached. He 
became dean of Lichfield and rector of Ta- 
tenhill, Staffordshire (a preferment worth 
1,524/. a year with a residence), on 27 Nov. 
1833, and in the following year he also ob- 
tained the rectory of Donington, Shropshire, 
worth 1,000/. per annum. From 1822 to 1833 
he held the livings of Slingsby and Sutton- 
on-the-Forest, Yorkshire. He was a finished 
scholar and an eloquent preacher. He took 
a prominent part in, and contributed largely 
to, the restoration of Lichfield Cathedral. 
The establishment of the Lichfield Diocesan 
Training School, afterwards united to that 
at Saltley, as well as of the Theological Col- 
lege, owed much to his efforts. He died, after 
many years of physical infirmity, at Doning- 
ton rectory on 8 Oct. 1868. He married, 
13 July 1824, Henrietta Elizabeth, sixth 
daughter of Ichabod Wright of Mapperley 
Hall, Nottinghamshire, by whom he had five 
sons and five daughters. 

Howard was the author of : 1. Transla- 
tions from Claudian, 1823. 2. 'Scripture 
History in Familiar Lectures. The Old 
Testament,' 1840, being vol. ii. of the ' English- 
man's Library.' 3. ' Scripture History. The 
New Testament,' 1840, being vol. xiv. of the 
< Englishman's Library.' 4. ' The Rape of 
Proserpine. The Phoenix and the Nile/ by 
C. Claudianus, translated 1854. 5. ' The 
Books of Genesis according to the Version 
of the LXX,' translated, with notes, 1855. 
6. < The Books of Exodus and Leviticus ac- 
cording to the Versions of the LXX,' trans- 



lated with notes, 1857. 7. ' The Books of | 
Numbers and Deuteronomy according to the I 
LXX,' translated, with notes, 1857. 

[Guardian, 14 Oct. 1868, p. 1148; Burke's | 
Portrait Gallery of Females, 1838, ii. 99-100, 
with portrait of Mrs. Howard ; Illustrated Lon- 
don News, 17 Oct. 1868, p. 386.] G. C. B. 

third EARL OF ARTJNDEL (1608-1652), born | 
on 15 Aug. 1608, was second, but eldest sur- i 
viving, son of Thomas Howard, earl of Arun- I 
del (1586-1646) [q. v.], by Lady Alathea ' 
Talbot, third daughter and coheiress of Gil- 
bert, seventh earl of Shrewsbury. At the \ 
creation of Charles, prince of Wales, on 3 Nov. 
1616, he was made K.B. (METCALFE, Book 
of Knights, p. 168). On 7 March 1626 he 
married Lady Elizabeth Stuart, eldest daugh- 
ter of Esme, third duke of Lennox. The 
match was arranged without the knowledge 
of the king, who had designed the bride, his 
own ward and kinswoman, for Archibald, 
lord Lome. The newly wedded couple were 
in consequence confined at Lambeth under 
the supervision of Archbishop Abbot. As 
Lord Maltravers, Howard was elected M.P. 
for Arundel, Sussex, in 1628. From 20 May 
1633 until 31 Aug. 1639 he was joint lord- 
lieutenant of Northumberland and West- 
moreland. On 17 Dec. 1633 he was appointed 
a commissioner to exercise ecclesiastical j uris- 
diction in England and Wales. On 10 Aug. 
1634, having been previously elected M.P. 
for Callan in the Irish parliament, he became 
a privy councillor of Ireland. He was ap- 
pointed a commissioner to try offenders on 
the borders on 30 Nov. 1635, joint lord-lieu- 
tenant of Surrey and Sussex on 2 June 1636, 
vice-admiral of Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, and 
Isle of Ely on 3 Dec. in the same year, lieu- 
tenant to the earl-marshal of England on 
10 Oct. 1638, joint lord-lieutenant of Cumber- 
land on 31 Aug. 1639, and was again re- 
turned M.P. for Arundel in 1640. On 
21 March 1640 he was called up to the House 
of Lords as Baron Mowbray and Maltravers. 
He voted against the bill for the attainder 
of Strafford, and maintained generally a strict 
adherence to the king (WALKER, Historical 
Discourses, p. 219). In July 1641, at a | 
parliamentary committee, a violent alterca- 
tion arose between Howard and Philip Her- 
bert, fourth earl of Pembroke [q. v.], ending j 
in blows, when both were committed to the ! 
Tower (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1641-3, pp. i 
59, 62,63). In 1642 Howard joined the king ! 
at York, and on 10 April of that year was 
made constable of Bristol Castle and keeper of 
Kingswood and Fillwood Forests. He was I 
one of the peers who on the ensuing 13 June ! 
signed a declaration of loyalty which was ] 

printed and circulated throughout the king- 
dom (CLARENDON, History, 1849, ii. 564-6). 
Howard was created M.A. of Oxford on 1 Nov. 
1642, and was chosen joint commissioner for 
the defence of the county, city, and university 
on 24 April 1643, being appointed governor 
of Arundel Castle on 21 Dec. following. The 
illness of his father summoned him to Padua 
in 1645. He stayed with him until his 
death on 4 Oct. 1646, when he succeeded as 
third Earl of Arundel and earl-marshal of 
England. Returning home he found his es- 
tate in possession of the parliament, so that 
he subsisted with difficulty, until the com- 
mons, by a vote passed on 24 Nov. 1648, per- 
mitted him to compound for it for 6,000. 
Arundel House in the Strand was used by 
the council of state as a garrison, though 
compensation was made to Howard (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1650, p. 405). 

Howard died on 17 April 1652. By his 
wife he had nine sons and three daughters. 
His eldest son Thomas (1627-1677) was re- 
stored to the dukedom of Norfolk,' 29 Dec. 
1660. The second and third sons, Henry 
Howard (1628-1684), sixth duke of Norfolk, 
and Philip Thomas, cardinal, are separately 
noticed. Howard's portrait has been engraved 
by Lombart after the picture by Vandyck ; 
there is also an engraving of him when Lord 
Mowbray, by Hollar, which was copied by 
Richardson ; and another, with his autograph, 
by Thane. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 87-8 ; Collins's 
Peerage, 1812, i. 128-9 ; Clarendon's History, 
1849, i. 263 ; Evans's Cat. of Engraved Por- 
traits, ii. 15.] G. G. 

(1815-1860), the eldest of the three sons of 
Henry Charles, thirteenth duke [q. v.], by 
his wife Charlotte, eldest daughter of George 
Granville, first duke of Sutherland, was born 
on 7 Nov. 1815 in Great Stanhope Street, 
Mayfair. Like his two younger brothers, 
Edward George Fitzalan, afterwards Lord 
Howard of Glossop [q. v.], and Bernard 
Thomas, who died during his travels in the 
East at Cairo in 1846, he was educated at 
first privately, and was afterwards sent to 
Trinity College, Cambridge. On leaving the 
university, he entered the army as a cornet 
in the royal horse guards, but retired on 
attaining the rank of captain. At the gene- 
ral election of 1837 he was elected under 
his courtesy title of Lord Fitzalan M.P. for 
the borough of Arundel, a constituency which 
he represented for fourteen years altogether. 
While travelling in Greece during the autumn 
of the next year, he was prostrated by a serious 
illness at Athens, and was entertained at the 




British embassy there. On 19 June 1839 he 
married Augusta Marie Minna Catherine, 
younger daughter of Admiral Sir Edmund 
(afterwards Lord) Lyons, the ambassador at 
Athens. Soon after his marriage Fitzalan 
made at Paris the acquaintance of the Count 
de Montalembert, who became his intimate 
friend and biographer. At Paris Fitzalan re- 
gularly attended the services at Notre Dame, 
and formally joined the Roman catholic com- 
munion, becoming, according to Montalem- 
bert, ' the most pious layman of our times.' 
Thenceforward Fitzalan only took part in 
public life when some opportunity presented 
itself for furthering the interests of his co- 
religionists. On the death of his grandfather, 
Bernard Edward, twelfth duke of Norfolk 
[q. v.], in March 1842, Fitzalan assumed the 
title of Earl of Arundel and Surrey. As- 
sociated with the whigs from his entrance 
into the House of Commons, he found him- 
.self at last constrained to break away from 
them when they introduced the Ecclesiastical 
Titles Bill in 1850. His father, to whom he 
owed his seat, resolutely supported the bill, 
but he as resolutely opposed it at every stage. 
When it became law he resigned his seat as 
representative of the family borough, and 
was at once returned as member for the city 
of Limerick, its representative, John O'Con- 
nell, one of the sons of the Liberator, retiring 
in his favour. On the dissolution of parlia- 
ment in July 1852 he finally retired from 
the House of Commons. He took his seat 
in the House of Lords as Duke of Norfolk 
on the death of his father in February 1856. 
Disapproval of Lord Palmerston's policy led 
Tiim to decline the order of the Garter when 
offered to him by that minister. He died 
-at Arundel Castle on 25 Nov. 1860, aged 
45. A pastoral letter, containing a panegyric 
by Cardinal Wiseman, was read in all the 
catholic churches in the diocese of West- 
minster on Sunday, 2 Dec. He administered 
his vast patrimony with rare liberality. The 
cardinal said of his charity : ' There is not a 
form of want or a peculiar application of 
alms which has not received his relief or 
co-operation.' By his wife, who survived 
him till 22 March 1886, he had three sons 
and eight daughters. His eldest son, Henry, 
succeeded as fifteenth duke, and his eldest 
daughter married J. R. Hope-Scott [q. v.] 

The duke published: 1. 'A Few Remarks 
on the Social and Political Condition of Bri- 
tish Catholics,' London, 1847, 8vo. 2. l Letter 
to J. P. Plumptre, M.P., on the Bull "In 
Coena Domini," ' London, 1848, 8vo. 3. ' Ob- 
servations on Diplomatic Relations with 
Rome,' London, 1848, 8vo, pp. 10. He also 
edited from the original manuscripts the 

' Lives of Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, 
and of Anne Dacres, his wife/ London, 1857, 
8vo ; 2nd edit., 1861. 

[Personal recollections ; Montalembert's mono- 
graph on Le Due de Norfolk in Le Correspond- 
ant, pp. 766-76, 25 Dec. 1860; Cardinal Wise- 
man's Pastoral, reprinted in the Times, 4 Dec. 
1860; memoir in the Morning Star, 27 Nov. 
1860 ; account of funeral in Times of same date- 
Tablet, 1 Dec. 1860, p. 760; Ann. Reg. 1860* 
p. 476 ; Gent. Mag. January 1861, p. 98.1 


HOWARD, HUGH (1675-1737), por- 
trait-painter and collector of works of art, 
born in Dublin 7 Feb. 1675, was eldest son 
of Dr. Ralph Howard [q. v.] of Shelton, co. 
Wicklow. He came with his father to Eng- 
land in 1688, and showing a taste for painting 
joined in 1697 the suite of Thomas Herbert, 
j eighth earl of Pembroke [q. v.], one of the 
plenipotentiaries for the treaty of Ryswyck, 
on a journey through Holland to Italy. He 
remained in Italy about three years, returning 
to England in October 1700. After spending 
some years in Dublin, Howard settled in Lon- 
don, where he practised for some time as a 
portrait-painter. He obtained, however, the 
sinecure post of keeper of the state papers, 
and was subsequently appointed paymaster 
of the works belonging to the crown. He 
was thus enabled to relinquish painting as a 
profession. Howard was a profound student, 
with a good knowledge and powers of dis- 
cernment in the critical study of art. The 
emoluments of his various posts, added to a 
good private income and economical habits, 
enabled him to collect prints, drawings, 
medals, &c., on a large scale. Howard executed 
a few etchings, including one of Padre Resta, 
the collector ; twenty-one drawings by him, 
including a portrait of Cardinal Albani, and 
some caricatures, are in the print room in the 
British Museum. Matthew Prior wrote a 
poem in his honour. Howard died in Pall 
Mall 17 March 1737, and was buried in the 
church at Richmond, Surrey. He made a 
fortunate marriage in 1714 with Thomasine, 
daughter and heiress of General Thomas 

Howard inherited in 1728 part of Lord- 
chancellor West's library from his younger 
brother, William Howard, M.P. for Dublin. 
He left his collections to his only surviving 
brother, Robert Howard, bishop of Elphin 
[see under HOWAKD, RALPH], who removed 
them to Ireland. They remained in the pos- 
session of the latter's descendants, the Earls 
of Wicklow, until December 1873, when the 
fine collection of prints and drawings, many 
of which were from the collections of Sir 
Peter Lely and the Earl of Arundel, were 



dispersed by auction. Many fine specimens 
found their way into the print room at the 
British Museum. 

A portrait of Howard was painted by 
Michael Dahl in 1723, and engraved in mezzo- 
tint by John Faber, jun., in 1737. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Lodge's Peerage 
of Ireland, ed. Archdall ; Vertue's MSS. (Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 23076) ; Walpole's Anecdotes 
of Painting, ed. Wornum ; Sale Cat. of the Hugh 
Howard Collection, 1873; Bromley's Cat. of 
Engraved Portraits, p. 292.] L. C. 

HOWARD, JAMES (Jl. 1674), drama- 
tist, was ninth son of Thomas Howard, first 
earl of Berkshire, and was brother of Sir 
Robert (1618 P-1698) [q. v.], of Edward 
Howard [q. v.], and of Lady Elizabeth, who 
married Dryden ( COLLINS, Peerage of Eng- 
land, ed. Brydges, 1812). He was the author 
of two comedies. ' All Mistaken, or the Mad 
Couple, a Comedy,' published in 4to in 1672, 
was first acted at the Theatre Royal on 
20 Sept. and again on 28 Dec. 1667. Accord- 
ing to Pepys the part of the heroine Mirida 
was taken by Nell Gwyn, and that of Phili- 
dor by Hart (G.ENE8T, i. 72, iv. 116). Lang- 
baine says l this play is commended by some 
for an excellent comedy.' Genest says the 
humour is ' of the lowest species.' Howard's 
second comedy, ' The English Mounsieur,' 
published in 4to in 1674, was first acted at 
the Theatre Royal 8 Dec. 1666. Nell Gwyn 
seems to have taken the part of Lady Wealthy, 
Lacy that of Frenchlove, and Hart of Well- 
bred. Pepys was present, and described the 
piece as ' a mighty pretty play, very witty 
and pleasant : and the women do all very 
well ; but above all, little Nelly.' Pepys saw 
the comedy again performed on 7 April 1668 
(PEPYS. Diary, iii. 25, 420). Frenchlove, 
the main character, having recently returned 
from France, he affects all the habits of 
that country, and is amusingly drawn (cf. 
GENEST, i. 66, x. 253-4). Langbaine adds : 
' Whether the late Duke of Buckingham, in 
his character of Prince Volscius falling in 
love with Parthenope as he is pulling on his 
boots to go out of town, designed to reflect 
on the [i.e. Howard's] characters of Comely 
and Elsbeth, I pretend not to determine ; but 
I know there is a near resemblance in the 
characters.' Howard is also said to have 
converted Shakespeare's 'Romeo and Juliet' 
into a tragi-comedy, 'preserving both Romeo 
and Juliet alive.' According to Downes's 
' Roscius Anglicanus,' p. 22, Howard's adap- 
tation was acted at the theatre in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields by Sir William D'Avenant's com- 
pany on alternate nights with the authentic 
version (GENEST, History of Stage, i. 42). 
Howard's adaptation was not printed. 


; Paget's Ashtead and its 
p. 39 ; Bioeraphia Drama- 
W. K. M. 

SUFFOLK (1619-1688), born on 23 Dec. 1619, 
was the eldest son of Theophilus, second earl 
of Suffolk (1584-1640) [q. v.], by Lady Eliza- 
beth, daughter and coheiress of George Home, 
earl of Dunbar [q. v.] His godfathers were 
James I and the Duke of Buckingham ( Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1619-23, p. 170). At the 
coronation of Charles I on 2 Feb. 1626 he was 
created K.B. (METCALFE, Book of Knights, p. 
186), and in February 1639, as Lord Walden, 
became leader of a troop of volunteer horse for 
the king's army. On 3 June 1640 he succeeded 
his father as third earl of Suffolk, and on the 
16th of the same month was sworn joint lord- 
lieutenant of Suffolk. The parliament nomi- 
nated him lord-lieutenant of that county on 
28 Feb. 1642 (Commons' Journals, ii. 459). 
On 28 Dec. 1643 he received a summons to 
attend the king's parliament at Oxford ( Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1641-3, p. 508), and on 
7 July 1646 was appointed joint commissioner 
from the parliament to the king at Newcastle 
(Commons' Journals, iv. 606). Acting on a 
report from the committee of safety, in Sep- 
tember 1 647, the commons decided but went 
no further to impeach Howard, together 
with six other peers, of high treason (ib. v. 
296, 584). On 8 Sept. 1653 Howard was 
sworn as high steward of Ipswich. After 
the Restoration he became lord-lieutenant 
of Suffolk, and of Cambridgeshire on 25 July 
1660. From 18 to 24 April 1661 he acted as 
earl-marshal of England for the coronation 
of Charles II (WALKER, Coronation, p. 46). 
In the same year he became colonel of the 
Suffolk regiment of horse militia. On 28 Sept. 
1663 he was created M.A. of Oxford (WOOD, 
Fasti Oxon., ed. Bliss, iv. 272), and M.A. of 
Cambridge on 6 Sept. 1664. He was also 
appointed governor of Landguard Fort, Es- 
sex, gentleman of the bedchamber to the king 
on 4 March 1665, keeper of the king's house 
at Audley End, Essex, in March 1667, joint 
commissioner for the office of earl-marshal of 
England on 15 June 1673, colonel comman- 
dant of three regiments of Cambridgeshire 
militia in 1678, and was hereditary visitor 
of Magdalene College, Cambridge. In March 
1681 he was discharged from the lord-lieu- 
tenancy of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, and 
from attendance in the king's bedchamber 
(LTJTTRELL, i. 69). He died in December 
1688, and was buried on 16 Jan. 1689 at 
Saffron Walden, Essex (ib. i. 496). On 1 Dec. 
1640 he married Lady Susan Rich, daughter 
of Henry, first earl of Holland, and by her. 



who died on 15 May 1649, had a daughter 
Essex. Howard married secondly, about 
February 1650, Barbara, daughter of Sir Ed- 
ward Villiers, knt., and widow of the Hon. 
Charles Wenman, who died on 13 Dec. 1681 
(ib.'i. 150, 153), leaving a daughter, Elizabeth. 
She was groom of the stole to the queen (ib. 
i. 159). Before 8 May 1682 Howard married 
as his third wife Lady Anne Montagu, eldest 
daughter of Robert, third earl of Manchester, 
but by this lady, who was buried at Saffron 
Walden on 27 Oct. 1720, had no issue. 
Howard was succeeded in the title by his 
brother George (d. 1691). 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, iii. 450-2; Cal. 
Clarendon State Papers, i. 388, 390.] G. G. 

HOWARD, JAMES (1821-1889), agri- 
culturist, born on 16 Oct. 1821, was second 
son of John Howard, agricultural implement 
maker, of Bedford, and was educated at the 
commercial school there. As a boy he gained 
much practical knowledge of agriculture from 
visiting his grandfather at Priory Farm, near 
Bedford. A taste for mechanics led him to 
consider the improvement of the ploughs 
made by his father. In 1841, with a plough 
of his own design the first iron-wheel plough 
of the present type ever exhibited he won 
the first prize at the Royal Agricultural 
Society's meeting at Liverpool. In 1842 he 
was equally successful at the Bristol meeting. 
His business rapidly expanded, and at every 
meeting for many years afterwards he brought 
out ploughs with successive improvements. 
In 1856 Howard joined Mr. Smith ofWool- 
ston in bringing Smith's steam-cultivator 
before the public. Thenceforward Howard 
threw his whole energies into steam cultiva- 
tion, and took a hilly, strong-land farm in 
the neighbourhood for the purpose of experi- 

In 1856 Howard and his brother Frede- 
rick began to build on the Kempston Road, 
Bedford, the present Britannia Ironworks, 
the shops and principal details being all care- 
fully planned by Howard himself. In his 
time he brought out some sixty or seventy 
patents for various improvements in agricul- 
tural machinery. In 1862 the brothers pur- 
chased of the Earl of Ashburnham the Clap- 
ham Park estate, near Bedford, and farmed 
it in a scientific manner. Howard was spe- 
cially successful in the breeding of large white 
Yorkshire pigs, shire horses, and shorthorns. 

Howard was the first man in Bedfordshire 
to enrol himself as a volunteer. He formed 
a company of his own workmen, of which he 
was long captain. He was elected mayor of 
Bedford in 1863 and in 1864. He carried 
put many local improvements, and to him 
is due the institution of the Bedfordshire 

middle-class schools. He was also chairman 
of the Bedford and Northampton Railway. 
His communications with practical farmers 
led to the Farmers' Alliance, of which he was 
long the active president. In 1866 he visited 
America, and afterwards read a paper upon 
the agriculture of that country to the Royal 
Agricultural Society. 

From 1868 to 1874 Howard represented 
Bedford in parliament as a liberal, and Bed- 
fordshire from 1880 to 1885. In the House 
of Commons he quickly became known as 
the leading champion of tenant right and an 
authority on all agricultural questions. He 
was on the select committee for the Endowed 
Schools Bill. In 1873, in association with 
Mr. Clare Sewell Read, he brought forward 
his Landlord and Tenant Bill, but the measure 
was dropped in consequence of his illness, at 
the time for the second reading. He endea- 

I voured, without much success, to amend the 

I Agricultural Holdings Bills of 1875 and of 
1883. A tour in 1869 suggested a paper 
read before the London Farmers' Club on 

| ' Continental Farms and Peasantry,' in which 
he was one of the first to direct public atten- 

| tion to the beetroot sugar manufacture. 
Towards the close of the Franco-German 

i war Howard originated a fund for the re- 

j lief of French peasant-farmers whose fields 
had been devastated ; 50,000/. was raised and 
expended principally in seed. The French 
government passed a vote of thanks to him. 
In 1878 Howard acted as high sheriff of 
Bedfordshire, and was made a chevalier of 
the Legion of Honour in recognition of his 
services as one of the English commissioners 
of the Paris Exhibition. 

Howard died suddenly in the Midland 
Hotel, St. Pancras, London, on 25 Jan. 1889, 
and was buried on the 30th in Clapham 
churchyard, Bedford. By his marriage on 
9 Sept. 1846 with Mahala Wenden (<U888), 
daughter of P. Thompson of St. Osyth and 
Brook House, Great Bentley, Essex, he had 
ten children. 

Howard was mainly instrumental in the 
erection in 1861-2 of the Agricultural Hall, 
London, and was long a director. He was at 
one time president of the Agricultural Engi- 
neers' Association, an active member of the 
councils of the Royal Agricultural Society 
and the London Farmers' Club, besides being 
a corresponding member of several foreign 
agricultural societies. 

To the monthly reviews, the agricultural 

journals, and the daily newspapers Howard 
contributed many articles upon agricultural 
questions. The more important of his writ- 
ings are: 1. 'Agricultural Machinery and 
the Royal Agricultural Society,' 1857. 2. l La- 



bour and Wages and the Effect of Machinery 
upon them,' 1859. 3. ' Steam Culture, its 
History and proper application,' 1862. 4. ' A 
Trip to America, two Lectures,' revised edi- 
tion, privately printed, 8vo, Bedford, 1867. 
5. ' A Visit to Egypt,' 1867. 6. 'A Scheme 
of National Education for Rural Districts,' 
1868. 7. ' Continental Farming and Pea- 
santry,' 8vo, London, 1870. 8. 'Science and 
Revelation not antagonistic,' 1872. 9. ' Our 
Villages, their Sanitary Condition,' 1874. 
10. ' Our Meat Supply/ 1876. 11. ' Depres- 
sion in Agriculture,' 1879. 12. 'Agricultural 
Implement Manufacture, its Rise and Pro- 
gress,' 1879. 13. 'Laying down Land to 
Grass,' 1880. 14. 'The English Land Ques- 
tion, Past and Present,' 1881. 15. ' The Phy- 
siology of Breeding, and the Management 
of Pigs,' 1881. 16. 'Landowning as a Busi- 
ness,' 1882. 17. ' Foot and Mouth Disease,' 
1883. 18. ' The Farmers and the Tory Party,' 
1883. 19. 'Haymaking,' 1886. 20. 'The 
Science of Trade,' 1887. 21. 'Butterine 
Legislation,' 1887. 22. 'Gold and Silver 
Supply, or the Influence of Currency upon 
the Prices of Farm Produce,' 1888. 23. ' An 
Estimate of the Annual Amount realized 
by the Sale of the Farm Products of the 
United Kingdom . . . calculated upon the 
average of the Seasons of 1885, 1886, and 
1887,' 1888. 

[Private information ; Gardener's Chronicle, 
23 Dec. 1871 (with portrait) ; Agricultural 
Gazette, 28 Jan. and 4 Feb. 1889; Bedfordshire 
Times, 2 Feb. 1889 ; Bedford Mercury, 2 Feb. 
1889; Bedfordshire Standard, 2 Feb. 1889; 
Times, 26 Jan. 1889; Daily News, 26 Jan. 
1889.] G. G. 

FOLK of the Howard family (1430 P-1485), son 
and heir of Sir Robert Howard by Margaret, 
daughter of Thomas Mowbray, duke of Nor- 
folk (d. 1399), and cousin and ultimately 
coheiress of John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk 
(d. 1475), is supposed to have been born 
about 1430. His first recorded service is 
dated 1452, when he followed Lord L'Isle to 
Guienne, and was present at the battle of 
Chastillon on 17 July 1453. He entered the 
service of his kinsman John Mowbray, duke 
of Norfolk (d. 1461), and on 8 July 1455 
the duchess wrote to John Paston [q. v.] de- 
siring him that, as it was ' right necessarie 
that my lord have at this tyme in the par- 
liament suche persons as longe unto him and 
be of his menyall servaunts,' he would for- 
ward the election of Howard as knight of 
the shire for Norfolk. The Duke of York 
also wrote on his behalf. Some at least of 
the Norfolk gentry were indignant at having 
( a straunge man ' forced or them, and the 

duke was reported to have promised that 
there should be a free election, which made 
Howard ' as wode as a bullock,' but in the 
end he was elected (Paston Letters, i. 337, 
340, 341 ; Return of Members, i. 351). It 
is evident that he was of service to the 
Yorkist cause, for on the accession of Ed- 
ward IV in 1461 he was knighted (DOYLE), 
was appointed constable of Colchester Castle, 
sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, and one of the 
king's carvers, and was known to have 'great 
fellowship ' with the king. He took an ac- 
tive part in the Duke of Norfolk's quarrel 
with John Paston ; he had a violent brawl 
with Paston in the shire-house at Norwich 
in August, and used his influence with the 
king against him, while Howard's wife de- 
clared that if any of her husband's men 
met with Paston he should ' go no penny 
for his life ' (Paston Letters, ii. 42, 53, 54). 
As sheriff Howard had given offence at 
the election of Paston and Berney, and in 
consequence of the many complaints pre- 
ferred against him was, in November, it is 
said, committed to prison (ib. p. 62). His fa- 
vour with the king was not diminished, for in 
1462 he was appointed constable of Norwich 
Castle, and received grants of several manors 
forfeited by the Earl of Wiltshire and others. 
He was joined in a commission with Lords 
Fauconberg and Clinton to keep the seas ; 
and they made a descent on Brittany, and 
took Croquet and the Isle of Rh6. Towards 
the end of the year he served under Norfolk 
against the Lancastrians in the north, and 
was sent by the duke from Newcastle to help 
the Earl of Warwick at Warkworth, and in 
the spring of 1464 was with Norfolk in Wales 
when the duke was securing the country for 
the king. 

Howard returned home on 8 June (1464), 
and bought the reversion of the constableship 
of Bamborough Castle, worth ten marks a 
year, for 20/. and a bay courser (Accounts). 
During the last weeks of the year he was 
with the king at Reading, and presented him 
with a courser worth 40/. and the queen 
with another worth 8/. as New-year's gifts. 
On 3 Nov. 1465 he lost his wife Catharine, 
daughter of William, lord Moleyns, who died 
at his house at Stoke Nayland, Suffolk (Pas- 
ton Letters, iii. 486 ; in 1452 according to 
DUGDALE, NICOLAS, and DOYLE). In 1466 he 
was appointed vice-admiral for Norfolk and 
Suffolk, was building a ship called the Mary 
Grace, and being charged with the convey- 
ance of envoys to France and the Duke of 
Burgundy remained at Calais from 15 May 
to 17 Sept. In the following January he 
married his second wife, Margaret, daughter 
of Sir John Chedworth, and in April was 




elected knight of the shire for Suffolk, spend- 
ing 40/. 17s. 86?. in feasting the electors at 
Ipswich (Accounts ; Return of Members, i. 
558). Although a member of the commons 
lie is styled Lord Howard (dominus de Ha- 
ward) in a commission issued in November 
appointing him an envoy to France (Foedera, 
xi. 591). He was in this year made trea- 
surer of the household, and held that office 
until 1474. He was employed in June 1468 
(in 1467 NICOLAS) in attending the king's 
sister Elizabeth to Flanders on her marriage 
with Charles, duke of Burgundy (BRAMANTE, 
xi. 125). 

When Henry VI was restored he created 
Howard a baron by a writ of summons dated 
15 Oct. 1470, and styling him Baron de 
Howard. Nevertheless, he appears to have 
remained faithful to the Yorkist cause, for 
not only was he commanding a fleet sent to 
oppose the Lancastrians, but on Edward's 
landing in March 1471 proclaimed him king 
in Suffolk. A list of his retainers is extant 
for that year (Accounts), and it may there- 
fore be concluded that he was present at the 
battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury. In June 
he was appointed deputy-governor of Calais, 
and after having sworn to maintain the suc- 
cession of the Prince of Wales, crossed over 
thither on 3 June, and was engaged in nego- 
tiations with France, and in the May follow- 
ing with the Duke of Burgundy. When Ed- 
ward invaded France in July 1475 he was 
accompanied by Howard, who appears to 
have been one of the king's most trusted coun- 
cillors during the expedition ; he was one of 
the commissioners who made the truce at 
Amiens, received a pension from Louis XI, 
and met Philip de Commines to arrange the 
conference between the two kings at Pic- 
quigny (COMMINES, pp. 97, 99, 103, 109). He 
remained in France as a hostage for a short 
time after Edward's departure, and on his I 
return to England received from the king as 
a reward for his fidelity and prudence grants 
of several manors in Suffolk and Cambridge- 
shire forfeited by the Earl of Oxford. On | 
being sent to treat with France in July 1477 
for a prolongation of the truce, he and his j 
fellow envoys negotiated with the envoys of ! 
Louis at Cambray, and in the following ! 
March and in January 1479 he was again 
employed in the same way. In that year 
also he was sent to Scotland in command of 
a fleet [see under EDWARD IV]. In May ! 
1480 he and other envoys were sent to remind j 
Louis of his engagement that his son Charles 
should marry Edward's daughter Elizabeth, | 
but their mission was fruitless. At the fune- j 
ral of Edward in April 1483, Howard, who I 
is styled the king's bannerer, bore the late ' 

king's banner (Archcsologia, i. 351). He at- 
tached himself to Richard of Gloucester, and 
I became privy to all his plans and doings. 
He was appointed high steward of the duchy 
| of Lancaster on 13 May, and a privy coun- 
; cillor, and on 28 June was created Duke of 
Norfolk and earl marshal with remainder to 
the heirs male of his body, the patent thus 
reviving the dignities held by the Mowbrays 
and Thomas of Brotherton, son of Edward I, 
from whom he was descended on the mother's 
side through females. He was concerned in 
persuading the widowed queen to deliver up 
| her younger son the Duke of York, that he 
1 might be lodged with his brother in the 
| Tower. At the coronation of Richard III on 
6 July he acted as high steward, bore the 
i crown, and as marshal rode into Westminster 
' Hall after the ceremony, and ' voyded the 
! hall' (HALL, p. 376) ; a few days later he 
! was appointed admiral of England, Ireland, 
j and Aquitaine. On 10 Oct. he heard that 
the Kentish men had risen and were threaten- 
j ing to sack London, and ordered Paston to 
come to the defence of the city. He probably 
I accompanied Richard on his visit to the north, 
for he was with him at Nottingham on 12 Sept. 
1484 when he was nominated chief of the 
commissioners to treat with the ambassadors 
of James III of Scotland (Letters and Papers, 
pp. 64-7). A story that he was solicited 
in February 1485 by the Lady Elizabeth to 
promote her marriage with the king is doubt- 
ful (BucK ap. KENNETT, Complete History, p. 
568, comp. GAIRDNER, Richard III, pp. 257, 
258). When in August it was known that 
the Earl of Richmond had landed, Norfolk 
summoned his retainers to meet him at Bury 
St. Edmunds to fight for the king. The 
night before hefoarched to join Richard, seve- 
ral of his friends tried to persuade him to re- 
main inactive, and one wrote on his gate 
Jack of Norffolke be not to bolde, 
For Dykon thy maister is bought and solde ; 
but for the sake of his oath and his honour 
he would not desert the king (HALL, p. 419). 
At Bosworth he commanded the vanguard, 
which was largely composed of archers, and 
he was slain in the battle on 22 Aug. He 
was buried in the conventual church of Thet- 
ford. He was attainted by act of the first 
parliament of Henry VII. 

Norfolk was a wise and experienced poli- 
tician, and an expert and valiant soldier, 
careful in the management of his own affairs, 
and a faithful adherent of the house of York ; 
but his memory is stained by his desertion of 
the interests of the son of his old master and 
by his intimate relations with the usurper. By 
his first wife, Catharine, he had Thomas, earl 
of Surrey and second duke of Norfolk [q. v.], 




and four daughters : Anne, married to Sir 
Edward Gorges of Wraxall, Somerset ; Isabel, 
married to Sir Robert Mortimer of Essex ; 
Jane, married to John Timperley ; and Mar- 
garet, married to Sir John Wyndham of 
Crownthorpe and Felbrigg, Norfolk, ancestor 
of the Wyndhams, earls of Egremont. His 
second wife, who bore him one daughter, 
Catharine, married to John Bourchier, second 
lord Berners [q. v.], survived him, married 
John Norreys, and died in 1494. Norfolk's 
autograph as ' J. Howard ' is subscribed to a 
letter of his in Cotton MS. Vesp. F. xiii. 79, 
and as duke is given in Doyle's ' Official 
Baronage.' A painting of Norfolk at Arundel 
has been engraved by Audinet, and the en- 
graving is given in Cartwright's 'Rape of 
Bramber,' and a portrait in coloured glass 
in the possession of the Duke of Norfolk is 
also given in colours byCartwright. Nicolas 
speaks of two portraits of Norfolk and his 
first wife Catharine, in the possession of the 
Earl of Carlisle, which have been engraved. 
[An excellent biography by Sir H. N. Nicolas 
in Cartwright's Eape of Bramber, which forms 
vol. ii. pt. ii. of Dallaway's Western Division of 
Sussex, must in places be corrected by the Pas- 
ton Letters, ed. Grairdner, and by the Accounts 
and Memoranda of Norfolk in Manners and 
Household Expenses (Roxburghe Club). See also 
Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 265 sq. ; Doyle's Official 
Baronage, ii. 586 ; Rymer's Fcedera, xi. ed.1710; 
Kolls of Parliament, vol. vi. ; Return of Mem- 
bers,!. 351, 358 ; Stow's Annals (Howes) ; Hall's 
Chron. ed. 1809 ; Polydore Vergil and Three 
Fifteenth-century Chronicles (Camd. Soc.) ; Me- 
nioires de P. de Commines, ed. Buchon ; Letters 
and Papers, Richard III and Henry VIII (Rolls 
Ser.); Archseologia, i. 351 ; Kennett's Complete 
History, p. 568 ; Gairdner's Life and Reign of 
Richard the Third.] W. H. 

V HOWARD, JOHN (1726 P-1790), philan- 
thropist, was born most probably in Hackney 
on 2 Sept. 1726. There is some uncertainty 
both as to the date and the place of his birth, 
but in default of absolute proof to the con- 
trary the inscription on his monument in 
St. Paul's is likely to be correct. His father, 
John Howard, was a partner in an uphol- 
stery and carpet business near Long Lane. 
His mother, whose maiden name was Cholm- 
ley, died soon after his birth. Young Howard, 
who was a sickly child, spent his early days 
at Cardington, some three miles from Bed- 
ford, where his father had a small property. 
He was sent to a school at Hertford, kept 
by one John Worsley, the author of severa" 
school books and a translation of the New 
Testament. There he remained seven years 
and 'left it not fairly taught one thing. 
After being for a short time at Newingtor 
Green, under the tuition of John Eames [q.v.] 

Howard was apprenticed to the firm of Newn- 
ham & Shepley, wholesale grocers, in Watling 
Street. His father died in September 1742, 
leaving his two children fairly well off, and 
Howard, obtaining a release from his inden- 
tures, went for a tour on the continent. 
After his return to England he resided at 
Stoke Newington, where he suffered much 
from nervous fever, and was obliged to adopt 
a rigorous regimen. When about twenty- 
five years of age he married his landlady, 
Sarah Loidore (or Lardeau),an elderly widow 
of fifty-two. He is said to have taken this 
,tep under a conscientious sense of obliga- 
ion to the lady, and as some sort of return 
or the great care with which she had nursed 
lim through his long illness. Their married 
ife was short, for she died on 10 Nov. 1755, 
and was buried in the churchyard of St. 
Mary's, Whitechapel. After his wife's death 
rloward left Stoke Newington and took lodg- - 
ngs in St. Paul's Churchyard. In 1756 he/ 
started for Portugal, but the Hanover, the 
Lisbon packet on which he sailed, was cap- - 
tured by a French privateer. The crew 
nd the passengers were carried prisoners to 
France, where they suffered great privations. 
Returning to England on parole he success- 
fully negotiated an exchange for himself, and 
laving detailed to the commissioners of sick 
and wounded seamen the sufferings of his 
fellow-prisoners, their release was obtained 
from the French government. In May 1756 
Howard was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and about this time took up his 
residence at Cardington, Bedfordshire, which 
remained his principal home during the rest 
of his life. 

On 25 April 1758 he married Henrietta, 
daughter of Edward Leeds of Croxton, Cam- 
bridgeshire, serjeant-at-law. Previously to 
his second marriage Howard, with commend- 
able caution, appears to have made an agree- 
ment with the lady ' that to prevent alterca- 
tions about those little matters which he had 
observed to be the chief grounds of uneasi- 
ness in families, he should always decide' 
(DK. BKOWN, Memoirs, p. 55). Howard now 
busied himself in erecting model cottages on 
his Cardington property, providing elemen- 
tary education for the children of all sects, 
and encouraging the individual industry of 
the villagers. For the benefit of his wife's 
health he subsequently purchased a house 
at Watcombe, near Lymington, where they 
lived for two or three years ; but, finding the 
'place unsuitable, they returned to Carding- 
ton, where his second wife died on 31 March 
1765, having given birth to a son four days 
previously. In the following year, his health 
having again broken down, he visited Bath. 




In 1767 he made a short excursion through 
Holland with his brother-in-law, and in the 
autumn of 1769 again went on the continent, 
visiting France, Switzerland, Holland, Italy, 
and Germany. After his return in the autumn 
of the following year he occupied some time 
in travelling through Wales and the south 
of Ireland, and was afterwards laid up at Car- 
dington with an attack of ague, which lasted 
nine months, and rekindled his zeal in pro- 
moting sanitary improvements in the village. 
On 8 Feb. 1773 Howard was appointed 
high sheriff of Bedfordshire (London Gazettes, 
1773, No. 11325). Though a dissenter he 
accepted the office in spite of the Test Act, 
and though he does not appear to have con- 
formed for the occasion, no legal proceedings 
were taken against him. Howard now com- 
menced his career as a prison reformer. In 
his official capacity the defective arrange- 
ments of the prisons and the intolerable 
distress of the prisoners were brought imme- 
diately under his notice. Shocked at dis- 
covering that persons who had been declared 
not guilty, or against whom the grand jury 
had failed to find a true bill, or even those 
whose prosecutors had failed to appear, were 
confined in gaol until certain fees were paid 
to the gaoler, Howard suggested to the Bed- 
fordshire justices that the gaoler should be 
paid by a' salary in lieu of fees. The justices 
replied by asking for a precedent for charging 
the county with the expense. Howard ac- 
cordingly rode into the neighbouring oo unties 
in order to find one, but failed to discover a 
single case in which a gaoler was paid by a 
fixed salary. The many abuses which he 
unearthed determined him to continue his 
investigations, and he left few of the county 
gaols un visited. He then resolved to inspect 
the bridewells, and for that purpose travelled 
again over the country, examining the houses 
of correction, the city and town gaols, and 
paying particular attention to the ravages 
made among the prisoners by gaol fever 
and small-pox (Introduction to The State of 
the Prisons in England and Wales). On 
4 March 1774 he gave evidence before the 
House of Commons in committee, and was 
afterwards called to the bar to receive the 
thanks of the house for ' the humanity and 
zeal which have led him to visit the several 
gaols of this kingdom, and to communicate 
to the house the interesting observations he 
has made on that subject ' (Journals of the 
House of Commons, xxxiv. 535). Subse- 
quently, in the same session, two bills were 
passed, one for the abolition of gaolers' fees 
(14 Geo. Ill, c. 20), and the other for im- 
proving the sanitary state of prisons and the 
better preservation of the health of the pri- 

soners (14 Geo. Ill, c. 59). Though copies 
of these acts were printed at Howard's ex- 
pense, and sent by him to the keeper of 
every county gaol in England, their 
sions were for the most part evade^ 
:he general election in the following Oc- 
:ober Howard unsuccessfully contested the 
Dorough of Bedford in the opposition interest, 
and though hiscolleague, Samuel Whitbread, 
obtained one of the seats on petition, Howard 
? ailed to establish his claim to the other, and 
his opponent, Sir William Wake, was de- 
3lared duly elected (Journals of the House 
yf Commons, xxxv. 22, 194, 220, 221, 222). 

Meanwhile Howard continued his self- 
imposed task of inspecting prisons, and, after 
tiis return from a visit to Scotland and 
Ireland in the spring of 1775, started for 
France, and visited the principal prisons of 
Paris. He failed, however, to get into the 
Bastille, ' though he knocked hard at the 
outer gate, and immediately went forward 
through the guard to the drawbridge before 
the entrance of the castle' (State of the 
Prisons, &c., 4th edit., p. 176). From France 
he went on a tour of inspection through 
Holland, Flanders, and Germany, and re- 
turned to England in July. In November 
of this year he set out on his second general 
inspection of the English gaols, and in May 
1776 revisited the continent, spending some 
time in Switzerland. Upon his return he 
completed his second inspection of the Eng- 
lish gaols. Having got all his materials 
together for the book which he had originally 
intended to publish in the spring of 1775, 
Howard retired to Warrington in 1777, 
where his ' State of the Prisons in England 
and Wales, with Preliminary Observations, 
and an Account of some Foreign Prisons ' 
was at length published, Warrington, 4to. In 
August of this year his only sister died, leaving 
him her fortune and her house in Great Or- 
mond Street. In 1778 he was examined before 
a select committee of the House of Commons 
appointed to inquire into the working of the 
hulk system established by 16 Geo. Ill, 
c. 43 (Journals of the House of Commons, 
xxxvi. 926, 928-30) . Convinced that vessels 
were less suitable for the confinement of 
prisoners than buildings, it was urged by Sir 
William Blackstone and others that places 
of confinement similar to the Rasp and Spin- 
Houses of Holland should be erected. Howard 
therefore set off again (18 April) for the 
continent to collect further information on 
the subject. At Amsterdam he met with a 
serious accident, but upon his recovery visited 
Prussia, Saxony, Bohemia, Austria, Italy, 
Switzerland, and France, returning to Eng- 
land at the close of the year. In 1779 an 


4 6 


act was passed empowering the erection of 
two penitentiary houses under the superin- 
tendence of three supervisors (19 Geo. Ill, 
c. 74, sec. 5). Howard, Fothergill, and 
Whatley, the treasurer of the Foundling 
Hospital, were appointed to carry out the 
experiment. They were, however, unable 
to agree about the site, and Fothergill dying 
in December 1780, Howard shortly after- 
wards sent in his resignation to Lord Bathurst 
(BROWN, Memoirs, pp. 309-10). At the 
beginning of 1780 Howard published an 
'Appendix to the State of Prisons in Eng- 
land and Wales . . . containing a farther 
Account of Foreign Prisons and Hospitals, 
with additional Remarks on the Prisons of 
this Country,' Warrington, 4to. In the same 
year he brought out a cheaper edition of his 
' State of the Prisons,' Warrington, 8vo, with 
which the new matter in the 'Appendix' 
was incorporated, and also published ' His- 
torical Remarks and Anecdotes on the Castle 
of the Bastille. Translated from the French, 
published in 1774,' London, 8vo, a second ! 
edition of which appeared in 1784, London, j 
8vo. In the ' advertisement ' to the trans- j 
lation Howard states that the sale of the | 
original pamphlet had been strictly prohibited | 
in France, and that he had, 'not without 
some hazard, brought it to England,' but that 
his object would be fully satisfied if the 
translation should ' in any degree tend to j 
increase the attachment and reverence of 
Englishmen to the genuine principles of their 
excellent constitution.' During his conti- ' 
nental tour, which began in May and ended 
in December 1781, Howard visited Denmark, 
Sweden, and Russia. In January 1782 he 
commenced his third general inspection of 
English prisons, and visited both Scotland 
and Ireland. In May of this year he gave 
evidence before a committee of the Irish 
House of Commons appointed to inquire into 
the state of the Irish gaols, and in the same 
year was created by diploma an honorary 
LL.D. of the university of Dublin (Register, 
31 May 1782). In 1783 he inspected the 
penal and charitable institutions of Spain 
and Portugal, and made a fifth journey to 
Ireland. In 1784 he produced a second edi- 
tion of his l Appendix to the State of Pri- 
sons,' &c., Warrington, 4to, embodying the 
results of his further investigations both at 
home and abroad, the whole of which were 
also added to the third edition of his com- 
plete work, which was issued this year, War- 
rington, 4to. He republished at the same 
time a large sheet containing the criminal 
statistics of the Old Bailey sessions from 
1749 to 1771, compiled by Sir S. T. Janssen, 
and originally published in 1772. 

In 1785 Howard determined to inves- 
tigate the condition of the lazarettos, and 
the best means for the prevention of the 
plague. He set out on his expedition in 
November, and though permission to visit 
the lazaretto at Marseilles was refused him 
by the French government, he managed to 
inspect it in spite of the spies and the 
police. In order to obtain access to the 
Toulon arsenal he adopted the disguise of 
j a fashionable Parisian. He afterwards vi- 
I sited Nice, Genoa, Leghorn, Pisa, Florence, 
I Rome, and Naples. From Naples he pro- 
ceeded to Malta, Zante, Smyrna, and Con- 
! stantinople. Resolving to subject himself 
j to the discipline of quarantine for the sake 
! of verifying the information which he had 
' obtained, Howard returned to Smyrna, where 
| he purposely chose a vessel bound for Venice 
with a foul bill of health. After leaving 
Modon they had a smart skirmish with a 
Tunisian privateer, during which ' one of 
our cannon charged with spike-nails having 
accidentally done great execution, the pri- 
vateer immediately, to our great joy, hoisted 
its sails and made off' (An Account of the 
principal Lazarettos, &c., p. 22 n.} On 
reaching Venice Howard had to submit to 
quarantine, and was confined in two laza- 
rettos for forty-two days. While there he 
heard with much distress of the subscription 
list which had been opened for the erection 
of a statue in commemoration of his services 
(Gent. Mag. 1786, pt. i. pp. 359-61, 447, 
pt. ii. passim), and of the mental derange- 
ment of his only child. Howard returned 
to England by way of Trieste and Vienna, 
having had at the latter place ' the honour of 
near two hours' conversation in private with 
the emperor.' In consequence of Howard's 
strong expressions of disapproval the com- 
mittee of the ' Howardian Fund ' (which 
had already amounted to over 1,500J.) were 
compelled to abandon their scheme during his 
lifetime. In March 1787 he commenced his 
fourth and final inspection of the English 
gaols, and in 1789 published f An Account 
of the principal Lazarettos in Europe ; with 
various Papers relative to the Plague : 
together with further Observations on some 
Foreign Prisons and Hospitals : and addi- 
tional Remarks on the present State of those 
in Great Britain and Ireland,' Warrington, 
1789, 4to ; 2nd ed. 1791, 4to. In the same 
year he privately printed the ' Edict of the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany for the Reform of 
Criminal Law in ^is Dominions; translated 
from the Italian ; together with the original/ 
Warrington, 1789, 8vo. 

In July 1789 Howard set out on his last 
journey, and visited Holland, Germany, Prus- 




sia, Livonia, and Kussia. The defective state 
of the Russian military hospitals attracted 
a great deal of his attention, and hearing 
at Moscow of the sickly state of the Rus- 
sian army on the confines of Turkey, he pro- 
ceeded to Kherson in Southern Russia, where 
he died, on 20 Jan. 1790, of camp fever 
caught while in attendance on a young 
lady who had been stricken down with the 
complaint. Howard was buried in a walled 
field at Dophinovka (now known as Stepa- 
novka), six versts north of Kherson. His 
funeral was attended by a large concourse 
of people. A brick pyramid was built over 
his grave (CLARKE, Travels, 1816, ii. 301, 
338-49), and a handsome cenotaph of white 
freestone, with a Russian inscription, was 
erected to his memory at Kherson (HENDER- 
SON, Biblical Researches, 1826, p. 284). His 
death was announced in the l London Gazette ' 
(1790, p. 174), a unique honour for a ci- 
vilian, and his statue, executed by Bacon, 
was erected by public subscription in St. 
Paul's. It stands on the left side of the 
choir, and was the first statue admitted to 
the cathedral (MiLM AN, Annals of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, 1869, pp. 480-1). The inscription 
on the pedestal was written by Samuel Whit- 
bread. Another inscription for some other 
monument to Howard was written by Cow- 
per (FIELD, Correspondence of John Howard, 
pp. 202-4). In 1890 a public subscription 
was opened for the erection of a Howard 
centenary memorial at Bedford. 

Howard was a man of deeply religious 
feelings, with an observant mind and me- 
thodical habits. Though he was not gifted 
with any brilliant talents, he possessed a 
powerful will, great pertinacity of purpose, 
and remarkable powers of endurance. In 
personal appearance he was short and thin, 
with a sallow complexion, prominent features, 
and a resolute expression. He was both a 
teetotaller and a vegetarian, simple in his 
tastes, plain and neat in his dress, and re- 
tiring in his habits. From the day he entered 
upon the duties of high sheriff of Bedford- 
shire he devoted himself entirely to his phi- 
lanthropic labours. He worked unaided 
either by the state or by charitable institu- 
tions. Constituting himself inspector of 
prisons at home and abroad, he travelled up- 
wards of fifty thousand miles, notebook in 
hand, visiting prisons, hospitals, lazarettos, 
schools, and workhouses, interrogating the 
authorities, counting the steps, measuring 
the rooms, taking copies of the regulations, 
and testing the supplies. He is said to have 
spent as much as 30,OOOZ. of his own fortune 
in the work, and to have refused an offer of 
assistance from the government. Though 

Carlyle, in his essay on 'Model Prisons/ 
calls Howard 'the innocent cause ... of 
the Benevolent-Platform Fever' (Collected 
Works, lib. edit. xix. 79), Howard himself 
was no sentimentalist, and while he insisted 
that justice should be blended with humanity, 
he never forgot to aim at the reformation of 
the prisoner. The courses of His journeys 
were frequently erratic, and are difficult to 
follow. As a writer Howard had little 
literary ability, and was assisted in the pre- 
paration of his two principal works by Ri- 
chard Densham, Dr. Richard Price, and Dr. 
Aikin. The almost incredible abuses which 
were exposed in the ' State of the Prisons ' 
gave the first impulse to a general desire for 
an improvement in the construction and disci- 
pline of our prisons. Though his evangelical 
opinions were intense, Howard was singu- 
larly free from religious bigotry, and though 
an independent himself, both his wives were 
churchwomen. His behaviour was at times 
eccentric, and his stern views of duty fre- 
quently prevented him from being a very 
sociable companion. His theory of family 
discipline was severe in the extreme, but 
except during the first eight years of his 
son's life, Howard had little opportunity of 
inculcating his notions of filial obedience 
either harshly or otherwise. The story that 
Howard, through his cruelty, drove his child 
into insanity is absolutely untrue, but the 
charge that he neglected the personal super- 
intendence of his child's education cannot, 
of course, be denied. The scornful reference 
to Howard and his l fancy of dungeons for 
children ' in Lamb's ' Essay on Christ's Hos- 
pital Five-and-Thirty Years ago ' was pro- 
bably suggested by an exaggerated report 
of the Root-House incident, when Howard 
locked his child up in an outhouse in his garden 
while he went to see a visitor (an account will 
be found in the Universal Magazine, Ixxxvii. 
142-4). Burke's well-known eulogium of 
Howard will be found in his speech at Bristol, 
delivered in 1780 (BURKE, Works, 1815, iii. 
380-1). Howard's son John died, hopelessly 
insane, on 24 April 1799, aged 34, and was 
buried at Cardington. On his death the Card- 
ington property passed by his father's will to 
Samuel Charles Whitbread, the second son 
of Samuel Whitbread. Various relics and 
a portrait of Howard are preserved at his 
old house at Cardington, which remains 
almost intact, and is in the possession of 
General Mills. There is a portrait of Howard, 
by Mather Brown, in the National Portrait 
Gallery, which has been engraved byE. Scott. 
It appears, however, that Howard never sat 
for his portrait during his lifetime, and 
though two plaster casts were taken of his 


4 8 


face after his death, by the order of Prince 
Potemkin, they seem to have been unfor- 
tunately lost. Three short contributions by 
Howard to the Royal Society will be found 
in ' Philosophical Transactions ' (liv. 118, 
Ivii. 201-2, Ixi. 53-4). A fourth edition of 
his ' State of Prisons,' &c., was published 
after his death (London, 1792, 4to). Among 
the family documents of the Whitbread 
family are several papers of interest relating 
to Howard. A few of Howard's letters and 
the correspondence and papers relating to 
his monument are preserved in the British 
Museum (Addit. MSS. 5409, 5418, 26055, 
28104 f. 53). 

[Anecdotes of the Life and Character of John 
Howard, written by a Gentleman, &c., 1790 (with 
portrait) ; Aikin's View of the Character and 
Public Services of the late John Howard, 1792 
(with portrait) ; Jarnes Baldwin Brown's Me- 
moirs of the Public and Private Life of John 
Howard, 2nd edit. 1823 (with portraits of Howard 
and his second wife) ; Thomas Taylor's Memoirs 
of Howard, 2nd edit. 1836 ; Hepworth Dixon's 
John Howard, 2nd edit. 1850 ; Field's Life of 
John Howard (with portrait) ; Field's Correspond- 
ence of John Howard; Guy's John Howard's 
Winter's Journey ; Stoughton's Howard the Phi- 
lanthropist and his Friends ; Journal of the Sta- 
tistical Society, xxxvi. 1-18, xxxviii. 430-7 ; 
Lecky's History of England, vi. 255-61 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1742 p. 499, 1758 p. 243, 1790 pt. i. 
pp. 82, 276-9, 287-90, 369, 416-18, 491-2, 
pt. ii. pp. 685 (with portrait), 713-14, 717, 
795., 1050, 1090, 1791 pt. ii. pp. 595, 893, 906, 
1793 pt. i. p. 513 ; Universal Mag. Ixxxvi. 
50, 152, 164, 169-74 (with portrait), 255-64, 
318-19; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iii. 142, xi. 
408, 472, 4th ser. viii. 527, ix. 94, 7th ser. viii. 
203, 240 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. R. B. 

HOWARD, JOHN (1753-1799), mathe- 
matician, born in Fort George garrison, near 
Inverness, in 1753, was son of Ralph Howard, 
a private soldier, and was brought up by 
relations in Carlisle. Apprenticed in his 
fourteenth year to his uncle, a cork-cutter, 
who treated him harshly, he ran away to 
sea ; he afterwards worked as a carpenter, 
and then as a flax-dresser. Having acquired 
a taste for reading and the elements of mathe- 
matics, he opened a school near Carlisle, 
and, improving himself by study, attracted 
the attention of Bishop Law, who appointed 
him master of the Carlisle grammar school, 
and encouraged him to read for holy orders. 
Abandoning that scheme, Howard became 

Hutton [q. v.J in Westgate Street, and gained 
a fair position as instructor and many friends. 
He had some local reputation as a versifier. 

sumed school-teaching there till 1794, when 
he removed to Newcastle-on-Tyne. There he 
rented the school-house built by Dr. Charles 

Soon after the appearan ce of his long-proj ected 
work on spherical geometry, his health rapidly 
declined. He died on 26 March 1799, aged 
46, at the Leazes, near Newcastle, and was 
buried in St. John's churchyard. 

When in Carlisle, Howard wrote much 
for the ' Ladies and Gentlemen's Diaries.' 
His reputation as a mathematician rests 
mainly on the ' Treatise on Spherical Geo- 
metry,' which he published in Newcastle-on- 
Tyne in 1798. It deals with the maxima 
and minima of certain lines and areas, and 
sets a variety of problems. When discussing 
some loci of spherical angles and triangles, 
and certain lines drawn on spherical and cylin- 
drical surfaces, the author notes many ana- 
logies between the properties of lines meeting 
on the surface of the sphere and those drawn 
to meet a plane circle. The epitaph on 
Howard's tombstone records ' many other in- 
genious mathematical and poetical pieces/ 

[Richardson's Table Book, ii. 410 ; Mackenzie's 
Account of Newcastle-on-Tyne, ii. 350, 465.] 

R. E. A. 

HOWARD, JOHN ELIOT (1807-1883), 
quinologist, son of Luke Howard [q. v.], 
the meteorologist, was born at Plaistow, 
Essex, 11 Dec. 1807. Throughout his life 
he was connected with his father's chemical 
manufactory at Stratford. His first paper, 
a report on the collection of cinchona in the 
British Museum made by the Spanish bota- 
nist Pavon, was published in 1852. In the 
following year he joined the Pharmaceutical 
Society, and in 1857 the Linnean Society. 
Being specially interested in quinine he pur- 
chased at Madrid, in 1858, the manuscript 
' Nueva Quinologia ' and the specimens of 
cinchona belonging to Pavon ; employed a 
botanical artist to illustrate them, and pub- 
lished in 1862 the sumptuous ' Illustrations of 
the "Nueva Quinologia" of Pavon, and Obser- 
vations on the Barks described.' Howard's 
second great work, ' The Quinology of the 
East Indian Plantations,' published in 1869, 
was the result of his examination of the bark 
of all the forms of cinchona introduced into 
India from the Andes by Markham, Spruce, 
and Cross. For this he received the thanks 
of her majesty's government, and in 1874 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. 
Howard took considerable interest in gar- 
dening, and especially in hybridisation as 
bearing upon cultivated cinchonas, and was 
the author of numerous scientific papers, 
chiefly on quinology. He also gave addresses 
on both science and revelation at the Victoria 
Institute, of which he was a vice-president. 




He died at his house, Lord's Mead, Totten- 
ham, Middlesex, 22 Nov. 1883, and was buried 
in Tottenham cemetery. Weddell dedicated to 
him the genus Howardia of the Cinchonacece. 
He.married Maria, daughter of W. D. Crewd- 
son of Kendal, and left a large family. 

Like his father he was a member of the 
Society of Friends. He published in early life 
several religious tracts, such as 'The Doctrine 
of the Inward Life,' 1836 ; ' Justification by 
Faith,' 1838; and 'An Address to the 
Ohristians of Tottenham,' 1839. 

[Trans. Essex Field Club, iv. 8-11, with por- 
trait; Proc. Linn. Soc. 1883-4, p. 35 ; Gardener's 
Chronicle, 1883, ii. 701 ; Royal Society's Cat. 
iii. 450, vii. 1023.] *" G. S. B. 

first EARL OF EFFINGHAM, of the second crea- 
tion (1767-1845), born 29 Nov. 1767, was 
only child of Captain Henry Howard of 
Arundel, Sussex, by his second wife, Maria, 
second daughter and co-heiress of Kenneth 
Mackenzie,, viscount Fortrose, eldest son of 
William, fifth earl of Seaforth. He was de- 
scended from Sir William Howard of Ling- 
field (d. 1600), who was second son of Wil- 
liam Howard [q. v.], first Baron Howard of 
Effingham. After acting as page of honour to 
George III, he was gazetted to an ensigncy 
In the Coldstream guards, 21 April 1786, and 
served with his regiment in Flanders from 
February 1793 to May 1795, being wounded 
at St. Amand 8 May 1793. He was promoted 
lieutenant and captain 25 April 1793 (acting 
as adjutant of his regiment from December 
1793 to December 1797), captain-lieutenant 
and lieutenant-colonel 30 Dec. 1797, and bri- 
gade-major to the foot-guards 17 April 1798, 
in which capacity he served throughout the 
Irish rebellion of that year and the Duke of 
York's expedition to Holland in 1799. He was 
present in every action of the last-named cam- 
paign. He was gazetted captain and lieu- 
tenant-colonel 25 July 1799, and was con- 
nected with the foreign troops in the English 
service as deputy inspector-general, inspector- 
general, and commandanVof the foreign depot. 
This latter office he resigned on being ap- 
pointed colonel and aide-de-camp to the king, 
1 Jan. 1805. He became second major of 
his regiment 4 Aug. 1808, and major-general 
25 July 1810. In January 18ll he joined 
the army in the Peninsula, being placed in 
command of a brigade of the first division in 
succession to Sir William Erskine ( Welling- 
ton Supplementary Despatches, xiii. 544). 
In the following July he was transferred to 
the second division, which he commanded 
as senior officer under Lord Hill till August 
1812. In November of that year he was 
selected to command the 1st brigade of guards 


in the first division, and was in entire com- 
mand of that division under Sir J. Hope 
| from June 1813 to the end of the war. He 
j was present at the battles of Fuentes d'Onoro 
I (5 May 1811), Arroyo de Molinos (28 Oct. 
{ 1811), andAlmaraz (19 May 1812), and was 
on the two latter occasions specially com- 
mended for gallantry in Lord Hill's des- 
patches ( Wellington Despatches, viii. 381-3, 
388, ix. 184-5), and was thanked by the home 
government (SIDNEY, Life of Lord Hill, 
pp. 1 99-200). He took continuous part in 
the operations on the frontier, 1813-14, and 
received the medal and one clasp for Vittoria 
and the passage of the Nive. On the con- 
clusion of the war he was appointed lieu- 
tenant-governor of Portsmouth, with com- 
mand of the south-western district. The 
duties of this post prevented his joining the 
army in Belgium, but after Waterloo he was 
placed in command of the first division of 
the British army during the occupation of 
Paris, with the local rank of lieutenant- 
general. On the death of his kinsman Richard, 
fourth earl of Effingham, 11 Dec.l816,Howard 
succeeded as eleventh baron Howard of 
Effingham, and took his seat in the House 
of Lords 30 May 1817 (House of Lords' 
Journals, li. p. 243). He resigned his com- 
mand at Portsmouth on his promotion to the 
rank of lieutenant-general 12 Aug. 1819. On 
24 Oct. 1816 he had been appointed colonel 
of the 70th regiment, from which, on 30 Jan. 
1832, he was transferred to the colonelcy of 
the 3rd (buffs), and on 10 Jan. 1837 he became 
full general. He was created K.C.B. 5 Jan. 
1815, and G.C.B. 17 March 1820. He was 
also a commander of the Portuguese order of 
the Tower and Sword. Howard took no pro- 
minent part in politics, but acted generally 
with the whig party, and in 1820 and 1834 
seconded the address at the opening of the 
session (HANSARD, Parliamentary Debates, 
new ser. i. 17, 3rd ser. xxi. 8). In July 1821 
he acted as deputy earl marshal of England 
for the coronation of George IV. It is said 
that during the ceremony in Westminster 
Hall his horse, which had been hired from 
Astley's circus, displayed a tendency to rear 
instead of to back, and had to be ignominiously 
pulled out by its tail (LORD COLCHESTER, 
Diary, iii. 233, but see Notes and Queries, 7th 
ser. vii. 482, viii. 113, 175, 254-5, and Sir W. 
ERASER'S Wellington (1889), pp. 41-4). On 
27 Jan. 1837 the earldom of Effingham was 
revived in his favour. He took his seat as 
earl in the House of Lords 21 April 1837 
(House of Lords' Journals, Ixix. p. 215). 
Howard died at Brighton 13 Feb. 1845, and 
was buried in the family vault at All Saints' 
Church, Rotherham, Yorkshire, where a 



monument was erected to his memory. There 
is also a memorial tablet to him in the 
Guards' Chapel, Wellington Barracks, Lon- 

The following portraits of him are pre- 
served at the family seat, Tusmore, Bicester, 
Oxfordshire: 1. An oil painting by Oliver in 
aide-de-camp's uniform. 2. A water-colour 
by Tidy in general's uniform. 3. A water- 
colour in his robes as deputy earl marshal. 
There is also a portrait of him in the same 
dress in Sir George Nayler's ' Ceremonial of 
the Coronation of George IV,' 1839. 

He married, 27 Nov. 1800, Lady Charlotte 
Primrose, eldest daughter of Neil, third earl 
of Rosebery, by whom he had five sons and 
four daughters, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, Henry. His widow remarried, 
30 April 1858, Thomas Holmes, a scripture 
reader, of Brighton, and died 17 Sept. 1864. 

[Henry Howard's Memorials of the Howard 
Family, 1834-6, pp. 95-7; Philippart's Eoyal 
Military Calendar, 1815, i. 330-1; Wellington 
Despatches, 1838, vii. 167, xi. 662-3 ; Welling- 
ton Supplementary Despatches, 1860-72, vii. 
112, 534, 574, viii. 9, 28-9, 228, 419, 424, 513, 
614-15, x. 573,752, xiii. 567, xiv. 203,209,264, 
376 ; Napier's Peninsular War, 1834, vols. iv. v. 
vi. ; Mackinnon's Origin and Services of the 
Coldstream G-uards (1833), ii. 497; Doyle's Offi- 
cial Baronage, 1886, i. 664-5 ; G-ent. Mag. 1845, 
new ser. xxiii. 429-30 ; Annual Eegister, 1845, 
pp. 243-4; Foster's Peerage, 1883, p. 253; Times, 
17 Feb. 1845 ; Army Lists.] G. F. K. B. 

HOWARD, LEONARD (1699P-1767), 
divine, born about 1699, was originally a clerk 
in the post office. In 1728 he published some 
absurd ' Verses on the Recovery of the Lord 
Townshend, humbly inscribed to ... Sir 
Robert Walpole,' annexed to a poem on Wil- 
liam III (Craftsman, 15 June 1728). He 
took orders, was M.A. probably of some Scot- 
tish university, and D.D. by 1745. In 1742 he 
was curate of the parishes of St. John, South- 
wark, and St. Botolph, Aldersgate, and chap- 
lain to the Prince of Wales. Three years 
later he had become vicar of either Bishops 
or South Tawton, Devonshire, and lecturer 
of St. Magnus, London Bridge, and of St. 
James, Garlick Hythe. On 18 July 1749 he 
was presented by the crown to the rectory of 
St. George the Martyr, Southwark, which he 
held with the lectureships of St. Magnus and 
of St. Margaret, Fish Street. He subse- 
quently was appointed chaplain to the Prin- 
cess Dowager of Wales. He died on 21 Dec. 
1767, aged 68 (Gent. Mag. 1767, p. 611), and 
was buried underneath the communion-table 
in St. George's Church (MANNING and BEAT, 
Surrey, iii. 641). Howard was a popular 
preacher, a pleasant companion, and, though 

hardly a model pastor, a favourite with his- 
parishioners (id. iii. 646). His improvidence 
frequently led to his imprisonment in the 
King's Bench, where he was dubbed poet 
laureate, and sometimes obtained money as 
subscriptions to books which he pretended to 
have in hand. 

Howard's best known work is 'A Collec- 
tion of Letters from the original Manuscripts 
of many Princes, great Personages and States- 
men. Together with some curious and scarce 
Tracts and Pieces of Antiquity,' 4to, London, 
1753. At the back of the last page is a list 
of the contents of a second volume, which 
was announced to be in preparation, but did 
not appear. This incongruous and ill-ar- 
ranged compilation was formed with the ob- 
ject of supplying the place of a promised 
work of a similar kind, the materials for 
which had been destroyed by fire. Another 
edition, in two volumes, ' to which are added 
Memoirs of the unfortunate Prince Anthony 
the First of Portugal, and the Oeconomy of 
High-Life,' 4to, London, 1756, is fairly well 
arranged. Many of the articles are of the 
highest interest (cf. notice in Retrospective 
Review, new ser. i. 1-16). Besides several 
sermons, including two preached at assizes, 
and one delivered before the House of Com- 
mons on 'Restoration Day,' 29 May 1753, 
Howard also published : 1. f The Newest 
Manual of Private Devotions. In three 

rts,' 12mo, London, 1745 (1753, 1760). 
' The Royal Bible ; or a complete Body of 
Christian Divinity : containing the Holy Scrip- 
tures at large, and a full . . . explanation of 
all the difficult texts . . . together with critical 
notes and observations on the whole,' fol., Lon- 
don, 1761. 3. < The Book of Common Prayer . . . 
illustrated and explained by a full . . . para- 
" 4to, London, 1761. Both < Bible' 

and * Prayer Book' are disfigured by bad 
plates. 4. ' Miscellaneous Pieces in prose and 
verse ... to which are added The Letters, &c. 
of ... Henry Hatsell, Esq., deceased ; and 
several Tracts, Poems, &c. of some eminent 
personages of wit and humour,' 4to, London, 
1765. Prefixed is a miserable portrait of 
Howard. He also ' revised and corrected' a 
Layman's ' New Companion for the Festivals 
and Fasts of the Church of England,' 8vo, 
London, 1761. Howard's literary thefts ex- 
posed him to much obloquy, to which he 
refers in the prefaces to his ' Newest Manual' 
and ' Collection of Letters.' 

[Authorities as above.] G-. Gr. 

HOWARD, LUKE (1621-1699), quaker, 
born at Dover on 18 Oct. 1621, was son of 
a shoemaker. He was apprenticed to his 
father's trade, and for a time was a strict 
churchman. On going to London to follow 


5 1 


his trade lie joined John Goodwin's congre- 
gation in Coleman Street. At the outbreak 
of the civil war he bought a horse, intending 
to join the parliamentary army, but failed to 
get enrolled. He then took service with the 
garrison in Dover Castle, and there refused to 
sing psalms ' in rhyme and meter.' The chap- 
lain preached against him, and Samuel Fisher 
(1605-1665) [q.v.] reasoned with him, but was 
himself converted. After becoming succes- 
sively a Brownist, presbyterian, and inde- 
pendent, he joined the baptists, and journeyed 
to London to be ' dipped ' by William Kiffin 
on a December day when 'ice was in the 
water.' In March 1655 he again went to Lon- 
don, and was there converted to quakerism 
by William Caton and John Stubbs. They 
accompanied him back to Dover to establish 
a meeting. Howard says in his ' Journal ' 
that he was the ' first receiver of Friends, 
and his first wife the first baptised person, in 
Kent.' Under Howard the quakers increased 
at Dover and attracted many baptists, much 
controversy following between the sects 
(TAYLOR, Hist, of the English General Bap- 
tists, i. 277). Howard got into trouble by 
interrupting the preachers at the churches. 
He often fasted for seven or eight days at a 
time. At the Eestoration he was imprisoned 
in Dover Castle for three months. On 8 June 
1661 he was committed to Westgate prison, 
Canterbury, for five days ; in July following 
he was sent to Dover Castle for about six- 
teen months, and on 30 Jan. 1684 he was 
taken, with seven others, from the meeting, 
and imprisoned in the same dungeon for 
fifty-one weeks. Howard died on 7 Oct. 
1699. He was twice married, and left a 
son, Luke, and two daughters, Mary, the 
wife of John Knott, shoemaker, and Lobdel. 
Howard wrote: 1. 'A few plain Words 
of Instruction given forth as moved of the 
Lord . . .,' &c., 4to, London, 1658. 2. 'The 
Devils Bow Unstringed, or some of Thomas 
Danson's Lyes made manifest/ an answer 
to two pamphlets by Thomas Danson [q. v.], 
4to, London, 1659. 3. ' A Warning from 
the Lord unto the Kulers of Dover,' 4to, 
London, 1661. 4. 'A Looking-Glass for 
Baptists, being a short Narrative of their 
Root and Rice in Kent/ against Richard 
Hobbs, pastor of the baptists in Dover, 4to, 
1672 ; reprinted with 5. ' The Seat of the 
Scorner thrown down : or Richard Hobbs his 
folly, envy, and lyes in his late Reply to my 
Book, called "A Looking-Glass, &c.," mani- 
fested and rebuked. . . . With a few Queries 
to the said R. Hobbs. To which is added a 
further answer by T. R. ' (i.e. the ' Water 
Baptist/ by Thomas Rudyard), 4to, 1673. 
6. 'A Testimony concerning Samuel Fisher' 

(in Fisher's collected ' Works/ 1679). 7. ' A 
Testimony concerning George Fox' (in Fox's 
' Gospel Truth demonstrated/ 1706). Most 
of his tracts are to be found in ' Love and 
Truth in Plainness manifested : being a Col- 
lection of the several writings, faithful testi- 
monies, and Christian epistles of ... Luke 
Howard/ &c., 8vo, London, 1704, to which 
is prefixed his 'Journal/ penned shortly 
before his death. 

[Journal as above ; Smith's Cat. of Friends' 
Books, pp. 978-80 ; Smith's Bibliotheca Anti- 
Quakeriana, pp. 141, 231-2.] G. G. 

HOWARD, LUKE (1772-1864), one of 
the founders of the science of meteorology, 
was born in London on 28 Nov. 1772. His 
father, Robert Howard, a manufacturer of 
iron and tin goods, accumulated considerable 
wealth. He was especially known as the 
chief introducer of the Argandlamp. A mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends, he wrote ' A 
few words on Corn and Quakers/ 1800(4 edi- 
tions), in that year. From his eighth to his 
fifteenth year Luke, who was a Friend, like 
his parents, was at a private school at Bur- 
ford in Oxfordshire, where (he thought in later 
life) he learned too much Latin grammar and 
too little of anything else. At fourteen he 
was bound apprentice to Olive Sims, a retail 
chemist, of Stockport. During his apprentice- 
ship he taught himself after business hours, 
French, botany, and scientific chemistry. 'In 
chemistry he was deeply impressed by the 
works of Lavoisier and his fellow-labourers. 

In 1793 Howard commenced business as 
a chemist in London, near Temple Bar. 
From 1796 until 1803 he was in partnership, 
as a wholesale and retail chemist, with Wil- 
liam Allen (1770-1843) [q. v.] Howard re- 
moved to Plaistow in Essex in order to take 
charge of the manufacturing department of 
the concern. After the withdrawal of Allen, 
the chemical works were removed to Strat- 
ford (c. 1805), and in 1812 Howard changed 
his private residence to Tottenham, at which 
place or on his estate at Ackworth in York- 
shire he spent the remainder of his life. 

Botany was for some time one of Howard's 
favourite pursuits. On 4 March 1800 he 
read a paper before the Linnean Society 
entitled 'Account of a Microscopical Inves- 
tigation of several Species of Pollen, with 
Remarks and Questions on the Structure 
and use of that part of Vegetables ' (printed 
in Linnean Society's Transactions, vol. vi.) 
The paper shows close observation, and the 
questions at the end suggest lines of inquiry 
subsequently pursued with success by others. 
But ' from the first/ he wrote to Goethe, ' my 
real penchant was towards meteorology. I 
had fixed in my memory at school one of 




the modifications which I had settled for the 
clouds ; had proved the expansion of water 
in freezing, and was much interested by the 
remarkable summer haze and aurora borealis 
of 1783' (GOETHE, Sdmmtliche Werke, v. 
409-12, ed. Paris, 1836; the above quotation 
is from the slightly different draft found 
among Howard's manuscripts). The appear- 
ances here alluded to are mentioned in Cow- 
per's < Task ' and in White's < Natural History 
of Selborne.' Howard further records how 
he ' witnessed the passage from north to 
south of the stupendous meteor of that year 
(1783), which travelled, as I conceive, from 
some part of Iceland to the north of Italy.' 

Soon after Howard's settlement at Plaistow 
he seems to have first methodically studied 
the shapes of the clouds and the laws of 
their change. His essay ' On the Modifica- 
tions of Clouds ' he communicated about 
1802 to the Askesian Society, a little philo- 
sophical club to which both he and Allen 
belonged. This essay, which was reprinted 
in his larger work, l The Climate of London,' 
gave him his scientific fame. It applies the 
method of Linnaeus to the varying forms of 
the clouds. The author defines their three 
chief modifications, which he names Cirrus, 
Cumulus, and Stratus, and four intermediate 
or compound modifications, the best known 
of which is the Nimbus or rain-cloud. These 
names have been generally adopted by 

In 1806 Howard began to keep a meteoro- 
logical register, and published the result of 
his observations in his * Climate of London ' 
(1818-20). In 1833 a second edition of this 
work brought down the observations to 1830. 
Howard's instruments were, from a modern 
point of view, rude and insufficient ; but for 
the early years of the century his are almost 
the only observations that have been pre- 

In 1821 Howard was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society. Three later books on 
meteorology did not attract much notice. It 
remained for younger men (especially under 
the powerful influence of Humboldt's writ- 
ings) to perfect the system of observations, 
and by the aid of the electric telegraph to turn 
the science to practical account by issuing 
warnings of approaching storms. 

Howard devoted much of his leisure to 
philanthropic or religious work. He wrote 
tracts against profane swearing (1811) and 
on temperance, and the proper treatment of 
animals, and he edited ' The Yorkshireman, 
a religious and literary Journal, by a Friend,' 
from 1833 to 1837 (5 vols. 8vo). As a mem- 
ber of the committee of the Bible Society, he 
plunged deeply into the controversy regard- 

ing the circulation of the Apocrypha, advo- 
cating its inclusion in copies of the scrip- 
tures printed for distribution in Roman 
catholic countries, and publishing English 
translations of the Apocrypha from the Vul- 
gate (4 vols. 1827-9). He was a zealous 
worker in the anti-slavery cause, and he 
actively aided the movement for the relief 
of the German peasants in the districts 
ravaged by the Napoleonic wars after the 
retreat from Moscow. He visited Germany 
to superintend the distribution of the funds 
raised by himself and his friends, and he re- 
ceived from the kings of Prussia and Saxony 
and the free city of Magdeburg generous ac- 
knowledgments of his exertions. 

In 1822 he was engaged in an interesting 
correspondence with Goethe. The German 
poet had studied some of Howard's meteoro- 
logical works, and desired to know something 
of his personal history. Howard replied with 
an autobiographical sketch. Goethe in re- 
turn sent a short poem entitled 'Howard's 
Ehrengedachtniss,' and a description in verse 
of the chief cloud-forms according to his 
correspondent's classification. Howard also 
maintained a lifelong friendship and corre- 
spondence with John Dalton [q. v.] 

In 1 796 Howard married Mariabella, daugh- 
ter of John Eliot of London, who published, 
among other works, l The Young Servant's 
own Book,' 1827 (4th edition, 1857). After 
the death of his wife in 1852, Howard lived 
with his eldest son, Robert, at Bruce Grove, 
Tottenham. Here he died, in the ninety- 
second year of his age, on 21 March 1864. 
Another son, John Eliot Howard, is sepa- 
rately noticed. 

Howard's chief works are: 1. ' The Climate 
of London, deduced from Meteorological Ob- 
servations,' &c., 2 vols. London, 1818-20, 
8vo ; 2nd edit., enlarged and continued to 
1830, 3 vols., London, 1833, 8vo. 2. ' Essay on 
the Modifications of Clouds,' London, 1832, 
8vo ; 3rd edit., London, 1865, 4to. 3. < Seven 
Lectures on Meteorology,' Pontefract, 1837, 
8vb. 4. *A Cycle of Eighteen Years in the 
Seasons of Britain . . . from Meteorological 
Observations,' London, 1842, 8vo. 5. ' Baro- 
metrographia : Twenty Years' Variation of 
the Barometer in ... Britain, exhibited in 
autographic curves,' advocating the theory 
of a nineteen years' cycle, London, 1847, 
fol. 6. 'Papers on Meteorology,' &c., Lon- 
don, 1854, 4to. 

[Authorities cited ; Private information ; 
Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books.] T. H-N. 

ARTJNDEL of the Howard family (1557- 
1595), was eldest son of Thomas Howard III, 
fourth duke ofNorfolk[q.v.],byhis wife Lady 




Mary, daughter and heiress of Henry Fitz- 
alan, twelfth earl of Arundel [q. v. J He 
was born at Arundel House, London, on 
28 June 1557, and his mother died two 
months after his birth. King Philip was one 
of his godfathers, and the child was regarded 
as heir to two of the greatest families in Eng- 
land. In youth he was known by the cour- 
tesy title of Earl of Surrey. His education 
was committed to Gregory Martin, fellow of 
St. John's College, Oxford, who was inclined 
to the old religion, and ultimately left Eng- 
land for Douay. In 1569, at the age of 
twelve, he was formally betrothed to his 
father's ward, Anne Dacre, one of the three 
coheiresses of Thomas, lord Dacre of Gils- 
land, a child of the same age with himself, 
and the marriage was solemnised in 1571. 
Next year his father was executed for high 
treason, and before his death committed to 
his eldest son the care of his younger bro- 
thers and their betrothed wives (see HOWARD, 
LOED WILLIAM, 1563-1640; WEIGHT, Queen 
Elizabeth and her Times, i. 402, &c.) In ac- 
cordance with his father's wishes he went to 
Cambridge, where he passed his time in dissi- 
pation, which, however, did not prevent the 
university from honouring a young man of 
such high position with the degree of M.A. 
without requiring the usual exercises in No- 
vember 1576 (COOPEE, Athenee Cantabr. ii. 
188). On his return to London, Surrey 
plunged into all the gaieties of life at court. 
He left his young wife unheeded in the 
country, because the queen did not like her 
favourites to be married. His reckless man- 
ner of life gave great concern to his maternal 
grandfather, the Earl of Arundel, and he ran 
into debt by his extravagance and by the en- 
tertainment which he gave to the queen at 
Kenninghall in 1578 (NICHOLS, Progresses of 
Elizabeth, ii. 130, 198). He was, however, 
disappointed in his attempts to become a 
royal favourite, and was probably weary of 
his profligate life, when the death of the 
Earl of Arundel, in February 1580, brought 
him face to face with his responsibilities. He 
succeeded to the earldom of Arundel by 
right of his mother, and Lord Lumley made 
over to him his life interest in the castle and 
honour of Arundel. His claim, however, 
was questioned, and the matter was before 
the council, who decided in his favour. But 
he was not restored in blood till 18 March 
1581 (Lords 1 Journals, ii. 54). 

Arundel felt that his prospects of success 
at court were small, and turned to domestic 
life. His wife was a woman of strong cha- 
racter, and of a religious disposition, and her 
influence soon made itself felt upon her hus- 
band. It is said that Arundel was much 

moved by the arguments used by Campion in 
dispute with the Anglican divines in Sep- 
tember 1581. At all events, the increasing 
seriousness of his thoughts led him in the 
direction of Romanism, which his wife openly 
professed in 1582. She was consequently 
committed by Elizabeth's orders to the care 
of Sir Thomas Shirley of Wiston, Sussex, by 
whom she was guarded for a year, during 
which time her first child Elizabeth was born. 
Arundel was now regarded with suspicion. 
Parsons speaks of an attempt in 1582 ' to draw 
the Earls of Arundel and Northumberland to 
join with the Duke of Guise for the delivery 
of the Queen of Scots ' (KNOX, Letters of 
Cardinal Allen, 392 n.} In consequence of 
these suspicions, the queen paid Arundel a 
visit at his London house in 1583, and soon 
afterwards sent him a message that he was 
to consider himself a prisoner there. An 
attempt was made to implicate him in Throg- 
morton's plot, and he was subject to many 
interrogatories. This harsh treatment only 
had the result of driving Arundel to seek 
the consolations of religion, and in Septem- 
ber 1584 he was received into the Roman 
church by Father William Weston, and 
henceforth dedicated all his energies to the 
service of his new religious belief. At first 
he tried to dissemble, and accompanied the 
queen to church, but invented excuses for ab- 
senting himself from the service. But he soon 
found the strain upon his conscience to be too 
great, and in April 1585 attempted to flee 
from England. He embarked on a ship at 
Littlehampton in Sussex, leaving behind him 
a letter to the queen explaining the motives 
of his departure. His movements, however, 
were carefully watched, and no sooner was 
his ship in the Channel than it was boarded 
and he was brought back. He was com- 
mitted to the Tower on 25 April 1585, and was 
arraigned before the Star-chamber on the 
charges of being a Romanist, fleeing from Eng- 
land without the queen's leave, intriguing 
with Allen and Parsons, and claiming the title 
of Duke of Norfolk. On these grounds he 
was condemned, in May 1586, to pay a fine of 
10,000/. and be imprisoned during the queen's 
pleasure. He remained in the Tower for the 
rest of his life, while his wife lived in com- 
parative poverty. His only son Thomas was 
born, but he was not allowed to see his wife 
or child. Arundel and his wife were reckoned 
on by the foreign plotters as helpers (Burgh- 
ley Papers, ii. 489, 493), and Arundel, had 
he left England, would have been a dan- 
gerous centre for the queen's enemies. But 
the exceptional severity with which he was 
treated can only be accounted for by strong 
personal dislike on the queen's part, carefully 




fostered by powerful enemies. Elizabeth's 
pride was hurt by Arundel's constancy, and 
she had no sympathy with conscientious con- 
victions. She felt personally aggrieved that 
one of her nobles should venture openly to 
take up opinions of which she disapproved. 

In the Tower Arundel was subjected to 
much persecution, until at last a definite 
charge was produced against him. In 1588 
some other Romanists confined in the Tower, 
among whom was a priest, William Bennet, 
contrived to meet together secretly for mass. 
When the Spanish Armada was expected, 
Arundel suggested that they should spend 
twenty-four hours continuously in prayer, 
and this was done. Arundel was accused of 
praying for the success of the Spaniards, and 
Bennet was induced by threats of torture to 
confess that Arundel moved him to say a 
mass for that purpose. Bennet, in a letter 
to Arundel, afterwards said that he ' con- 
fessed everything that seemed to content 
their humour,' and asked pardon for his 
cowardice. Arundel was brought to trial 
for high treason on 14 April 1589, and irri- 
tated the authorities by his magnificent attire 
and lofty bearing. He denied the mass for 
the success of Spain, and explained the 
prayer as being for personal safety, as the 
rumour was that the London mob projected 
the murder of all Romanists. He was found 
guilty, and was condemned to death. The 
sentence, however, was not carried out, but 
he was allowed to linger in the Tower, not 
knowing that he might not be executed at 
any moment. He spent his time in pious 
exercises, and practised rigorous asceticism. 
He was taken ill after dinner in August 
1595, and it is not surprising that his illness 
was attributed to poison, though there is no 
ground for the supposition. He begged to 
be allowed to see his wife and children before 
he died, and received an answer that if he 
would once go to church he should be libe- 
rated and his estates restored. But he refused 
the condition, and died, without the conso- 
lation of seeing his family, on 19 Oct. 1595. 
He was buried in the chapel of the Tower, 
whence his bones were conveyed to Arundel 
in 1624. His only son, Thomas Howard, 
second earl of Arundel (1586-1646), is sepa- 
rately noticed. His daughter Elizabeth died 
unmarried in 1600. 

Arundel is described as * a very tall man, 
somewhat swarth-coloured.' He was gifted 
with extraordinary power of memory, and was 
quick-witted. When his misfortunes began 
he developed all the qualities of a religious 
devotee. In the Tower he translated 'An 
Epistle of Jesus Christ to the Faithful Soule,' 
by Johann Justus (Antwerp, 1595; repub- 

lished, London, 1871), and also left in manu- 
script three treatises ' On the Excellence and 
Utility of Virtue.' There are portraits of 
him by Zucchero at Castle Howard, Naworth, 
and Greystock. An engraving is in Lodge's 
' Portraits.' 

[His life, and also that of his wife, written to 
show their religious fortitude by a contemporary, 
probably Lady Arundel's confessor, were edited 
by the Duke of Norfolk, The Lives of Philip 
Howard, Earl of Arundel, and of Anne Dacres 
his Wife, 1857; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 276; 
Collins's Peerage, i. 108-12; Doyle's Official 
Baronage, i. 84 ; Camden's Annals of Elizabeth ; 
Howell's State Trials, i. 1250, &c. ; Cooper's 
Athense Cantab rigienses, ii. 187-91 ; Morris's 
Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, ii. 83, &c. ; 
Howard's Memorials of the Howards ; Tierney's 
Hist, of Arundel, p. 357, &c. ; Gillow's Diet, of 
the English Catholics, i. 65-7 ; Cornelius a 
Lapide's Preface to Commentary on St. Paul's 
Epistles.] M. C. 

1694), the cardinal of Norfolk, born 21 Sept. 
1629 at Arundel House in the parish of St. 
Clement Danes, London, was third son of 
Henry Frederick Howard, third earl of Arun- 
del [q. v.], by Elizabeth Stuart, eldest daugh- 
ter of Esme, lordd'Aubigny, afterwards Duke 
of Richmond and Lennox. He had several 
private tutors, some of whom were protes- 
tants, but he was brought up in the Roman 
catholic religion. On 4 July 1640 he, toge- 
ther with his brothers Thomas and Henry, 
was admitted a fellow-commoner of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, but their residence in 
the university was brief. They were sent 
to be educated at Utrecht, where, in 1641, 
their grandfather, Thomas Howard, earl of 
Arundel and Surrey [q. v.], visited them. 
They afterwards removed to Antwerp, where 
Philip resolved to devote his life to the ser- 
vice of religion. To this his grandfather, 
who had conformed to the English church, 
strongly objected, and he was sent with his 
brothers on a long tour through Germany, 
France, and Italy (cf. EVELYN, Diary, ii. 
263). At Milan Philip became acquainted 
with John Baptist Hacket [q. v.], an Irish 
Dominican friar, and going with Hacket to 
the house of the Dominicans at Cremona re- 
ceived the habit 28 June 1645, assuming in 
religion the name of Thomas. The Earl of 
Arundel believed that his grandson had been 
unduly influenced ; and begged Sir Kenelm 
Digby, who had just arrived in Rome, to 
appeal to Pope Innocent X. By the pope's 
order Philip was removed on 26 July to the 
palace of Cesare Monti, cardinal archbishop 
of Milan, who allowed him to be transferred 
to the convent of S. Maria delle Grazie in that 
city. The Howard family persevered in their 




-efforts to force him to leave the order, and 
the pope referred the matter to the congrega- 
tion de propaganda fide. Philip was sum- 
moned to Rome in September 1645, and 
placed first in the Dominican convent of St. 
Sixtus, and afterwards at La Chiesa Nuova, 
under the care of the Oratorian fathers, who, 
at the end of five months, declared that he 
had a true vocation for the religious state. 
The pope took the same view after examining 
Philip at a private audience. Accordingly, 
on 19 Oct. 1646, Philip signed his solemn 
profession as a Dominican in the convent of 
S. Olemente, Rome (PALMER, Obituary Notices 
of the Friar-Preachers, p. 5). 

From Rome he was sent to the Dominican 
convent of La Sanita at Naples, where he 
studied diligently for four years. He at- 
tended the general chapter held at Rome in 
June 1650, and was selected from among 
the students to deliver a Latin oration, in 
which he contended that the Dominican 
order might be rendered more efficient in 
restoring England to catholic unity. He 
finished his studies at the convent of Rennes 
in Brittany, and in 1652 was ordained priest [ 
by papal dispensation, as he was only in his | 
twenty-third year. In 1654 he went to 
Paris, and in 1655 to Belgium, whence he 
came to England. He stayed here many j 
months, and from his own resources and the 
contributions of friends raised about 1,6001. } 
towards founding an exclusively English con- i 
vent or college on the continent. On his 
return he purchased the church and house j 
of Holy Cross at Bornhem, in East Flanders. | 
He was appointed the first prior of the new i 
community on 15 Dec. 1657. 

Howard was highly esteemed by Charles II, 
who, after Oliver Cromwell's death, des- 
patched him about May 1659 on a secret 
mission to England in aid of the royal cause. 
On his arrival Howard discovered that Father 
Richard Rookwood, a Carthusian monk, who 
was originally joined with him in the com- 
mission, had treacherously given to the Pro- 
tector Richard Cromwell information which 
led to the suppression of Sir George Booth's 
rising in Cheshire. An order was issued for 
Howard's arrest, but he sought refuge in the 
household of the ambassador from Poland, 
who was leaving the country, and who 
smuggled him away to the continent with 
his suite, in the disguise of a Polish servant. 
He made his way to Bornhem, and established 
in the convent there a college for the edu- 
cation of young Englishmen. Soon after 
the Restoration he followed Charles II to 
London, and for nearly two years he was 
actively engaged in promoting the marriage 
treaties with Spain and Portugal. On 21 May 

1662 Charles was privately married to Cathe- 
rine of Braganza [q. v.], in the presence of 
Howard and five other witnesses, according 
to the catholic rite. Howard was nominated 
first chaplain to the queen, and took up his 
residence at the English court, though he 
paid periodical visits to his convent at Born- 
hem. On 1 Aug. 1662 he and his brothers 
dined with Evelyn (Diary, ii. 148). In 1665 
Howard succeeded his uncle, Lord Ludovick 
d'Aubigny, in the office of grand-almoner to 
the queen. He now had charge of her ma- 
jesty's oratory at Whitehall, with a yearly 
salary of 500/., a like sum for his table, and 
100/. for the requirements of the oratory, and 
was provided with a state apartment. He 
was popular at the English court, and on ac- 
j count of his liberal charities was known as 
f the common father of the poor.' He alone 
was allowed to appear in public habited as 
an ecclesiastic, and by dispensation he wore 
the dress of a French abbs'. Pepys visited 
him at St. James's Palace 23 Jan. 1666-7 
with Lord Brouncker ; found him to be l a 
good-natured gentleman ; ' discussed church 
music with him, and was shown by him over 
1 the new monastery/ both * talking merrily 
about the difference in our religion ' (PEPYS, 
Diary, iii. 47-9). 

Previously to his settlement in England 
he obtained from the master-general (3 April 
1660) leave to restore to the English province 
the second order of the rule of St. Dominic 
by erecting in Belgium a convent for religious 
women. Accordingly, his cousin, Antonia 
Ho ward, was clothed by him in the habit of 
the order in the nunnery at Tempsche, near 
Bornhem, and he shortly afterwards pur- 
chased for her the convent of Vilvorde in 
South Brabant. This establishment he re- 
moved to Brussels in 1690. In 1660 he 
was appointed prior of Bornhem for another 
triennial period, and in the same year he was 
made vicar-general of the English province. 
After his second priorship terminated he 
continued his jurisdiction over the convent, 
as his brethren would not elect any one 
else in his place. He was created a master 
of theology 7 March 1661-2. He assisted at 
the congress held at Breda in June 1667. 

In 1669 the holy see determined to appoint 
Howard vicar-apostolic of England, with a 
see in partibus. Dr. Richard Smith, the 
second vicar-apostolic of all England, had 
died in 1655, but no successor had been ap- 
pointed since. The English chapter now 
approved the selection of Howard, but re- 
solved, on grounds of political expediency, 
' that under no pretence or palliation what- 
ever the words vicarius apostolicus be ad- 
mitted ; ' that the bishop should have ordinary 



jurisdiction, and that the right of the old 
English chapters to choose their bishop and 
chapter-men should be respected by the court 
of Rome (SEKGEANT, Account of the Chapter, 
ed. Turnbull, p. 94). In consequence of the 
report of the Abbate Claudius Agretti, who 
had been sent to England to examine the ques- 
tion, the propaganda resolved on 9 Sept. 1670 
to give the English vicariate to Howard, but 
it was not until 26 April 1672 that another 
decree, passed in a ' particular congregation,' 
received the sanction of the pope. The briefs 
were then issued, and sent to the internuncio 
at Brussels, who was instructed to deliver 
them at his discretion. That for Howard's 
see in partibus was dated 16 May, and in it 
he was styled bishop-elect of Helenopolis. 
In April 1672 the chapter of England had 
again resolved 'that the name of vicar-apo- 
stolic be not admitted.' The second brief 
granting Howard the vicariate consequently 
contained a clause that the bishop-elect was 
to promise that he would not recognise the 
' chapter of England ' by word or deed. In 
an audience held on the 24th of the following 
August the pope was informed that the king, 
in the catholic interest, demanded the sus- 
pension of Howard's briefs. Consequently 
they were not published, and the bishop-elect 
was not consecrated (BEADY, Episcopal Suc- 
cession, ii\. 129). 

His proselytising zeal and the part he took 
in promoting the declaration of indulgence 
rendered Howard particularly odious to the 
protestant party. Eventually he was charged 
by the dean and chapter of Windsor with 
authorising the insertion in some books of 
devotion of the pontifical bulls of indul- 
gence granted to the recitation of the rosary. 
Under the penal laws the offence amounted to 
high treason. Howard pleaded in vain that 
he had only followed the example of the Ca- 
puchin chaplains of Queen Henrietta Maria. 
Popular feeling ran high against him, and he 
sought an asylum at Bornhem, where he 
arrived in September 1674, and resumed his 
duties as prior. On 27 May 1675 he was 
created a cardinal-priest by Clement X, 
mainly owing to the influence of his old friend 
John Baptist Racket, now the pope's con- 
fessor. Soon afterwards Howard left for 
Rome. Among the distinguished company 
who attended him were his uncle William 
Howard, viscount Stafford [q. v.], Lord Tho- 
mas Howard, his nephew, and John Leyburn, 
president of the English College of Douay, 
his secretary and auditor. For defraying the 
expenses of this journey he had * the assist- 
ance of the pope, and not of King Charles II 
and Queen Catherine, as the common report 
then went' (WooD, Athene? Oxon. ed. Bliss ; 

, Hist. o/Arundel, p. 532). The hat 
was placed on his head by the pope, and he- 
took the title of S. Cecilia trans Tyberim, 
which after the death of the cardinal de Retz r 
in 1679, he changed for that of S. Maria 
super Minervam. Clement X declared him r 
23 March 1675-6, assistant of the four con- 
gregations, of bishops and regulars, of the- 
council of Trent, of the propaganda, and of 
sacred rites. Innocent XI afterwards placed 
him on the congregation of relics. He was 
commonly called the cardinal of Norfolk, or 
the cardinal of England (DoDD, Church Hist* 
iii. 446). 

Howard was charged with complicity in 
the 'Popish plot.' Gates swore that in a con- 
gregation of the propaganda held about De- 
cember 1677, Innocent XI had declared all 
the dominions of the king of England to be- 
part of St. Peter's patrimony, and to be for- 
feited through the heresy of the prince and 
people, and that Howard was to take pos- 
session of England in the name of his holi- 
ness. Gates also swore he had seen a papal 
bull, by which the archbishopric of Canter- 
bury was given to Howard, with an aug- 
mentation of forty thousand crowns a year to- 
maintain his legatine dignity. The cardinal 
was consequently impeached for high trea- 
son, but he was at Rome and beyond the 
reach of danger. 

At the request of Charles II, Pope Inno- 
cent XI nominated him cardinal protector of 
England and Scotland, in succession to Car- 
dinal Francesco Barberini, who died in 1679. 
In this capacity he was the chief counsellor 
of the holy see in matters relating to Great 
Britain. He addressed an admirable epistle 
on 7 April 1684 to the clergy of the two 
countries, particularly recommending to them 
the ' Institutum clericorum in coinmuni vi- 
ventium' which had been established in 
Germany. It flourished in England for a 
few years, but was dissolved in consequence 
of misunderstandings between the members 
and the rest of the secular clergy, and its 
funds were devoted to the establishment of 
the ' common purse,' or secular clergy fund r 
which still exists. Under Howard's direc- 
tion the fine new buildings of the English 
College at Rome and his own adjoining 
palace were completed in 1685 from the 
designs of Legenda and Carlo Fontana. He 
used his palace only on state occasions, for 
though he had a pension of ten thousand 
scudi (about 2,250/.) from the pope, and 
apartments in the Vatican, he chose to lead 
the simple life of a friar in the convent of 
S. Sabina. He seconded the efforts of the 
English clergy to secure episcopal govern- 
ment, and at length in 1685 a vicar-apostolic 




was appointed, and in 1687 England was 
divided by Innocent XI into four ecclesi- 
astical districts, over which vicars-apostolic 
were appointed to preside [see GIFFAED, 
BONA VENTURE]. Howard was made arch- 
priest of S. Maria Maggiore in 1689, and re- 
tained that dignity until his death. Among 
his friends were the three sons of John 
Dryden, the youngest of whom, Thomas, 
joined the Dominican order by his advice. 

He viewed with dismay the reckless policy 
pursued by James II, and his alarm was 
shared by Innocent XI. Every letter which 
Howard sent from the Vatican to Whitehall 
' recommended patience, moderation, and re- 
spect for the prejudices of the English people' 
(MACAULAY, Hist, of England, ch. iv.) Burnet 
visited Rome in August 1685, before James 
had entered on his violent policy, and he was 
treated by the cardinal ' with great freedom.' 
The cardinal told him (Own Time, ed. 1724, 
i. 66) ' that all the advices writ over from 
thence to England were for slow, calm, and 
moderate courses. He said he wished he was 
at liberty to show me the copies of them. 
But he saw violent courses were more ac- 
ceptable, and would probably be followed. 
And he added that these were the production 
of England, far different from the counsels of 
Rome.' But in December 1687 Luttrell 
mentions a rumour that Howard was to be 
appointed the king's almoner. When the 
birth of James Francis Edward, prince of 
Wales (10 June 1688), was announced at 
Rome, Howard gave a feast, in which an ox 
was roasted whole, being stuffed with lambs, 
fowls, and provisions of all kinds. The inci- 
dent is commemorated in a scarce print by 
Vesterhout, entitled ' II Bue Arrostito.' 

After the revolution Howard's direct in- 
tercourse with England was cut off. In 
June 1693 he is said to have obtained a papal 
brief to send to England exhorting the ca- 
tholics there to remain firm to James II 
(LUTTEELL, iii. 108). He died at Rome on 
17 June 1694, aged 63, having lived just long 
enough to see his province restored lastingly, 
and as fully as the circumstances of the age 
permitted. He was interred in his titular 
church, S. Maria sopra Minerva, under a 
plain slab of white marble, which bears the 
Howard arms and an epitaph (see the inscrip- 
tion in Notes and Queries, 6th ser. i. 26). 

His portrait by Rubens was formerly at 
Lord Spencer's seat at Wimbledon (WAL- 
POLE, Anecd. of Painting, ed. 1767, ii. 94). 
There is a portrait of him in the monastery 
of the Minerva at Rome: another in the 
picture gallery at Oxford ; a full-length, by 
Carlo Maratti, at Castle Howard; a half- 
length, in a square scarlet cap, at Worksop 

Manor ; a similar portrait at Grey stoke Castle ; 
and a miniature, painted in oil on copper by 
an unknown artist, in the National Portrait 
Gallery. Portraits of him have been en- 
graved by N. Noblin ; by J. Van derBruggen, 
from a painting by Duchatel (one of the 
finest engravings) ; by Nicolo Byle ; by A. 
Clouet, in 'Vitae Pontif. et Cardinalium/ 
2 vols. fol. Rome, 1751 ; by Zucchi ; by Poilly ; 
and in the ' Laity's Directory,' 1809, from a 
large portrait painted at Rome by H. Tilson 
in 1687. A medal, with his portrait on the 
obverse, is engraved in Mudie's 'English 

[The principal authority is the valuable Life 
of Philip Thomas Howard, O.P., Cardinal of 
Norfolk, by Father Charles Ferrers Raymund 
Palmer, O.P., London, 1867, 8vo, based mainly 
on original records in the archives of the English 
Dominican friars ; consult also Brady's Episcopal 
Succession, iii. 531 ; Gillow's Diet, of English 
Catholics ; Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 445 ; Stot- 
hart's Catholic Mission in Scotland, p. 197; 
Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), i. 622 ; Godwin, 
De Prsesulibus (Richardson), ii. 798 ; Collins's 
Peerage, 1779, i. 126 ; Gent. Mag. vol. xciii. pt. i. 
p. 412; Granger's Biog. Hist, of England, 5th 
edit. v. 89 ; Scharfs Cat. of Nat. Portrait Gallery, 
1888, p. 232 ; Sir T. Browne's Works (Wilkin), 
i. 47 ; Husenbeth's English Colleges on the Con- 
tinent, pp. 41, 94 ; Pepys's Diary, 23 Jan. 1666- 
1667; Evelyn's Diary (Bray), i. 365, ii. 45; 
Evelyn's Sylva, 1776, p. 394; Howard's Indica- 
tion of Memorials of the Howard Family, pp. 37- 
39 ; Archaeological Journal, xii. 65 ; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. viii. 53, 75 ; Cat. of Dawson 
Turner's MSS. p. 27 ; Dublin Review, new ser. 
xi. 275 ; Secretan's Life of Robert Nelson, pp. 
23, 36 ; Pennant's Journey from Dover to the 
Isle of Wight, p. 99 ; Strickland's Queens of 
England, 1851, v. 651,654; Tierney's Hist, of 
Arundel, pp. 480, 511, 522, 530; Birch MSS. 
4274, f. 158; Addit. MSS. 5848 p. 46, 5850 
p. 186, 5872 f. 3 b, 15908 ff. 18-26, 20846 f. 346, 
23720 ff. 25, 29, 42, 28225 ff. 146, 368, 28226 
f. 11.] T. C. 

HOWARD, RALPH, M.D. (1638-1710), 
professor of physic at Dublin, born in 1638, 
was only son of John Howard (d. 1643) of 
Shelton, co. Wicklow, Ireland, by his wife 
Dorothea Hasels (d. 1684). He was educated 
in the university of Dublin, and proceeded 
M.D. in 1667. He succeeded Dr. John Mar- 
^etson in 1670 as regius professor of physic 
in that university, and held the chair until 
his death. He left Ireland in 1688, and was 
attainted by James II's parliament in 1689, 
while his estate in co. Wicklow was handed 
over to one Hacket, who entertained James 
at Shelton after the battle of the Boyne. 
Boward subsequently returned to Dublin and 
recovered his property. He died on 8 Aug. 
1710. He married on 16 July 1668 Catherine, 



eldest daughter of Roger Sotheby, M.P. for 
Wicklow city, and by her had three sons 
Hugh [q. v.], Robert (see below), and Wil- 
liam (M.P. for Dublin city from 1727 till his 
death in the next year), and three daughters. 

HOWARD, ROBERT (1683-1740), bishop of 
Elphin, was Ralph Howard's second son. 
He obtained a fellowship in Trinity College, 
Dublin, in 1703, became dean of Ardagh in 
1722, was consecrated to the see of Killala 
in 1726, and in 1729 was translated to that 
of Elphin. In 1728 he succeeded his elder 
brother William in the estate of Shelton 
Abbey, co. Wicklow. In 1737 he brought 
thither the works of art which he inherited 
from his brother Hugh. He died in April 
1740. He published six single sermons, 
preached on public occasions. 

1786), eldest son of the bishop, was sheriff 
of co. Wicklow 1749, and of co. Carlow 
1754; in 1761 and 1768 was elected M.P. 
for both co. Wicklow and the borough of St. 
Johnstown ; in May 1770 was sworn of the 
privy council ; on 12 July 1776 was raised 
to the Irish peerage as Baron Clonmore of 
Clonmore Castle, co. Carlow, and on 23 June 
1785 was promoted to be Viscount Wicklow. 
He died on 26 June 1786. His widow, Alice, 
daughter and sole heiress of William Forward 
of Castle Forward, co. Donegal, was created 
Countess of Wicklow in her own right 20 Dec. 
1793. She died on 7 March 1807. Her son 
Robert succeeded her as Earl of Wicklow, 
and sat as a representative peer in the united 
parliament of 1801. The present and seventh 
earl (b. 1877) is his great-grandnephew. 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, ed. Archdall, 
vi.85, under 'Wicklow;' Foster's Peerage, under 
* Wicklow ; ' Todd's Cat. of Dublin Graduates ; 
Dublin University Calendar; Cotton's Fasti 
Eccles. Hib. iii. 188, iv. 75 ; Cat. Library, Trinity 
College, Dublin.] W. R-L. 

1848), physician, son of Charles Howard of 
Hull and his wife Mary Baron of Manchester, 
was born at Melbourne, East Riding of York- 
shire, on 18 Oct. 1807. He was educated at 
Northallerton, and in 1823 removed to Edin- 
burgh, where he obtained a surgeon's diploma. 
In 1829 he became a licentiate of the Apothe- 
caries' Society in London, and took the de- 
gree of M.D. at Edinburgh. His thesis was 
entitled *De Hydrocephalo Acuto.' From 
1829 to 1833 he was physician's clerk in the 
Manchester Infirmary, and from 1833 until 
February 1838 acted as medical officer at the 
Manchester workhouse, subsequently hold- 
ing the office of physician to the Ardwick 
and Ancoats Dispensary in the same town. 
During this time his work had been mainly 

among the poor, and his deep interest in their 
condition led him in 1839 to publish ' An In- 
quiry into the Morbid Effects of Deficiency 
of Food, chiefly with reference to their oc- 
currence amongst the Destitute Poor.' In 
the following year, at the invitation of the 
poor-law commissioners, he wrote a t Report 
upon the prevalence of Disease arising from 
Contagion, Malaria, and certain other Physi- 
cal Causes amongst the Labouring Classes in 
Manchester.' At a later period he again 
wrote on the same subject in J. Adshead's 
pamphlet on the state of the working classes 
in Manchester. In 1842, on being appointed 
physician to the infirmary, he printed ' An 
Address delivered to the Pupils,' &c. His 
other appointments were those of physician 
at Haydock Lodge Lunatic Asylum and lec- 
turer at the Manchester College of Medicine. 
He had an extensive connection with the 
scientific societies of the town, where he was 
warmly esteemed as a lecturer, practitioner, 
and philanthropist. He died at his father's 
house at York on 9 April 1848, after a pain- 
ful illness, and was buried in the neighbour- 
ing cemetery. 

[Brit, and For. Medico- Chirurgical Review, 
quoted in Gent. Mag., September 1848, p. 323; 
S. Hibbert- Ware's Life and Corresp. p. 451.] 

c. w. s. 

HpWARD, SIR ROBERT (1585-1653), 
politician, born in 1585, was fifth son of Tho- 
mas Howard, first earl of Suffolk [q. v.], by 
his second wife, Catherine. He was uncle of 
his namesake, the historian and poet [see 
HOWARD, SIR ROBERT, 1626-1698], and 
brother of Theophilus, second earl of Suffolk 
[q. v.], and of Edward, first lord Howard of 
Escrick [q.v.] Robert and his younger brother 
William (1600-1672) were made knights of 
the Bath 4 Nov. 1616, when Prince Charles, 
afterwards Charles I, was created Prince of 
Wales (HOWARD, Family Memorials, fol.) 
At te death of an elder brother, Sir Charles 
Howard of Clun, in connection with whose 
estate he was granted letters of administra- 
tion 21 June 1626, Howard succeeded to 
the property of Clun Castle, Shropshire, as 
heir of entail under the settlement of his 
great-uncle, the Earl of Nottingham. In 
1624 he became notorious by his intrigue with 
Frances, viscountess Purbeck, the proceedings 
connected with which increased the unpopu- 
larity of the Star-chamber. The lady, daugh- 
ter of Sir Edward Coke [q. v.], had been forced 
into a marriage with Sir John Villiers, first 
viscount Purbeck, brother of George Villiers, 
first duke of Buckingham. After living 
some time apart from her husband she was 
privately delivered, on 19 Oct. 1624, of a son, 
baptised at Cripplegate under the name of 




* Robert Wright,' of which Howard was the 
reputed father. Buckingham had the pair 
cited before the high commission court (Star- 
chamber), 19 Feb. 1625 (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1623-5, pp. 47 1-2, 474, 478-9). Howard 
was committed a close prisoner to the Fleet 
(ib. p. 497). He was publicly excommuni- 
cated at Paul's Cross for refusing to answer 
questions on oath, 23 March 1625 ($.p. 507) ; 
but he appears to have been pardoned at the 
coronation of Charles I. Lady Purbeck was 
sentenced to a fine of five hundred marks, to 
be imprisoned during the pleasure of the high 
commission court, and to do penance at the 
Savoy. She evaded the penalties by escaping 
to France. When the storm was over she 
returned to England. On the allegation that 
she then lived with Howard at his house in 
Shropshire, and had other children by him,' 
the Star-chamber proceedings were afterwards 
renewed. In April 1635 Howard, for not 
producing Lady Purbeck as ordered, was 
committed a close prisoner to the Fleet, with- 
out use of pen, ink, or paper for three months. 
He was then enjoined to keep from her com- 
pany, and enlarged on giving a bond for 
2,000, and finding a surety in 1,500/. for his 
personal appearance within twenty-four hours 
if called upon (ib. p. 1635). Howard was 
returned to parliament as member for the 
borough of Bishops Castle, Shropshire, on 
21 Jan. 1623-4, and was re-elected in 1625, 
1626, 1628, and to both the Short and Long 
parliaments in 1640. At the opening of the 
last parliament in 1640, the Star-chamber 
proceedings were brought before the House 
of Commons on a question of privilege. 
The proceedings against him were declared 
illegal. A sum of 1,000/. was voted to 
Howard in compensation for false imprison- 
ment, and a fine of 500/. was imposed on 
Archbishop Laud, the president of the high 
commission court, and one of 250/. on each 
of his legal assistants, Sir Henry Martin and 
Sir Edward Lambe (Commons' Journals, i. 
820-70 ; Lords' 1 Journals, iv. ff. 106, 113, 114, 
117). Laud complains in his memoirs that 
he had to sell some of his plate to pay the 
fine. Lady Purbeck died in 1645 [see art. 
on her son, DANVEKS, ROBERT]. 

In 1642 Howard was expelled from the 
House of Commons for executing the king's 
commission of array (Par I. Hist. xii. 4). He 
attended the royal summons to the parlia- 
ment at Oxford in the following year. His 
name does not appear in the list of officers of 
the royal army in 1642 in the Bodleian Li- 
brary (PEACOCK, Army Lists of the Cavaliers 
and Roundheads, London, 1862) ; but he is 
said to have commanded a regiment of dra- 
goons, and was governor of Bridgnorth Castle 

when it surrendered to the parliamentary 
forces 26 April 1646. His estates were se- 
questered, for which he had to pay 952/. in 
compensation on recovery. He died 22 April 
1653, and was buried at Clun. 

In 1648 Howard married Catherine, daugh- 
ter of Sir Henry Ne vill, se v enth baron Aberga- 
venny, by whom he had two sons and a daugh- 
ter (Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 5834, p. 17). His 
widow, as guardian of his eldest son Henry, 
filed a petition, 7 July 1663, against the 
second reading of a bill to confirm the sale of 
certain lands in Shropshire by Sir Robert 
Howard to pay his debts (Lords' Journals, xi. 
ff. 549, 554). She remarried John Berry of 
Ludlow, Shropshire. 

[The only full and authentic account of 
Howard is in H. K. S. Causton's Howard 
Papers (1862), pp. 524-612. His pedigree is 
traced in Ashtead and its Howard Possessors. 
Some incidental details will be found in Collins's 
Peerage, 1812 ed. vol. iii. under 'Suffolk' and 
' Jersey.' Additional particulars will be found 
in the volumes of Acts of the High Commission 
Court and other records indexed in the printed 
Calendars of State Papers, Dom. Ser., for the 
reigns of James I and Charles I ; see also Gar- 
diner's Hist. viii. 144-5.] H. M. C. 

HOWARD, SIB ROBERT (1626-1698), 
dramatist, born in 1626, was the sixth son of 
Thomas Howard, first earl of Berkshire, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of William Cecil, lord 
Burghley, afterwards second earl of Exeter. 
His brothers Edward and James Howard are 
separately noticed. Wood states that he was 
educated at Magdalen College, Oxford ; but 
Cole (Athence Cantabr.}, who has partly con- 
fused him with his uncle, also Sir Robert 
Howard [q. v.], suspects that he belonged to 
Magdalene College, Cambridge. At the out- 
break of the civil wars he joined the royalists, 
and on 29 June 1644 he was knighted on the 
field nearNewbury for his bravery in rescuing 
Lord Wilmot from the parliamentarians at the 
battle of Cropredy Bridge. Under the Com- 
monwealth he suffered imprisonment at 
Windsor Castle. At the Restoration he was 
returned to parliament for Stockbridge, 
Hampshire; was made a knight of the Bath; 
became secretary to the commissioners of the 
treasury ; and in 1677 he was filling the lu- 
crative post, which he held till his death, of 
auditor of the exchequer. ' Many other places 
and boons he has had/ writes a hostile pam- 
phleteer, ' but his w Uphill spends all, 

and now refuses to marry him ' (A Seasonable 
Argument to persuade all the Grand Juries 
in England to petition for a new Parliament, 
1677) ; his profits were sufficient, at all events, 
to enable him in 1680 to purchase the Ashtead 
estate in Surrey. On 9April 1678 he impeached 



' Sir William Penn in the House of Lords for 
breaking bulk and taking away rich goods 
out of the East India prizes formerly taken 
by the Earl of Sandwich' (EVELYN, Diary, 
ii. 229). On 4 Feb. 1678-9 he was returned 
M.P. for Castle Rising in Norfolk, which he 
continued to represent in every parliament, 
except that of 1685, until June 1698. Though 
a strong whig (cf. PEPYS, 8 Dec. 1666), he 
was active in his efforts to induce parliament 
to vote money for Charles II, and incurred 
odium thereby. At the revolution he was ad- 
mitted (February 1688-9) to the privy council. 
In June 1689 he introduced the debate on the 
case of Gates in the Commons. On 2 Jan. 
1689-90 he added a clause to the whig bill 
for restoring the charters which had been sur- 
rendered in the late reign ; it was directed 
against those who had been parties to such 
surrenders. Early in July 1690 he was one 
of the commissioners to inquire into the 
state of the fleet (LTJTTRELL, ii. 74), and 
on 29 July he was appointed ' to command 
all and singular the regiments and troops 
of militia horse which are or shall be drawn 
together under the command of John, Earl 
of Marlborough' throughout England and 
Wales (Public Records, Home Office, Mili- 
tary Entry Book, vol. ii. ff. 142-3; LUT- 
TKELL, ii. 88-9). On 26 Feb. 1692-3 he 
married Annabella Dives (aged 18), a maid 
of honour. She was his fourth wife ; after 
Sir Robert's death she married the Rev. Ed- 
mund Martin, and died in 1728. Howard's 
first wife is supposed to have been an actress 
(cf. EVELYN, ii. 211), apparently Mrs. Up- 
hill; his second wife was probably Lady 
Honora O'Brien, daughter of the Earl of 
Thomond, and widow of Sir Francis Ingle- 
field. Howard died on 3 Sept. 1698 (' aged 
near 80,' says Luttrell), and was buried 'in 
Westminster Abbey. About 1684 he built 
for himself an elaborate house at Ashtead, 
and had the staircase painted by Verrio (ib. 
ii. 431). Evelyn sums up the estimation in 
which he was held, by Dryden as well as 
others (cf. 'Defence of the Essay of Dramatic 
Poesy,' in 2nd edit, of the Indian Emperor), 
when he describes him as ' pretending to all 
manner of arts and sciences . . . not ill-natured, 
but insufferably boasting' (ib. ii. 450). Shad- 
well ridiculed him under the character of Sir 
Positive At- All in ' The Sullen Lovers,' 1668 
(#.) Lady Vane, in the same play, was sup- 
posed to represent the mistress of Howard, 
who became his first wife. The author of 
the * Key to the Rehearsal ' states that Howard 
was the chief figure, Bilboa, in the first sketch 
of 'The Rehearsal/ 1664, but others identify 
Bilboa with D'Avenant. Contemptuous re- 
ference is made to his literary pretensions in 

the ' Session of the Poets,' which appears in 
' State Poems,' 1699, pt. i. p. 206. His por- 
trait was painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller. 
Thomas Howard (1651-1701), his son and 
heir, probably by his second wife, succeeded 
to the Ashtead property, and was teller of 
the exchequer.-^One of his daughters, Mary, 
born 28 Dec. 1653, was sent in her nineteenth 
year to Paris because she had attracted the 
notice of Charles II at a play. She became 
a Roman catholic, and entered the English 
convent of Poor Clares at Rouen, of which 
she became abbess in 1702 ; she died at Rouen 
21 March 1735. Known as Mary of the 
Holy Cross, she wrote several works of devo- 
tion, one of which, ' The Chief Points of Our 
Holy Ceremonies . . .,' was published in 1726. 
Her life was written by Alban Butler (GiL- 
LOW, Bibl. Diet, of the Eng. Cath., iii. 435). 
Howard is chiefly remembered as the author 
of 'The Committee ' and as the brother-in-law 
of Dryden. His first work was a collection 
of 'Poems,' 1660, 8vo (2nd ed. 1696), which 
Scott justly pronounced to be { productions of 
a most freezing mediocrity' (SCOTT, Dryden, 
1821, xi. 6). Dryden prefixed a copy of com- 
mendatory verses ; he was then living with 
Henry Herringham, Howard's publisher. In 
1665 Howard published ' Foure New Plays/ 
1 vol., fol. 'Surprisal' and ' Committee r 
(comedies), ' Vestal Virgin ' and ' Indian 
Queen ' (tragedies). Evelyn was present at 
a performance of the ' Committee ' on 27 Nov. 
1662, and calls it a ridiculous play, but adds 
that ' this mimic Lacy acted the Irish foot- 
man to admiration/ a reference to the cha- 
racter of Teague, which was suggested by 
one of Howard's own servants (C. HOWARD,. 
Anecd. of some of the Hoivard Family, p. Ill ).. 
Pepys saw the piece at the Theatre Royal on 
12 June 1663, and describes it as 'a merry but 
indifferent play/ but, like Evelyn, commends 
Lacy's acting. It is the best of Howard's 
plays, and long held the stage. An adaptation 
(by T. Knight), under the title of ' The Honest 
Thieves/ was acted at Covent Garden on 9 May 
1797, and became a stock play. The 'Vestal 
Virgin' was fitted with two fifth acts; it was 
intended for a tragedy, but might be turned 
into a comedy (after the manner of Suckling's 
' Aglaura'). In the ' Indian Queen/ a tragedy 
in heroic verse, Howard was assisted by 
Dryden. The applause it received was largely 
due to the scenery and dresses. Evelyn re- 
cords that the scenery was ' the richest ever 
seen in England, or perhaps elsewhere upon a 
public stage ' (Memoirs, 5 Feb. 1664). Howard 
does not mention that Dryden was concerned 
in the authorship ; but Dryden, in the preface 
to the 'Indian Emperor' which was de- 
signed as a sequel to the ' Indian Queen ' 

" ' A paper written by Thomas Howard, 
giving genealogical details of the family of 
Sir Robert, is inserted in MS. Ashmole 

243, f. 193, in the Bodleian (Notes and 
Queries., clxxvii. 7).' 




states that lie wrote part of the earlier play. 
In the dedicatory epistle before the ' Rival 
Ladies,' 1664, Dryden had contended that 
rhyme is more suitable than blank verse for 
dramatic purposes. Howard (whose blank 
verse is execrable) opposed this view in the 
preface to ' Foure New Plays ; ' Dryden re- 
plied in the ' Essay of Dramatic Poesy/ 1668 ; 
Howard retorted somewhat superciliously in 
the preface to his ' Great Favourite ; or the 
Duke of Lerma ; a Tragedy,' 1668, 4to ; and 
Dryden had the last word in a politely iro- 
nical ' Defence of an Essay,' &c. (which he sub- 
sequently cancelled), prefixed to the second 
edition of the ' Indian Emperor,' 1668 [see 
DRYDEN, JOHN]. In 1668 Howard dedicated 
to Buckingham ' The Duel of the Staggs ; a 
Poem,' 4to, which was satirised by Lord 
Buckhurst in a poem entitled ' The Duel of 
the Crabs ' (cf. State Poems, 1699, pt. i. p. 201). 

The five plays mentioned above were col- 
lected in 1692, fol., and again in 1722, 12mo ; 
a sixth, ' The Blind Lady,' was printed with 
the 'Poems;' the 'Conquest of China by the 
Tartars,' a tragedy, which Dryden expressed 
the intention of altering at a cost of ' six 
weeks' study,' was never published (Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. v. 225, 281). Howard's 
prose writings are ' Reign of King Richard II,' 
1681, 8vo ; 'Account of the State of his Ma- 
jesties Revenue,' 1681, fol.; 'Historical Ob- 
servations on the Reigns of Edward I, II, III, 
and Richard II,' 1689, 4to ; 'Reigns of Edward 
and Richard II,' 1690, 12mo; and ' History of 
Religion, by a Person of Quality,' 1694, 8vo. 

' L Ashtead and its Howard Possessors (privately 
printed), 1873; Langbaine's Dram. Poets, with 
Oldys's MS. Annotations; Wood's Athense, ed. 
Bliss; Macaulay's Hist. ; Pepys's Diary ; Evelyn's 
Diary; Luttrell's Brief Relation; Memoirs of 
Sir John Reresby, p. 226 ; Gibber's Lives ; 
Jacob's Poet. Eeg. ; Baker's Biog. Dram., ed. 
Jones ; Scott's Dryden, 1821 ; Genest's Account 
of the English Stage.] A. H. B. 

HOWARD, SAMUEL (1710-1782), or- 
ganist and composer, born in 1710, was a 
chorister of the Chapel Royal under Dr. Wil- 
liam Croft [q. v.] After continuing his musi- 
cal studies under Pepusch, he became organist 
of St. Clement Danes, Strand, and St. Bride's, 
Fleet Street. In 1769 he graduated Mus.Doc. 
at Cambridge. He died on 13 July 1782, at 
his house in Norfolk Street, Strand. 

Howard composed much popular music. 
His incidental music to the ' Amorous God- 
dess ' was performed at Drury Lane, and pub- 
lished in 1744. His two songs in ' Love in 
a Village' (1764?), '0 had I been by Fate 
decreed/ and ' How much superior beauty 
awes,' were sung by Incledon and Mattocks, 
and he was part composer of ' Netley Abbey ' 

and ' The Mago and the Dago.' His church 
music includes the anthem for voices and 
orchestra, ' This is the Day,' performed at St. 
Margaret's, 1792, and several psalm and hymn 
tunes, two, named respectively ' Howard' and 
' St. Brides/ being widely known. His songs 
are numerous. A collection called 'The Mu- 
sical Companion/ 1775 ?, contains about fifty 
of his cantatas, solos, and^duets. The ac- 
companiments are for harpsichord and violin. 
The words of 'To Sylvia' are by Garrick ; of 
' Would you long preserve a Lover ? ' by Con- 
greve ; and ' Florellio and Daphne ' by Shen- 
stone. The collection includes Howard's ' Lass 
of St. Osyth/ 'Advice to Chloe/ and his 'Six 
Songs sung by Miss Davies atVauxhall. 7 Other 
songs by Howard not included in this volume 
are ' Lucinda's Name,' addressed to the Prin- 
cess Amelia, 1740? 'Nutbrown Maid/ and 'I 
like the Man ' (1750 ?). Some of his songs 
also appeared in the ' British Orpheus/ bk. iv., 
and in the 'Vocal Musical Mask.' His style 
was dull, even in his most admired 'musettes.' 
Howard assisted Boyce in the compilation of 
' Cathedral Music/ and his most valuable work 
is probably to be found there. 

[Gent. Mag. lii. 359 ; A.B.C. Dario Musico ; 
Diet, of Music, 1827, i. 378; Grove's Diet, of 
Music, i. 759 ; Brown's Biog. Diet. p. 334 ; 
Howard's music in the British Museum Library.] 

L. M. M. 

EARL OP SUFFOLK (1584-1640), baptised on 
13 Aug. 1584, was the eldest son of Thomas, 
first earl of Suffolk (1561-1626) [q. v.], by 
his second wife, Catherine, widow of Richard, 
eldest son of Robert, lord Rich, and daughter 
and coheiress of Sir Henry Knevet, knt., of 
Charlton, Wiltshire (DoTLE, Official Baron- 
age, iii. 449-50). As Lord Howard of Wai- 
den he was created M.A. of Oxford on 
30 Aug. 1605 (WooD, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
ii. 314), and from 4 Nov. 1605 to 8 Feb. 
1610 he sat as M.P. for Maldon, Essex (Lists 
of Members of Parliament, Official Return, 
pt. i. p. 443). On the latter date he was 
summoned to the upper house as Baron 
Howard de Walden. He became joint steward 
of several royal manors in South Wales on 
30 June 1606, lieutenant of the band of 
gentlemen pensioners in July of the same 
year, councillor for the colony of Virginia 
on 23 May 1609, and governor of Jersey and 
Castle Cornet on 26 March 1610. In the 
latter year he served as a volunteer with the 
English forces at the siege of Juliers, and 
there engaged in a notable quarrel with Ed- 
ward, lord Herbert of Cherbury (HERBERT, 
Autobiography, ed. 1886, pp. 73-7, and App.) 
He became keeper in reversion of the Tower of 
Greenwich on 2 July 1611, keeper of Green- 



wich Park six days later, and joint lord-lieu- 
tenant of Cumberland, Westmoreland, and 
Northumberland on 11 Feb. 1614. On 14 July 
of the last-named year he was promoted to 
the captaincy of the band of gentlemen pen- 
sioners, but had to resign it on the disgrace of 
his father in December 1619. After January 
1619 he was made vice-admiral of North- 
umberland, Durham, Cumberland, West- 
moreland, and Dorsetshire, and was reap- 
pointed captain of the band of gentlemen 
pensioners in January 1620, a post which he 
held until May 1635. On 28 May 1626 he 
succeeded his father as second Earl of Suffolk 
and hereditary visitor of Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, and was appointed during the 
same year lord-lieutenant of Cambridge- 
shire, Suffolk, Dorsetshire, and the town 
of Poole (15 June) and a privy councillor 
(12 Nov.) He was installed high steward of 
Ipswich on 19 March 1627, K.G. on 24 April 
following, lord warden of the Cinque ports 
and constable of Dover Castle on 22 July 
1628, lieutenant of the Cinque ports on 2 Sept. 
of the same year, governor of Berwick in 
June 1635, and a commissioner of regency 
on 26 March 1639. Howard died on 3 June 
1640 at Suffolk House in the Strand, and 
was buried at Saffron Walden, Essex ( Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1640, p. 266). In March 
1612 he married Lady Elizabeth Home, 
daughter and coheiress of George Home, earl 
of Dunbar [q. v.], and by this lady, who died 
on 19 Aug. 1633, had four sons and five daugh- 
ters. His eldest son, James Howard, third 
earl of Suffolk, is separately noticed. 
[Authorities in the text.] G. G. 

the Howard house (1443-1524), warrior and 
statesman, was only son of Sir John Howard, 
afterwards first duke of Norfolk [q. v.], by 
his wife Catharine, daughter of William, 
lord Moleyns. He was born in 1443, was 
educated at the school at Thetford, and 
began a long career of service at court as 
henchman to Edward IV. He took part 
in the war which broke out in 1469 be- 
tween the king and the Earl of Warwick, 
and when, in 1470, Edward was driven to 
flee to Holland, Howard took sanctuary at 
Colchester. On Edward's return in 1471, 
Howard joined him and fought by his side 
in the battle of Barnet. On 30 April 1472 
he married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress 
of Sir Frederick Tilney, and widow of Hum- 
phrey, lord Berners. Soon afterwards he 
went as a volunteer to the camp of Charles, 
duke of Burgundy, who was threatening war 
against Louis XI of France. He did not see 

much service, and after the truce of Senlis 
came back to England, where he was made 
, esquire of the body to Edward IV in 1473. 
In June 1475 he led six men-at-arms and 
two hundred archers to join the king's army 
in France; but Edward soon made peace 
with Louis XI, and led his forces home with- 
out a battle. Howard then took up his abode 
at his wife's house of Ashwellthorpe Hall, 
Norfolk, where he lived the life of a country 
gentleman, and in 1476 was made sheriff of 
the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, On 
18 Jan. 1478 he was knighted by Edward IV 
at the marriage between the king's second 
son, the young Duke of York (then created 
also Duke of Norfolk), and Lady Anne Mow- 
bray, only child of John, duke of Norfolk. 
Anne Mowbray died in 1483, before the con- 
summation of her marriage, and the direct 
line of the Mowbrays became extinct, where- 
upon Howard's father, as next of kin, was 
created Duke of Norfolk, and his son Earl 
of Surrey. In the same year Surrey was 
made knight of the Garter, was sworn of the 
privy council, and was appointed lord steward 
of the household. 

Surrey had now taken his place as a cour- 
tier and an official, and henceforth was dis- 
tinguished by loyalty to the actual wearer 
of the crown, whoever he might be. He 
acquiesced in Eichard Ill's usurpation, and 
carried the sword of state at his coronation 
(Excerpta Historica, p. 380). He and his 
father fought for Richard at Bosworth Field, 
where his father was killed and he was taken 
prisoner. He was attainted by the first par- 
liament of Henry VII, and his estates were 
forfeited. He was also committed to the 
Tower, where he remained for three years 
and a half, receiving the liberal allowance of 
21. a week for his board (CAMPBELL, Mate- 
rials for a History of Henry VII, i. 208). 
Misfortune did not shake his principle of 
loyalty to the powers that be, and he refused 
to seek release by favouring rebellion. When, 
in June 1487, the Earl of Lincoln invaded 
England, and the lieutenant of the Tower 
offered to open the doors to Surrey, he refused 
the chance of escape. Henry VII soon saw 
that Surrey could be converted into an official, 
and would serve as a conspicuous example 
to other nobles. In January 1489 he was 
released, and was restored to his earldom, 
though the calculating king kept the greater 
part of his forfeited lands, and gave back 
only those which he held in right of his 
wife, and those which had been granted to 
the Earl of Oxford (ib. ii. 420). In May he 
was sent to put down a rising in Yorkshire, 
caused by the pressure of taxation. The 
Earl of Northumberland had been slain by 



the insurgents, whom Surrey quickly subdued 
and hanged their leader in York. The care 
of the borders was now entrusted to Surrey, 
who was made lieutenant-general of the 
north, was placed on the commission of peace 
for Northumberland, and was appointed sub- 
warden of the east and middle marches, 
which were under the nominal charge of 
Arthur, prince of Wales (ib. ii. 480). In 
the spring of 1492 he showed his vigilance 
by putting down a rising at Acworth, near 
Pomfret, so promptly that nothing is known 
of it save an obscure mention (Plumpton 
Correspondence, pp. 95-7). 

Surrey was now reckoned the chief general 
in England, and though summoned south- 
wards when Henry VII threatened an expe- 
dition against France, was chiefly employed 
in watching the Scottish border against the 
Scottish king and Perkin Warbeck. In 1497 
James IV laid siege to Norham Castle, but 
retreated before the rapid advance of Surrey, 
who retaliated by a raid into Scotland, where 
he challenged the Scottish king to battle ; 
but James did not venture an engagement, 
and bad weather forced Surrey to retire 
(HALL, Chronicle, p. 480). Surrey's services 
received tardy recognition from Henry VII ; 
in June 1501 he was sworn of the privy 
council, and was made lord treasurer. His 
knowledge of Scotland was used for diplo- 
matic purposes, and in the same year he was 
sent to arrange the terms of peace with that 
country on the basis of the marriage of 
Henry VII's daughter Margaret to James IV. 
In 1503 he was at the head of the escort 
which conducted the princess from her grand- 
mother's house of Colliweston, Northampton, 
to Edinburgh, where he was received with 
honour (LELAND, Collectanea, iv. 266, &c.) 
After this he stood high in the king's confi- 
dence, was named one of the executors of 
his will, and was present on all great occa- 
sions at the court. In October 1508 he was 
sent to Antwerp to negotiate for the mar- 
riage of Henry's daughter Mary with Charles, 
prince of Castile (GAIRDNEE, Letters and 
Papers, i. 444). It was not, however, till 
after twenty years of hard service that 
Henry VII, shortly before his death, made 
a restoration of his forfeited manors. 

On the accession of Henry VIII, Surrey's 
age, position, and experience marked him out 
as the chief adviser of the new king and the 
most influential member of the privy council. 
In March 1509 he was one of the commis- 
sioners to conclude a treaty with France 
(BERGENROTH, Spanish Calendar, i. No. 36). 
In July 1510 he was made earl marshal, and 
in November 1511 was a commissioner to 
conclude a treaty with Ferdinand the Ca- 

tholic (ib. No. 59). But Surrey felt that, 
though he was valued by the young king, 
he did not become his trusted adviser, and 
he looked with jealous eyes on the rapid rise 
of Wolsey. He suspected Wolsey of en- 
couraging the king in extravagance, and fos- 
tering his ambition for distinction in foreign 
affairs contrary to the cautious policy of his 
father. He consequently gave way to out- 
bursts of ill-temper, and in September 1512, 
* being discountenanced by the king, he left 
the court. Wolsey thinks it would be a good 
thing if he were ousted from his lodging 
there altogether ' (BREWER, Calendar, i. No. 
3443). But Henry VIII was wise enough 
to see the advantage of maintaining a balance 
in his council, and he knew the worth of a 
man like Surrey. When, in 1513, he led his 
army into France, Surrey was left as lieu- 
tenant-general of the north. He had to meet 
the attack of James IV of Scotland, which 
was so decisively repelled on Flodden Field 
(9 Sept. 1513), a victory due to the energy 
of Surrey in raising troops and in organising 
his army, as well as to the strategical skill 
which he showed in his dispositions for the 
battle (HALL, Chronicle, p. 556, &c.) This is 
the more remarkable when we remember 
that he was then in his seventieth year. As 
a recognition of this signal service Surrey, 
on 1 Feb. 1514, was created Duke of Norfolk, 
with an annuity of 40/. out of the counties 
of Norfolk and Suffolk, and further had a 
grant of an addition to his coat of arms on 
a bend in his shield a demi-lion, gules, pierced 
in the mouth with an arrow. 

Though Norfolk had gained distinction he 
did not gain influence over the king, whose 
policy was completely directed by Wolsey 
on lines contrary to the wishes of the old 
nobility. Norfolk was opposed to the mar- 
riage of the king's sister Mary with Louis XII 
of France, and vainly tried to prevent it. 
To console him for his failure he was chosen 
to conduct Mary to her husband, and waited 
till he was in France to wreak his ill-humour 
by dismissing Mary's English attendants 
(BREWER, Reign of Henry VIII, i. 40). 
This act only threw Mary more completely 
on Wolsey's side, and so increased his influ- 
ence. Norfolk must have felt the hopeless- 
ness of further opposition when, on 15 Nov. 
1515, he and the Duke of Suffolk conducted 
Wolsey, after his reception of the cardinal's 
hat, from the high altar to the door of West- 
minster Abbey. He gradually resigned him- 
self to Wolsey's policy, and the Venetian 
envoy Giustinian reports that he was ' very 
intimate with the cardinal' (RAWDON BROWN, 
Four Years at the Court of Henry VIII, 
App. ii.) In February 1516 the Duchess of 


6 4 


Norfolk was godmother to the Princess Mary, 
and in the same year Norfolk was a commis- 
sioner for forming a league with the emperor 
and Spain in defence of the church. In May 
1517 he showed his old vigour in putting 
down a riot of the London apprentices against 
foreigners, which, from the summary punish- 
ment it received, was known as ' Evil May 
day.' When the king went to the Field of 
the Cloth of Gold in 1520, Norfolk was left 
guardian of the kingdom. But a painful 
task was in store for him : in May 1521 he 
was appointed lord high steward for the trial 
of Edward, duke of Buckingham, on the 
charge of treason. Buckingham was his 
friend, and father of the wife of his eldest 
son ; and few incidents are more character- 
istic of the temper of the time than that 
Norfolk should have consented to preside at 
such a trial, of which the issue was a foregone 
conclusion. With tears streaming down his 
face Norfolk passed sentence of death on a man 
with whose sentiments he entirely agreed, but 
had his reward in a grant of manors from 
Buckingham's forfeitures (BREWER, Calen- 
dar, iii. No. 2382). In spite of his great age 
Norfolk still continued at court, and was 
present at the reception of Charles V in May 
1522. In December, however, he resigned 
the office of treasurer, but was present at 
parliament in April 1523. After that he 
retired to his castle of Framlingham, where 
he died on 21 May 1524, and was buried at 
Thetford Priory, of which he was patron 
(MARTIN, History of Thetford, p. 122). A 
tomb was raised over him, which at the dis- 
solution of the monasteries was removed to 
the church of Framlingham. It is said that 
his body finally remained in the Howard 
Chapel at Lambeth, where his second wife 
was also buried (see 'The Howards of Effing- 
ham,' by G. LEVESON GOWER, in Surrey Arch. 
Coll. ix. 397). 

The career of Howard is an excellent ex- 
ample of the process by which the Tudor 
kings converted the old nobility into digni- 
fied officials, and reduced them into entire 
dependence on the crown. Howard ac- 
cepted the position, worked hard, abandoned 
all scruples, and gathered every possible re- 
ward. Polydore Vergil praises him as ' vir 
prudentia, gravitate et constantia praeditus.' 
By his first wife, Elizabeth Tilney, he had 
eight sons [see HOWARD, THOMAS II, and 
HOWARD, SIR EDWARD (1477 P-1513)], of 
whom five died young, and three daughters ; 
by his second wife, Agnes, daughter of Sir 
Philip Tilney, he had three sons, including 
William Howard, first lord Howard of Effing- 
ham [q. v.], and four daughters. By the mar- 
riages of this numerous offspring the Howard 

family was connected with most of the chief 
families of England, and secured a lasting 

[An interesting biography of Howard was 
written on a tablet placed above his tomb at 
Thetford; it has been preserved in "Weever's 
Funerall Monuments, pp. 834-40. This has been 
amplified by Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 67-71. 
Blomefield's History of Norfolk, i. 451-5 ; Hawes 
and Loder's History of Framlingham, pp. 66-75 ; 
Cartwright and Dalla way's History of the Wes- 
tern Division of Sussex, ii. 194-8 ; Collins's 
Peerage, pp. 40, &e. ; Doyle's Official Baronage, 
ii. 289-91 ; Howard's Memorials of the Howards, 
These are supplemented by Hall's Chronicle ; 
Polydore Vergil's Historia Anglicana ; Herbert's 
Reign of Henry VIII ; Brewer's Letters and 
Papers, and Reign of Henry VIII ; Bergenroth's 
Spanish Calendar ; Brown's Venetian Calendar, 
and Despatches of Griustinian ; Sanford and 
Townsend's Great Governing Families of Eng- 
land, ii. 315-23.] M. C. 

of the Howard house (1473-1554), warrior 
and statesman, was eldest son of Thomas 
Howard I [q. v.] by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Frederick Tilney 
of Ashwellthorpe Hall, Norfolk. He was 
born in 1473, and, as a sign of the close alliance 
between Richard III and the Howard family, 
was betrothed in 1484 to the Lady Anne 
(born at Westminster 2 Nov. 1475), third 
daughter of Edward IV (BuCK, History of 
Richard III, p. 574). The lady had been 
betrothed by her father by treaty dated 
5 Aug. 1480 to Philip, son of Maximilian, 
archduke of Austria, but Edward IV's death 
had brought the scheme to nothing. After the 
overthrow of Richard, despite the change in 
the fortunes of the Howards, Lord Thomas 
renewed his claim to the hand of the Lady 
Anne, who was in constant attendance on 
her sister, Queen Elizabeth, and Henry VII 
permitted the marriage to take place in 1495 
(the marriage settlement is given by MADOX, 
Formulare Anglicanum, pp. 109-10). The 
queen settled upon the bride an annuity 
of 120/. (confirmed by acts of parliament 
11 and 12 Hen. VII), and the marriage 
took place in Westminster Abbey on 4 Feb. 
1495. Howard subsequently served in the 
north under his father, by whom he was 
knighted in 1498. In 1511 he joined 
his younger brother, Edward [q. v.J, the 
lord admiral, as captain of a ship in his en- 
counter with the Scottish pirate, Andrew 
Barton [q. v.] In May 1512 he was made 
lieutenant-general of the army which was 
sent to Spain under the command of the 
Marquis of Dorset, with the intention of 
joining the forces of Ferdinand for the in- 



vasion of Guienne. The troops, ill supplied 
with food, grew weary of waiting for Ferdi- 
nand and insisted upon returning home, in 
spite of Howard's efforts to persuade them 
to remain (BREWER, Calendar, i. No. 3451). 
Henry VIII invaded France next year. Sir 
Edward Howard fell in a naval engage- 
ment in March, and on 2 May 1513 Lord 
Thomas was appointed lord admiral in his 
stead. He was not, however, called upon 
to serve at sea, but fought under his father 
as captain of the vanguard at the battle of 
Flodden Field (September 1513), where he 
sent a message to the Scottish king that he 
had come to give him satisfaction for the 
death of Andrew Barton. 

When his father was created Duke of Nor- 
folk on 1 Feb. 1514, Lord Thomas Howard 
was created Earl of Surrey. In politics he 
joined with his father in opposing Wolsey, 
and was consoled, like his father, for the 
failure of his opposition to the French alli- 
ance by being sent in September 1514 to 
escort the Princess Mary to France. But 
Surrey did not see the wisdom of abandoning 
his opposition to Wolsey so soon as his father. 
There were stormy scenes sometimes in the 
council chamber, and on 31 May 1516 we are 
told that Surrey ' was put out, whatever that 
may mean ' (LoBGE, Illustrations, i. 21). His 
wife Anne died of consumption probably in 
the winter of 1512-13, and about Easter 
1513 he married Elizabeth, eldest daughter 
of Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, 
by Lady Elinor Percy, daughter of the Earl 
of Northumberland. The girl, who was little 
more than fifteen, had already been betrothed 
to her father's ward, Richard Neville, after- 
wards fourth earl of Westmorland. The 
alliance with such families as those of Buck- 
ingham and Northumberland strengthened in 
Surrey the natural objection which he felt to 
Wolsey 's power, and to the policy of depressing 
the old nobility, but the execution of Bucking- 
ham in 1521 taught him a lesson of prudence. 
When the trial of Buckingham took place, 
Surrey was in Ireland as lord-lieutenant, and 
it was said that he had been sent thither of set 
purpose that he might be out of the way when 
the nobles received that severe caution. In 
July 1520 Surrey entered upon the thankless 
task of endeavouring to keep Ireland in order. 
His letters contain accounts of attempts to 
pacify the rival factions of Kildare and Or- 
monde, and are full of demands for more 
money and troops. 

At the end of 1521 Surrey was recalled 
from Ireland to take command of the English 
fleet in naval operations against France. His 
ships were ill-provisioned, and his warfare 
consisted in a series of raids upon the French 


coast for the purpose of inflicting all the 
damage possible. In July 1522 he burned 
Morlaix, in September laid waste the country 
round Boulogne, and spread devastation on 
every side, till the winter brought back the 
fleet to England. When, in December 1522, 
his father resigned the office of high treasurer, 
it was bestowed on Surrey, whose services 
next year were required on the Scottish 
border. The Duke of Albany, acting in the 
interests of France, was raising a party in 
Scotland, and threatened to cripple England 
in its military undertakings abroad. Surrey 
was made warden general of the marches, 
and was sent to teach Scotland a lesson. He 
carried out the same brutal policy of devas- 
tation as he had used in France, and reduced 
the Scottish border to a desert. But he did 
not venture to march on Edinburgh, and 
Albany found means to reach Scotland from 
France and gather an army, with which he 
laid siege to Wark Castle on 1 Nov. ; but, 
when he heard that Surrey was advancing 
to its relief, he ignominiously retreated. This 
was felt to be a great victory for Surrey, and 
Skelton represented the popular opinion in 
his poem, ' How the Duke of Albany, like a 
cowardly knight, ran away.' 

On 21 May 1524 Surrey, by his father's 
death, succeeded as Duke of Norfolk, but 
was still employed in watching Scotland and 
in negotiating with the queen regent, Mar- 
garet. In 1525 he was allowed to return to 
his house at Kenninghall, Norfolk, where, 
however, his services were soon needed to 
quell an insurrection which broke out at 
Lavenham and Sudbury against the loan 
which was necessitated by the expenses of 
the French war (HALL, Chronicle, p. 700). 
Norfolk's tact in dealing with the insurgents 
was successful, but the demand for money 
was withdrawn. Want of supplies meant 
that peace was necessary, and in August Nor- 
folk was appointed commissioner to treat for 
peace with France. When the war was over, 
the great question which occupied English 
politics was that of the king's divorce. Nor- 
folk was entirely on the king's side, and 
waited with growing satisfaction for the 
course of events to bring about Wolsey's 
fall. He and the Duke of Suffolk did all 
they could to increase the king's anger against 
Wolsey, and enjoyed their triumph when 
they were commissioned to demand from him 
the great seal. Norfolk was Wolsey's im- 
placable enemy, and would be content with 
nothing short of his entire ruin. He pre- 
sided over the privy council, and hoped to 
rise to the eminence from which Wolsey had 
fallen. He devised the plan of sending Wol- 
sey to his diocese of York, and did not rest 




till he had gathered evidence which raised 
the king's suspicions and led to. Wolsey's sum- 
mons to London and his death on the journey. 

Norfolk hoped to fill Wolsey's place, but 
he was entirely destitute of Wolsey's genius. 
He could only become the king's tool in his 
dishonourable purposes. In 1529 he signed 
the letter to the pope which threatened him 
with the loss of his supremacy in England if 
he refused the king's divorce. He acquiesced 
in all the subsequent proceedings, and waxed 
fat on the spoils of the monasteries. He was 
chief adviser of his niece, Anne Boleyn, but 
followed the fashion of the time in presiding 
at her trial and arranging for her execution. 
But, after all his subservience, Thomas Crom- 
well proved a more useful man than himself. 
A fruitless embassy to France in 1533, for 
the purpose of winning Francis I to side with 
Henry, showed that Norfolk was entirely 
destitute of Wolsey's diplomatic skill. But 
there were some points of domestic policy 
for which he was necessary. He was created 
earl marshal in 1533, and presided over the 
trial of Lord Dacre, who, strange to say, 
was acquitted. In the suppression of the 
Pilgrimage of Grace, Norfolk alternately ca- 
joled and threatened the insurgents till their 
forces melted away, and he could with safety 
undertake the work of official butchery. He 
held the office of lord president of the council 
of the north from April 1537 till October 
1538, when he could boast that the rebellion 
had been avenged by a course of merciless 

On his return to court Norfolk headed the 
opposition against Cromwell. He allied him- 
self with Gardiner and the prelates of the old 
learning in endeavouring to prevent an alli- 
ance with German protestantism. In the 
parliament of 1539 he laid before the lords 
the bill of the six articles, which became 
law. 'It was merry in England,' he said, 
' before the new learning came up ' (FROUDE, 
Hist. ch. xix.), and henceforth he declared 
himself the head of the reactionary party. 
In February 1540 he again went to Paris as 
ambassador, to try if he could succeed on 
this new basis in detaching Francis I from 
Charles V and gaining him as an ally to 
Henry VIII (State Papers, Hen. VIII, viii. 
245-340). Again he failed in his diplomacy, 
but after his return he had the satisfaction 
on 10 June of arresting Cromwell in the 
council chamber. The execution of his rival 
threw once again the chief power into Nor- 
folk's hands, and a second time he made good 
his position by arranging for the marriage of 
a niece with the king. But the disgrace of 
Catherine Howard was more rapid than that 
of Anne Boleyn, and Norfolk again fell back 

into the position of a military commander. 
In 1542 he was sent to wage war against Scot- 
land, and again wreaked Henry VIII's ven- 
geance by a barbarous raid upon the borders. 
It was the terror of his name, and not his 
actual presence, which ended the war by the 
disastrous rout of Solway Moss. When 
Henry went to war with France in 1544, 
Norfolk in spite of his age was appointed 
lieutenant-general of the army. The army 
besieged Montreuil, and, after a long siege. 
captured Boulogne, but Norfolk could claim 
no glory from the war. Again he found 
himself superseded in the royal favour by a 
powerful rival, the Earl of Hertford, whom 
he failed to conciliate by a family alliance 
which was proposed for his acceptance. Under 
the influence of his last queen (Catherine 
Parr) and the Earl of Hertford Henry VIII 
favoured the reforming party, and Norfolk's 
counsels were little heeded. As the king's 
health was rapidly failing, it became Hert- 
ford's object to remove his rivals out of the 
way, and in 1546 Norfolk's son, Henry, earl 
of Surrey [q. v.], was accused of high treason. 
The charge against the son was made to in- 
clude the father, and Norfolk's enemies were 
those of his own household. His private life 
was discreditable, and shows the debasing 
effect of the king's example on those around 
him. Norfolk quarrelled with his wife, who, 
although of a jealous and vindictive temper, 
was one of the most accomplished women of 
the time. She patronised the poet Skelton, 
who wrote, while her guest at Sheriff Hutton, 
Yorkshire, ' A Goodly Garlande or Chapelet 
of Laurell.' But with her husband she was 
always on bad terms, and accused him of 
cruelty at the time of her daughter Mary's 
birth in 1519. The duke soon afterwards 
took a mistress, Elizabeth Holland, l a churl's 
daughter, who was but a washer in my nur- 
sery eight years,' as his wife complained to 
Cromwell (NoTT, Works of Henry Howard, 
Earl of Surrey, App. xxvii-xxxii.) In 1533 
he separated from his wife, who withdrew to 
Redborne, Hertfordshire, with a very scanty 
allowance. Appeals of husband and wife to 
Cromwell and the king failed to secure a 
reconciliation, and the duchess refused to sue 
for a divorce. The discord spread among 
the other members of the family, and they 
were all at variance. Evidence against Nor- 
folk was given, not only by his wife, but by 
his daughter, the Duchess of Richmond, and 
even by Elizabeth Holland, who only wished 
to save herself and her ill-gotten gains. But 
the evidence was not sufficient for his con- 
demnation, and Norfolk, a prisoner in the 
Tower, was persuaded to plead guilty and 
throw himself on the king's mercy. He 


6 7 


signed his confession on 12 Jan. 1547 (HER- 
BERT, Reign of Henry VIII, s. a.), and his 
enemies, who were eager to share the pro- 
ceeds of his forfeiture, introduced a bill for 
his attainder into parliament. The bill, of 
course, passed at once, and the dying king 
appointed a commission to give it the royal 
assent. This was done on 27 Jan., and orders 
were given for Norfolk's execution on the 
following morning. But in the night the 
king died, and the lords of the council did 
not think it wise to begin their rule by an 
act of useless bloodshed. Norfolk, indeed, 
had cut the ground from under their feet by 
sending a petition to the king begging that 
his estates should be settled on the young 
Prince Edward, and the king had graciously 
accepted the suggestion (NoiT, App. xxxix.) 
Norfolk remained a prisoner in the Tower 
during Edward VI's reign, but was released, 
on Mary's accession. He petitioned parlia- 
ment for the reversal of his attainder on the 
ground that Henry VIII had not signed the 
commission to give the bill his assent (ib. 
App. 1.) His petition was granted, and he 
was restored Duke of Norfolk on 3 Aug. 
1553. He was further sworn of the privy 
council and made a knight of the Garter. 
His services were required for business in 
which he had ample experience, and on 
17 Aug. he presided as lord high steward at 
the trial of the Duke of Northumberland, 
and had the satisfaction of sentencing a for- 
mer opponent to death. In January 1554 
the old man was lieutenant-general of the 
queen's army to put down Wyat's rebellion. 
In this he displayed an excess of rashness. 
He marched with far inferior forces against 
Wyat, whose headquarters were at Roches- 
ter, and in a parley was deserted by a band 
of five hundred Londoners, who were in his 
ranks. His forces were thrown into confu- 
sion and fled, leaving their guns behind. 
Wyat was thus encouraged to continue his 
march upon London. Norfolk retired to his 
house at Kenninghall, Norfolk, where he died 
on 25 Aug. 1554. He was buried in the 
church of Framlingham, where a monument, 
which still exists, was erected over his grave 
an altar tomb with effigies of Norfolk and 
his second wife. (For a discussion of the ques- 
tion whether this is the tomb of the second or 
third duke, see Trans, of the Suffolk Archceol. 
Soc. iii. 340-57 ; there is an engraving in Gent. 
Mag. 1845, pt. i. p. 266. ) Norfolk is described 
by the Venetian ambassador, Falieri, in 1531 as 
' small and spare of stature and his hair black. 
He is prudent, liberal, affable, and astute ; 
associates with everybody, has great experi- 
ence in the administration of the kingdom, 
discusses affairs admirably, aspires to greater 

elevation' (Venetian Calendar, iv. 294-5). 
This was written when Norfolk, after Wol- 
sey's death, seemed, as the chief of the Eng- 
lish nobles, to be the destined successor of 
Wolsey ; but it soon appeared that the Tudor 
policy was not of a kind which could be best 
carried out by nobles. Norfolk was influen- 
tial more through his position than through 
his abilities, and did not scruple at personal 
intrigue to secure his power. Still, subser- 
vient as he might show himself, he was not 
so useful as men like Cromwell, and his hopes 
of holding the chief place were constantly 
disappointed. He was hot-tempered, self- 
seeking, and brutal, and his career shows 
the deterioration of English life under 
Henry VIII. 

Norfolk's four children by his first wife 
died young ; by his second wife, who died 
30 Nov. 1558 and was buried in the Howard 
Chapel, Lambeth, he had two sons (Henry, 
earl of Surrey [q. v.], and Thomas, 1528 ?- 
1583, who was educated by Leland, and was 
created Viscount Howard of Bindon 13 Jan. 
1558-9) and one daughter, Mary [q. v.], who 
married Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond 
[q.v.], natural son of Henry VIII. There is a 
portrait of Norfolk, by Holbein, at Norfolk 
House, another at Windsor, and another at 
Castle Howard. The first of these has been 
engraved in Lodge's ' Portraits ' and in Cart- 
wright and Dallaway's ' History of Sussex.' 
There are other engravings by Vorsterman 
and Scriven. 

[Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 272-5 ; Lodge's Por- 
traits, vol. ii. ; Doyle's Official Baronage, ii. 591- 
594 ; Collins's Peerage, p. 44, &c. ; Howard's 
Memorials of the Howards; Hawes and Loder's 
Hist, of Framlingham ; Brewer and Gairdner's 
Letters and Papers ; State Papers of Hen. VIII ; 
Bergenroth's Spanish Calendar; Brdwn's Vene- 
tian Calendar; Hamilton's Irish Calendar, i. 2-8 ; 
Brewer's Calendar of Carew MSS. vol. i. ; Turn- 
bull's Calendar of the Eeign of Mary ; Haynes's 
Burghl ey Papers ;Nott's Works of Henry Howard, 
Earl of Surrey, Appendix ; Burnet's Hist, of the 
Reformation ; Foxe's Acts and Monuments ; Her- 
bert's Reign of Henry VIII ; Godwin's Reign of 
Mary ; Lodge's Illustr. of British History, vol. i. ; 
Hall's Chronicle ; Cavendish's Life of Wolsey ; 
State Trials, i. 451, &c. ; Blomefield's Hist, of 
Norfolk, iii. 165-6 ; Dallaway and Cartwright's 
Hist, of Sussex, vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 198-205 ; 
Sadleir's State Papers, vol. i. ; Froude's Hist, of 
England ; Sanford andTownsend's Great Govern- 
ing Families of England, ii. 323-35; Gent. Mag. 
1845, pt. i. pp. 147-52 (a careful account of 
Anne, the duke's first wife), 259-67 (an account 
of Elizabeth, the second wife).] M. C. 

OF NOKFOLK of the Howard house (1536- 
1572), statesman, born on 10 March 1536, 





was the son of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey 
[q. v.], by Frances Vere, daughter of John, 
earl of Oxford. After the execution of his 
father in 1547, he was removed by order of 
the privy council from his mother, and was 
committed to the charge of his aunt, Mary 
Fitzroy, duchess of Richmond [q. v.] , probably 
with a view to his education in protestant prin- 
ciples. His tutor was John Foxe [q. v.], after- 
wards known as the martyrologist, who lived 
with him and his brother and sisters at the 
castle of Reigate. It may be doubted if Foxe 
impressed much of his theology on his pupil's 
mind, but he certainly inspired him with a 
feeling of respect which he never lost, and he 
long regretted his separation from his tutor, 
when in 1553 the accession of Queen Mary 
released from prison his grandfather, the Duke 
of Norfolk, who dismissed Foxe from his 
office, and placed his grandson under the care 
of Bishop White of Lincoln. By his grand- 
father's restoration as Duke of Norfolk on 
3 Aug. 1553, Howard received his father's 
title of Earl of Surrey, and in September was 
made knight of the Bath. He assisted at 
Mary's coronation, and on the arrival in Eng- 

\ land of Philip, was made his first gentleman 
of the chamber. On his grandfather's death 
on 25 Aug. 1554, he succeeded as Duke of 
Norfolk, and became earl marshal. 

In 1556 Norfolk married Lady Mary Fitz- 
alan, daughter and heiress of Henry Fitzalan, 
twelfth earl of Arundel [q. v.] She died in 
childbed on 25 Aug. 1557, at the age of six- 
teen, leaving a son Philip, who succeeded in 
right of his mother as Earl of Arundel [q. v.] 
Norfolk did not long remain a widower, and 
in 1558 married another heiress, Margaret, 
daughter of Thomas, lord Audley of Walden. 
Norfolk was too young to take any part in 
affairs during Mary's reign, but he was in 

\/ favour at court, and King Philip was god- 
father to his son. On Elizabeth's accession 
it was a matter of importance to attach defi- 
nitely to her side a man of Norfolk's position. 
In April 1559 he was made knight of the 
Garter. Elizabeth styled him ' her cousin,' 
on the ground of the relationship between 
the Howards and the Boleyns, and chose him 
to take a leading part in the first great under- 
taking of her reign, the expulsion of the 
French troops from Scotland. At first Nor- 
folk refused the offer of the post of lieutenant- 
general in the north, and probably expressed 
the views of the nobility in holding that the 
queen would better secure herself against 
France by marrying the Archduke Charles 
of Austria than by interfering in Scottish 
affairs. But his scruples were overcome, and 
in November 1559 he set out to Newcastle. 
His duty was to provide for the defence of 

Berwick, to open up communications with 
the lords of the congregation, and cautiously 
aid them in their measures against the queen 
regent. By his side were placed men of ex- 
perience, Sir Ralph Sadler and Sir James 
Croft, while the frequent communications 
which passed between him and the privy 
council show that not much was left to his 
discretion. On 27 Feb. 1560 he signed an 
agreement at Berwick with the representa- 
tives of James Hamilton, earl of Arran and 
duke of Chatelherault (1517 P-1576) [q. v.], 
as l second person of the realm of Scotland,' 
and soon after the siege of Leith was begun. 
Norfolk did not take any part in the military 
operations, but remained behind at the head 
of the reserve, and organised supplies. When 
the time came for diplomacy Cecil was des- 
patched for the purpose, and the treaty of 
Edinburgh released Norfolk in August from 
duties which he half-heartedly performed. 

His public employment, however, served 
its purpose of turning him into a courtier. 
He lived principally in London, and in De- 
cember 1561 was made a member of Gray's 
Inn. Soon after he was sworn of the privy 
council. In August 1564 he attended the 
queen on her visit to Cambridge, and re- 
ceived the degree of M.A. He was moved 
by the sight of the unfinished buildings of 
Magdalene College, which his father-in-law, 
Lord Audley, had founded, to give a consider- 
able sum of money towards their completion 
(CoopBK, Annals of Cambridge, ii. 204). But 
Norfolk was not satisfied with dancing at- 
tendance on the queen, and his pride was 
hurt at the favours bestowed upon the Earl 
of Leicester, whom he regarded as a pre- 
sumptuous upstart. He resented Leicester's 
pretensions to Elizabeth's hand, and in March 
1565 they had an unseemly quarrel in the 
queen's presence [see under DUDLEY, ROBERT, 
EARL OF LEICESTER]. The queen ordered 
them to make peace. A reconciliation was 
patched up, and in January 1566 the two 
rivals were chosen by the French king, as 
the foremost of the English nobles, to re- 
ceive the order of knights of St. Michael. 

Norfolk's domestic life meanwhile was a 
rapid series of changes. In December 1563 
he again became a widower. Early in 1567 he 
married for his third wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir Francis Leybourne, of Cunswick Hall, 
Cumberland, and widow of Thomas, lord 
Dacre of Gilsland. She died in September 
1567, leaving a son and three daughters by 
her first husband. Norfolk obtained a grant 
of wardship of these minors, and determined 
to absorb the great estates of the Dacres into 
his own family by intermarriages between 
his children and his step-children. The young 


6 9 


Lord Dacre died in May 1569 from the fall 
of a wooden horse on which he was prac- 
tising vaulting, and his death confirmed Nor- 
folk in the project of dividing the Dacre lands 
amongst his sons by marrying them to the 
three coheiresses. Their title, however, was 
called in question by their father's brother, 
Leonard Dacre [q. v.J, who claimed as heir 
male. The cause would naturally have come 
for trial in the marshal's court, but as Nor- 
folk held that office, commissioners were ap- 
pointed for the trial. Great promptitude was 
shown, for on 19 July, scarcely a month after 
the young lord's death, it was decided that 
' the barony cannot nor ought not to descend 
into the said Leonard Dacre so long as the 
said coheirs or any issue from their bodies 
shall continue.' (For an account of this in- 
teresting trial, see SIE CHAJRLES YOUNG, Col- 
lectanea Topographicaet Genealogica,vi.322.) 

The good fortune which had hitherto at- 
tended Norfolk's matrimonial enterprises may 
to some extent explain the blind belief in 
himself which he showed in his scheme of 
marrying Mary Queen of Scots. In 1568, 
when Mary fled to England, Norfolk was 
again a widower, the richest man in England, 
popular and courted, but chafing under the 
sense that he had little influence over affairs. 
He had vainly striven against Cecil, who 
watched him cautiously, and he was just the 
man to be ensnared by his own vanity. Eliza- 
beth was embarrassed how to deal with Mary. 
Her first step was to appoint a commission 
representing all parties to sit at York in 
October, and inquire into the cause of the 
variance between Mary and her subjects. 
Elizabeth's commissioners were the Duke of 
Norfolk, the Earl of Sussex, and Sir Kalph 
Sadler. Norfolk was doubtless appointed 
through his high position, as the only duke 
in England, and as the representative of the 
nobility, who urged that, if Elizabeth would 
not marry, the recognition of Mary's claim 
to the succession was inevitable ; he was fur- 
ther likely to be acceptable to Mary herself. 
On 11 Oct. Murray communicated privately 
to the English commissioners the Casket let- 
ters, and Norfolk at first wrote as one con- 
vinced of Mary's guilt (ANDERSON, Collections 
relating to Mary, iv. 76, &c.) But Maitland 
of Lethington in a private talk suggested to 
him, as a solution of all the difficulties which 
beset the two kingdoms, that he should marry 
Mary, who might then with safety to Eliza- 
beth be restored to the Scottish throne, and 
recognised as Elizabeth's successor. 

We cannot say with certainty whether or 
no this scheme had been already present to 
Norfolk's mind, but he left York with a settled 
determination to carry it out. For a time he 

acted cautiously, and when the investigation 
was transferred to Westminster before the 
great council of peers, he still seemed to 
believe in Mary's guilt. But he had a secret 
interview with Murray, who professed his 
agreement with the plan, and encouraged a 
hope that after his return to Scotland Mait- 
land should be sent to Elizabeth as envoy of 
the estates of Scotland, with a proposal for 
| Mary's marriage with Norfolk. On this un- 
I derstanding Norfolk sent a message to the 
northern lords, begging them to lay aside a 
j project which they had formed for taking 
i Murray prisoner on his return from London. 
! The opening months of 1569 seemed to be 
I disastrous for Elizabeth in foreign affairs, and 
; Cecil's forward policy awakened increasing 
1 alarm among the English nobles. Leicester 
; tried to oust Cecil from the queen's con- 
I fidence ; when he failed he joined with Arun- 
i del and Pembroke in striving to promote 
! Mary's marriage with Norfolk. They com- 
municated with Mary at Tutbury in June, 
and received her consent. Norfolk was re- 
conciled to Cecil, and hoped to gain his help 
in urging on Elizabeth the advantages to be de- 
rived from such a settlement. He still waited 
I for Murray's promised message from Scot- 
\ land, and wrote to him on 1 July that ' he 
| had proceeded so far in the marriage that 
i with conscience he could neither revoke what 
! he had done, or with honour proceed further 
till such time as he should remove all stum- 
1 bling-blocks to more apparent proceedings' 
: (Burghley Papers, i. 520). Norfolk's plan 
was still founded on loyalty to Elizabeth and 
maintenance of protestantism ; but the pro- 
testant nobles looked on with suspicion, and 
' doubted that Norfolk would become a tool 
in the hands of Spain, and the catholic lords 
of the north grew impatient of waiting; 
many of them were connected with Leonard 
Dacre, and were indignant at the issue of 
Norfolk's lawsuit ; they formed a plan of their 
own for carrying oft' Mary from her prison. 

Norfolk still trusted to the effects of pressure 
! upon Elizabeth, but he had not the courage 
i to apply it. He left others to plead his cause 
! with the queen, and on 27 Aug. the council 
' voted for the settlement of the succession by 
j the marriage of Mary to some English noble- 
! man. Still Norfolk was afraid to speak out, 
I though one day the queen * gave him a nip 
bidding him take heed to his pillow.' At 
! last he grew alarmed, and on 15 Sept. hastily 
left the court. Still he trusted to persuasion 
rather than force, and wrote to Northumber- 
land telling him that Mary was too securely 
! guarded to be rescued, and bidding him defer 
! a rising. Then on 24 Sept. he wrote to Eliza- 
j beth from Kenninghall that he ' never in- 




tended to deal otherwise than he might obtain 
her favour so to do' (tb. p. 528). He was or- 
dered to return to court, but pleaded the 
excuse of illness, and, after thus giving Eliza- 
beth every ground for suspicion, at last re- 
turned humbly on 2 Oct., to be met with the 
intimation that he must consider himself a pri- 
soner at Paul Went worth's house at Burnham. 

Elizabeth at first thought of bringing him 
to trial for treason, but this was too hardy 
a measure in the uncertain state of public 
opinion. Norfolk was still confident in the 
power of his personal popularity, and was 
astonished when on 8 Oct. he was taken to 
the Tower. His friends in the council were 
straitly examined, and his party dwindled 
away. No decisive evidence was found against 
him, but the rising of the north in November 
showed Elizabeth how great had been her 
danger. Norfolk wrote from the Tower, as- 
suring Elizabeth that he never dealt with 
any of the rebels, but he continued in com- 
munication with Mary, who after the col- 
lapse of the rising caught more eagerly at the 
prospect of escaping from her captivity by 
Norfolk's aid. She wrote to him that she 
would live and die with him, and signed her- 
self ' yours faithful to death.' But Norfolk 
remained a prisoner till times were somewhat 
quieter, and was not released till 3 Aug. 1570, 
when he was ordered to reside in his own 
house at the Charterhouse, for fear of the 
plague. He had previously made submission 
to the queen, renouncing all purpose of mar- 
rying Mary, and promising entire fidelity. 

It would have been well for Norfolk if he 
had kept his promise, and had recognised 
that he had failed. He resumed his old posi- 
tion, and was still looked up to with respect 
as the head of the English nobility. Many 
still thought that his marriage with Mary 
was possible, but Norfolk had learned that 
it would never be with Elizabeth's consent. 
The failure of previous endeavours had drawn 
Mary's partisans more closely together, and 
now they looked for help solely to the Spa- 
nish king. This was not what Norfolk had 
intended when first he conceived his mar- 
riage project ; but he could not let it drop, 
and slowly drifted into a conspirator. He 
conferred with Ridolfi, and heard his plan 
for a Spanish invasion of England ; he gave 
his sanction to Ridolfi's negotiations, and 
commissioned him to act as his representa- 
tive with Philip II. He afterwards denied 
that he had done this in any formal way, but 
the evidence is strong against him. (His 
instructions to Ridolfi are in LABANOFF, 
Lettres de Marie Stuart, iii. 236, c., from 
the Vatican archives, and FROTJDE, History 
of England, ch. xx., gives them from the 

Simancas archives, as well as a letter sent 
in cipher by the Spanish ambassador.) The 
discovery of Ridolfi's plot was due to a series 
of accidents ; but Norfolk's complicity was 
discovered by the indiscretion of his secretary, 
Higford, who entrusted to a Shrewsbury mer- 
chant a bag of gold containing a ciphered 
letter. Cecil was informed of this fact on 
1 Sept., and extracted from Higford enough 
information to show that Norfolk was corre- 
sponding with Mary and her friends in Scot- 
land. Norfolk's servants were imprisoned, 
threatened with torture, and told much that 
increased Cecil's suspicions. Norfolk was 
next examined, prevaricated, and cut a poor 
figure. He was committed to the Tower on 
5 Sept., and the investigation was steadily 
pursued till the evidence of Norfolk's com- 
plicity with Ridolfi had become strong, and 
the whole history of Norfolk's proceedings 
was made clear. Elizabeth saw how little 
she could count on the English nobility, who 
were all anxious for the settlement of the 
succession, and were in some degree or other 
on Mary's side. It was resolved to read them 
a lesson by proceeding against Norfolk, who 
was brought to trial for high treason on 
16 Jan. 1572. The procedure, according to 
the custom of the time, was not adapted to 

S've the accused much chance of pleading, 
e was not allowed to have counsel, or 
even a copy of the indictment, nor were the 
witnesses against him produced in court. 
Their evidence was read and commented upon 
by skilled lawyers ; the accused was left to 
deal with it as best he could. His conviction 
was inevitable, and sentence of death was 
pronounced against him. From the Tower 
he wrote submissive letters to the queen, 
owning that he had grievously offended, but 
protesting his substantial loyalty. Eliza- 
beth, always averse to bloodshed, for a long 
time refused to carry out the sentence ; but 
her negotiations for a French treaty and a 
marriage with Alen^on required that she 
should act with vigour. Parliament peti- 
tioned for the death of Mary and of Norfolk, 
and at last, on 2 June 1572, Norfolk was 
executed on Tower Hill. He spoke to the 
people, and maintained his innocence ; he 
said 'that he was never a papist since he 
knew what religion meant.' It is quite pro- 
bable that he was sincere in his utterances ; 
he called John Foxe, who had dedicated to 
him in 1559 the first version (in Latin) of 
his martyrology, to console him in his last 
days, and bequeathed him a legacy of 201. a 
year. But Norfolk was not a clear-headed 
man, and was not conscious of the bearing 
of his acts. He floated with the stream, 
trusting to his own good fortune and to his 



good intentions. He took up the project of 
marrying Mary, because he believed that his 
position in England was a sufficient guarantee 
against all risks. He trusted to his personal 
popularity, and to the exertions of others. His 
first failure did not teach him wisdom. He 
probably supposed that he had not committed 
himself to Bidolfi or the Spanish ambassador; 
he had only allowed them to count on him 
for the time being. The highest testimony 
to his personal character is to be found in 
his letter to his children, written just after 
his trial (WRIGHT, Queen Elizabeth and her 
Times, i. 402, &c.) Thomas Howard (1561- 
1626), first earl of Suffolk, and Lord William 
Howard (1563-1640), Norfolk's two sons by 
his second wife, are separately noticed. By 
his second wife he also had three daughters, 
the second of whom, Margaret (1562-1591), 
married Robert Sackville, earl of Dorset (pedi- 
gree in Ashstead and its Howard Possessors). 

There are traces of Norfolk's taste to be 
found in the Charterhouse, which he bought 
in 1565, and adorned for his London resi- 
dence, when it was known as Howard House 
(Chronicles of the Charterhouse, p. 161, &c.) 
There are portraits of him as a young man 
in the royal collection and at Arundel ; by 
Sir Antonio More at Worksop, engraved in 
Lodge's ' Portraits ; ' another engraving is by 
Houbraken. He was buried in the chapel 
of the Tower. 

[Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 276 ; Doyle's Official 
Earonage, ii. 594-5 ; Collins's Peerage, i. 102-8 ; 
Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk, iii. 165-6 ; Dalla- 
way and Cartwright's Sussex, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 
198; Haynes and Murdin's Burghley Papers; 
Lodge's Illustrations of Brit. Hist, ; Wright's 
Queen Elizabeth and her Times ; Sadleir's State 
Papers ; Labanoff's Lettres de Marie Stuart, vols. 
ii. and iii. ; Howell's State Trials, i. 953, &c. ; 
Goodall's Examination of the Letters of Mary 
Queen of Scots, App. ; Anderson's Collections re- 
lating to Mary, vol. iii. ; Stephenson and Crosby's 
Calendars of State Papers; Thorpe's Scottish 
Cal. vol. ii.; Gal. of Hatfield MSS., Hist, MSS. 
Comm. ; Howard's Memorials of the Howards ; 
Froude's Hist, of England ; Camden's Annals of 
Elizabeth ; Sanford and Townsend's Great Go- 
verning Families of England, ii. 336-43.1 

M. C. 

SUFFOLK (1561-1626), born on 24 Aug. 1561, 
was the second son of Thomas, fourth duke 
of Norfolk [q. v.], who was attainted, by his 
second wife, Margaret, daughter and heiress of 
Thomas, lord Audley of Walden. He was edu- 
cated at St. John's College, Cambridge, and 
was restored in blood as Lord Thomas Howard 
on 19 Dec. 1584 (Lords' Journ. ii. 76). Howard j 
accompanied as a volunteer the fleet sent to j 
oppose the Spanish Armada, and in the attack , 

off Calais displayed such valour that he was 
knighted at sea by the lord high admiral on 
25 June 1588, and was afterwards made cap- 
tain of a man-of-war. On 5 March 1591 he 
was appointed commander of the squadron 
which attacked, in the face of overwhelming 
difficulties, the Spanish treasure ships off the 
Azores, when Sir Richard Grenville [q. v.] 
was killed (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1591-4, 
pp. 37, 61). In May 1596 he was admiral 
of the third squadron in the fleet sent against 
Cadiz. On his return he was created K.G., 
23 April 1597, and in the following June 
sailed as vice-admiral of the fleet despatched 
to the Azores. His ability and courage com- 
mended him to the favour of the queen, who in 
her letters to Essex was wont to refer to him 
as her ' good Thomas ' (ib. Dom. 1595-7, p. 
453). It is said that he endeavoured to com- 
pose the differences between Essex and Ra- 
leigh. On 5 Dec. 1597 he was summoned to par- 
liament as Baron Howard de Walden, and be- 
came lord-lieutenant of Cambridgeshire and 
the Isle of Ely on 8 April 1598, and admiral 
of a fleet on 10 Aug. 1599. In February 1601 
he was marshal of the forces which besieged 
the Earl of Essex in his house in London, and 
on the 19th he sat as one of the peers on the 
trials of the Earls of Essex and Southampton, 
being at the time constable of the Tower of 
London. He was sworn high steward of the 
university of Cambridge in February 1601 
(CooPER, Annals of Cambr. ii. 602), lord-lieu- 
tenant of Cambridgeshire on 26 June 1602, 
and acting lord chamberlain of the household 
on 28 Dec. (Sidney Papers, ii. 262). Before 
going to Richmond, in January 1603, the 
queen visited Howard at the Charterhouse, 
and was sumptuously entertained (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1601-3, p. 285). On the ac- 
cession of James I Howard met him at Theo- 
balds, was made a privy councillor on 4 May 
1603 (Sxow, Annales, ed. Howes, p. 822), 
and acted from that day until 10 July 1614 as 
lord chamberlain of the household. Howard 
was created Earl of Suffolk on 21 July 1603, 
and was appointed one of the commissioners 
for making knights of the Bath at the corona- 
tion of the king. He became joint-commis- 
sioner for the office of earl-marshal of England 
on 4 Feb. 1604, and joint-commissioner to 
expel Jesuits and seminary and other priests 
on 5 Sept. following; he honourably, in 1604, 
refused a Spanish pension, though his wife 
accepted one of 1,000/. a year, and she sup- 
plied information from time to time in return 
(GARDINER, Hist. ofEngl i. 215). Howard 
himself complained bitterly to Win wood that 
he and his family were suspected of en- 
deavouring to persuade the king to ally him- 
self with Spain (WiNWOOD, Memorials, ii. 



174). In the ensuing year he helped to 
discover the Gunpowder plot (ib. ii. 171). 
Howard became M.A. of Cambridge on 
31 June 1605, lord-lieutenant of Suffolk and 
Cambridgeshire on 18 July 1605, M.A. of 
Oxford on 30 Aug. 1605 (WooD, Fasti Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, i. 309), captain of the band of gen- 
tlemen pensioners in November 1605, which 
post he was allowed to hand over to his son 
Theophilus [q. v.] on 11 July 1614, councillor 
of Wales in 1608, high steward of Ipswich 
on 6 June 1609, keeper in reversion of Somer- 
sham Chace, Huntingdonshire, on 26 April 

1611, joint lord-lieutenant of Dorsetshire 
and town of Poole on 5 July 1611, keeper of 
the forest of Braydon, Wiltshire, on 21 March 

1612, a commissioner of the treasury on 
16 June 1612, and lord-lieutenant of Dorset- 
shire on 19 Feb. 1613. In this year, with the 
rest of the Howards, he supported the scheme 
for the divorce of his daughter Frances from 
Robert Devereux, third earl of Essex [q. v.] 
On the death of his uncle, Henry, earl of 
Northampton,Howard was elected chancellor 
of the university of Cambridge on 8 July 

1614 (COOPER, iii. 63). He prevailed on the 
king to visit the university in March 1615. 
On that occasion he resided at St. John's Col- 
lege, and is said to have spent in hospitality 
1,0007. a day. His wife held receptions at 
Magdalene College (MTJLLINGER, Univ. of 
Cambr. ii. 514, 518; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1611-18, p. 278). 

On 11 July 1614 Howard was constituted 
lord high treasurer of England, and formally 
held office until 19 July 1619. In November 

1615 a determined attempt was made to 
implicate him in the murder of Sir Thomas 
Overbury. He was the father-in-law of So- 
merset, and to some extent responsible for his 
fate ; the king at all events thought that 
Suffolk wished to escape a full investigation 
(cf. AMOS, Great Oyer of Poisoning}. On 
1 Feb. 1618 he was made custos rotulorum of 
Suffolk, on the following 14 April was com- 
missioned with others to discover concealed 
lands, encroachments, &c., and to arrange 
with pensioners of the crown for an exchange 
of their pensions for a certain portion of these 
lands (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1611-18, p. 
534). On 23 June of the same year he be- 
came for a second time joint-commissioner 
to banish Jesuits and seminary priests. 

In the autumn of 1618 grave irregularities 
were discovered at the treasury. Howard 
was suspended from his office. He was ac- 
cused of having embezzled a great part of 
the money received from the Dutch for the 
cautionary towns, with defrauding the king 
of 240,000/. in jewels, with committing frauds 
in the alum business, and with extorting 

money from the king's subjects. The countess 
was indicted for extorting money from per- 
sons having business at the treasury, chiefly 
through the agency of Sir John Bingley, 
remembrancer of the exchequer. At first 
Howard talked boldly about publishing the 
real reasons of his suspension (ib. Dom. 1611- 
1618, p. 594), but as the time for his trial 
drew near he offered his private submission 
(ib. Dom. 1619-23, p. 60). After eleven days' 
hearing in the Star-chamber (October-No- 
vember 1619), the earl and countess were 
fined 30,000/., commanded to restore all 
money wrongfully extorted, and were sen- 
tenced to be imprisoned apart in the Tower 
during pleasure (ib. Dom. 1619-23, pp. 88, 
94, 96). Howard was popularly credited 
with having acted under the influence of 
his wife (ib. Dom. 1619-23, p. 93). They 
were released after ten days' imprisonment, 
but as a condition of their enlargement their 
sons, Lord de Walden and Sir Thomas 
Howard, were dismissed for a short time 
from their places at court (ib. Dom. 1619-23, 
pp. 101, 111). Howard pleaded inability to 
pay his fine, and a commission was issued 
for the Archbishop of Canterbury and others 
to inquire into his estate. Probably to de- 
feat this inquiry, he made a great part of it 
over to his son-in-law, the Earl of Salisbury,, 
and his brother, Sir W. Howard (CARTE, Hist, 
of England, iv. 47-8). The king threatened 
the earl with another Star-chamber bill, but 
Howard appeased him by making humble 
submission, and promising to pay all, though 
he was fully 50,000/. in debt (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1619-23, pp. 115, 116). The 
king and Buckingham stood sponsors for his 
grandson, James Howard, afterwards third 
earl of Suffolk (1619-1688) [q. v.], and in 
July 1620 he was received into favour again, 
and his fine, reduced to 7,000/., was made 
over to John, viscount Haddington (ib. Dom. 
1619-23, pp. 170, 179). In 1621 Suffolk with 
Lord Saye and Sele strongly pressed that 
Bacon should be brought to the bar of the 
house in the beginning of the investigation 
into the chancellor's offences. Suffolk was 
probably inspired by revenge for his own 
treatment by Bacon in similar circumstances. 
A little later in the session he attempted to 
mediate between Arundel and Spencer in the 
discussion as to Yelverton's case. 

In 1621 Howard became high steward of 
Exeter, and endeavoured to ingratiate him- 
self with Buckingham by marrying, in Decem- 
ber 1623, his seventh son, Edward, afterwards 
Lord Howard of Escrick (d. 1675) [q. v.], to 
Mary, fifth daughter of Sir John Boteler (ib. 
Dom. 1623-5, pp. 132, 134). On 9 May 1625 he 
was appointed lord-lieutenant of Cambridge- 




shire and Suffolk. He died on 28 May 1626 
at his house at Charing Cross, and was buried : 
at Saffron Walden. He married, first, Mary, j 
daughter and coheiress of Thomas, fourth 
lord Dacre of Gillesland, who died on 7 April 
1578 without issue. In 1583 he married, 
secondly, Catherine, daughter and coheiress 
of Sir Henry Knevet, knt., of Charlton, j 
Wiltshire, and widow of Richard, eldest son 
of Robert, lord Rich. She had a great ascen- 
dency over her husband, and undoubtedly 
used his high office to enrich herself. Bacon, 
in his speech in the Star-chamber against 
the earl, compared the countess to an ex- 
change woman, who kept her shop, while 
her creature, Sir J. Bingley, cried 'What 
d'ye lack?' Her beauty was remarkable, 
but in 1619 an attack of small-pox did 
it much injury (ib. Dom. 1619-23, p. 16). 
Pennant, in his ' Journey from Chester to 
London ' (ed. 1782, pp. 227-8), has given an 
engraved portrait of the countess from a 
painting at Gorhambury. By her Suffolk 
had seven sons and three daughters. The 
eldest son, Theophilus, second earl of Suffolk, 
the fifth, Sir Robert Howard (1598-1653), 
and the seventh, Edward (d. 1675), are 
separately noticed. 

The fourth son, Sir Charles Howard, was 
knighted 13 Feb. 1610-11, and died 22 Sept. 
1622, leaving two daughters, Elizabeth and 
Mary, by his wife, whom he married in 1612, 
Mary (1596-1671), daughter of Sir John 
Fitz of Fitzford, Devonshire. This high- 
spirited lady had previously been married to 
Sir Allan Percy (d. 1611), and after Howard's 
death married as third husband Thomas 
Darcy, son of Lord Darcy of Chiche (after- 
wards Earl Rivers). In* 1628 she married 
a fourth husband, Sir Richard Grenville 
(1600-1658) [q. v.] Her portrait by Van- 
dyck was engraved by Hollar (see Lady 
Howard of Fitzford, by Mrs. G. H. Radford, 
repr. from Trans, of Devonshire Assoc. 1890, 
xxii. 66-110). 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, iii. 447-9 ; Collins's 
Peerage (Brydges), iii. 147-55; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1595-7, passim; Gardiner's Hist, 
passim.] G-. G-. 

ARUNDEL (1586-1646), art collector, called 
by Walpole the 'Father of Vertu in England,' 
only son of Philip Howard, earl of Arundel 
[q. v.], by Anne, coheiress of Dacre and 
Gillesland, was born at Finchingfield in 
Essex, 7 July 1586 (see will, Harl MS. 
6272, ff. 29-30). When he was nearly ten 
his father died in the Tower (19 Oct. 1595), 
and by his attainder the son was deprived 
of his lands and titles, though called Lord 
Maltravers by courtesy. He was carefully 

brought up by his mother, ' a lady of great 
and eminent virtues,' with his only sister, 
who died aged 16 (manuscript life in Harl. 
MS. 6272, f. 152). ATter attending West- 
minster School, he went to Trinity College, 
Cambridge (Memoirs, ed. 1668, p. 284). On 
the accession of James I, Howard was granted 
his father's titles of Arundel and Surrey, but 
the king retained the family property, so that 
he remained in embarrassed circumstances. 
On 18 April 1604 he was restored in blood, 
and in 1605 first introduced at court. At the 
age of twenty he married (30 Sept. 1606) 
Alathea, third daughter and ultimately heiress 
of Gilbert Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, and, 
with the help of her fortune, gradually bought 
back some of the family property, including 
Arundel House, London, for 4,000/. in 1608. 
For the next few years the earl led a gay life 
at court, and his name constantly appears 
among the performers in masques and jousts. 
On 17 July 1607 the king stood godfather to 
his eldest son James, who died at Ghent in 
1624. He went abroad for his health in 1609, 
travelling in the Low Countries, France, and 
Italy, and seems to have there first ac- 
quired a love of art. On his return he was 
installed KG. at Windsor (13 May 1611). 
At the marriage of Princess Elizabeth (Fe- 
bruary 1613) Arundel carried the sword of 
state, and was afterwards appointed one of 
the four noblemen to escort her abroad. He 
proceeded to Heidelberg at the elector's re- 
quest, and returned to England in June. 
Soon after he and the countess paid a visit to 
Italy, where they were received with all 
honour and respect. They returned in Novem- 
ber 1615. 

Arundel was, like his wife, brought up as 
a Roman catholic, but on 25 Dec. 1615 he 
entered the English church, and took the 
sacrament in the king's chapel, Whitehall, 
to the great grief of his mother, who vainly 
tried to persuade him to return to the Romish 
faith. Arundel has been accused of becoming 
a protestant only from policy, but there is no 
doubt that he had a natural leaning to a 
simple and unadorned ritual. On 16 July 
1616 he was admitted to the privy council, 
and in the next year was made a privy coun- 
cillor of Scotland and Ireland. He supported 
Raleigh's expedition of 1617, but had some 
doubts of Raleigh's sincerity, and visited Ra- 
leigh's ship the Destiny as it was leaving 
the Thames to obtain the explorer's promise 
that he would return to England however 
the enterprise might turn out. On 3 Nov. 
1620 he became a member of a committee 
for the plantations of New England. His 
love of etiquette is illustrated by a quarrel 
with De Cadenet, the French ambassador, in 




1620, over a small point of precedence, when 
he was not satisfied till the king obliged De 
Cadenet to apologise. In April 1621 Arundel 
presided over the committee of the House 
of Lords appointed to consider the evidence 
against the lord chancellor, and recommended 
that Bacon should not be summoned to the bar 
of the house nor deprived of his peerage. On 
Bacon's fall he was, from 3 May to 10 July 

1621, joint-commissioner of the great seal. 
On 8 May 1621, when the House of Lords 
were discussing the case of Sir Henry Yel- 
verton, who was in the Tower on the charge 
of attacking Buckingham in the House of 
Commons, Arundel dissuaded the lords from 
hearing Yelverton's own explanation of his 
words. Lord Spencer, as the representative 
of the popular party, hotly resented the sug- 
gestion that a man should be condemned un- 
heard. A fierce altercation took place be- 
tween Arundel and Spencer ; finally, Arun- 
del's advice was rejected, and his passionate 
language to Spencer was punished on 16 May 
by his committal to the Tower by order of 
the House of Lords. He was only released 
on the king's personal intercession with the 
lords, and on the engagement of the Prince of 
Wales that he would effect a reconciliation be- 
tween the two peers. On 29 Aug. 1621 Arun- 
del was appointed earl-marshal of England. 
At James's funeral he was one of Charles's 
supporters, and was afterwards made a com- 
missioner to appoint the knights of the Bath 
and determine claims to perform the services 
required at the forthcoming coronation of the 
new king. 

The earl soon declared himself an enemy 
of Buckingham, while his plain dress and 
haughty manner made him no favourite with 
the king. In the first year of Charles's reign, 
Arundel's eldest surviving son Henry Frede- 
rick, lord Maltravers, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Esm6 Stuart, for whom Charles 
had arranged another match. On this ground 
the king sent the young couple into confine- 
ment at Lambeth, and, to gratify his own and 
Buckingham's personal hostility to Arundel, 
ordered him and his wife to be confined first 
in the Tower and afterwards in their country 
house at Horseley, Sussex. But the lords de- 
mande d ! Arundel's release so peremptorily that 
Charles was obliged to yield, and the earl was 
set at liberty in June 1626. While he was suf- 
fering restraint Bacon was seized with what 
proved a fatal illness while journeying be- 
tween London and Highgate, and took refuge 
at Arundel's house at Highgate (March 1626). 
Bacon died there 9 April 1626, and the last 
letter he wrote was to Arundel, thanking him 
for the hospitality afforded him during his en- 
forced stay. Within a mouth of his release 

Arundel was again ordered into confinement 
in his own house, and remained under restraint 
till March 1628, when he was once more libe- 
rated at the instance of the lords. Through- 
out the debates on the Petition of Eight o 
1628 he tried to play the part of mediator, 
and probably drew up an amendment to the 
petition with the object of saving the royal 
prerogative, which was proposed by Lord 
Weston, and was finally carried in the House 
of Lords (GARDINER, vi. 279). Seeing, how- 
ever, that, if the petition were to pass at all, 
further concession to the commons was ne- 
cessary, Arundel assented to the withdrawal 
of the clause, and the prerogative was left 
undetermined. Weston in the same year 
effected a reconciliation between Arundel and 
the king, and he was restored to his place in 
the council. 

In 1630 he revived the court of earl-mar- 
shal and constable. After the death of the 
king of Bohemia, Arundel was sent in De- 
cember 1632 to the Hague to condole with the 
queen and bring her back to England ; but 
she refused to come, alleging her duties to 
her family. In 1634 he was made chief j ustice 
in eyre of the forests north of the Trent ; and 
in June accompanied Charles to his coronation 
in Scotland. In April 1636 Arundel was 
sent on an important political mission to 
the emperor at Vienna, to urge the restitu- 
tion of the Palatinate to the king's nephew. 
For once he laid aside his plain dress, and 
was magnificently attired. On his journey 
he was received in state in Holland by 
the widowed queen of Bohemia, the Prince 
of Orange, and the States General. He tra- 
velled slowly on to Nuremberg. Thence he 
passed through the Upper Palatinate to Ra- 
tisbon, but, finding the diet not yet assem- 
bled, visited Ferdinand II at Linz and the 
queen of Hungary at Vienna. His demands 
as to the Palatinate were refused by the em- 
peror, and he asked to be recalled. This 
Charles, who hoped to gain more favour- 
able terms by temporising, refused. Passing 
through Moravia and Bohemia, Arundel re- 
turned to Ratisbon in the autumn (see 
CROWNE, Tribe Relation of . . . the Travels of 
Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. . .Embas- 
sador Extraordinary to... Ferdinand II, 1636, 
London, 1637, 12mo). Charles recalled him on 
27 Sept. 1636, and on his return granted him 
7,2621., the balance of 19,262Z. allowed him 
for his expenses abroad. His mission com- 
pletely altered his views of English foreign 
policy. He now regarded France instead of 
the house of Austria as the ally most valuable 
for England to secure in the matter of the 
Palatinate (cf. GARDINER, viii. 202). In 
1638 Arundel was commissioned to repair 




the border fortresses, and late in the same 
year was made general of the army against 
the Scots. It assembled on 29 April 1639 
at Selby-on-the-Ouse, whence it moved to 
Berwick under the king's command, but was 
disbanded in three months. Clarendon calls 
Arundel ' a man who had nothing martial 
about him but his presence and his looks,' and 
was, he says, chosen general for ' his negative 
qualities ; he did not love the Scots ; he did 
not love the puritans' {History, Clarendon 
Press edit., 1828, i. 201). New preparations 
were made for war in the end of 1639, and 
Arundel, who became lord-steward of the 
royal household on 12 April 1640, adminis- 
tered the oath to the commons on 25 April 
1640. On 29 Aug. 1640 he was appointed 
'captain-general south of Trent,' but after 
the Scots took Newcastle (30 Aug.), Arun- 
del was examined in parliament as to his 
responsibility. No fault was found with 
his conduct. Early in the next year the 
earl presided at Strafford's trial (March and 
April 1641), acting as lord high steward ; he 
had privately quarrelled with Strafford in 
1635 over some land which both claimed, 
but by all impartial accounts did not allow 
his private enmity to bias his feelings. He 
notified the royal assent to the bill of Straf- 
ford's attainder, and also to a bill against 
dissolving parliament without the consent 
of both houses. On 29 June Arundel, sup- 
ported by seventeen other noblemen, peti- 
tioned for the restoration of his grandfather's 
title of Duke of Norfolk. Charles avoided a 
direct reply, but in the year of the earl's death, 
and when unable to make his concession of 
,any value, granted him the title by a patent, 
dated 6 June 1646, from Oxford. * 

In August 1641 Arundel, who was grow- 
ing out of sympathy with the court, resigned 
his post of lord-steward of the household. 
The queen-mother of France concluded a visit 
to England in July 1641, and the earl and 
'his wife escorted her to Cologne, where the 
countess remained. Arundel went on to 
Utrecht, where his eldest surviving son's chil- 
dren were being educated, and after a short 
visit to England, in company with Evelyn, 
in October, left the country for good in the 
middle of February 1642, ostensibly acting 
as escort to Queen Henrietta Maria and Prin- j 
cess Mary. Soon parting with them, he went i 
on through France to Italy. His grandsons, 
Thomas and Philip, the eldest and youngest 
sons of Lord Maltravers, accompanied him, 
but Thomas became insane, and Philip turned 
Dominican at Milan [see HOWARD, PHILIP j 
THOMAS], to the earl's grief. He was joined 
at Padua, where he now permanently settled, 
by his second grandson, Henry. In 1644 

Arundel and other absent peers were recalled 
by an order of the House of Lords, but he 
remained abroad, contributing 54,000/. to 
the royalist cause. Tho same year Arundel 
Castle was captured by the Roundheads, but 
was retaken by Waller. Arundel's means 
were now much circumscribed ; his personal 
estate had been seized in 1643 by parliament, 

! and was in the hands of the sequestrators. 
Out of an annual revenue of 15,000/., he only 
received 500/. a year while abroad (House of 
Commons' Journals, iii. 231, 432, &c.) His 

\ son, Lord Mowbray and Maltravers, joined 

j him with difficulty in 1645, and while pre- 
paring to return to England in 1646, Arun- 

i del was taken ill. Evelyn records a visit to 
him on his sick bed at Padua (Easter 1646), 
when he found him, more sick in mind than 
body, lamenting the undutifulness of his 
grandson Philip (Diary, i. 218). On 4 Oct. 
he died suddenly, and by his own desire his 
body was conveyed by his son and his grand- 
son Henry to be buried at Arundel. The earl 
desired to have a tomb made by Fanelli, and 

I composed his own epitaph, but, like other 
directions given in Arundel's will, these ar- 
rangements for a tomb were not carried out. 
By his wife Alathea he had six sons. The 
eldest, James, lord Mowbray, created K.B. 
in 1616, died unmarried at Ghent in 1624. 
Arundel's second son and successor, Henry 
Frederick, and his fifth son, William Howard, 
viscount Stafford, are separately noticed. 

The earl's character has been unfairly drawn 
by Clarendon, who personally disliked him, but 
Clarendon brings no graver charges than those 
of pride and reserve, illiteracy and religious in- 
differentism. Austere in disposition, plain in 
speech and dress, very particular as to the re- 
spect due to his rank, the earl was unpopular 
at court, as well as with those below him. But 
he was an affectionate husband and parent, 
taking immense pains with the education of 
his sons and grandson. He was liberal and 
hospitable, especially to foreigners, and a 
patron of arts and learning. He brought 
Hollar from Prague, and employed him to 
make drawings. Oughtred, the famous mathe- 
matician, was tutor to his third son, William. 
Francis Junius [q. v.] was his librarian, and 
lived in his family thirty years. He was the 
friend of the antiquaries, Sir Robert Cotton, 
Sir Henry Spelman, Camden, and Selden, and 
is said to have first discovered the talent of 
Inigo Jones. 

Arundel formed the first large collection 
of works of art in England. From 1615 he 
collected diligently in various countries of 
Europe, making purchases himself when tra- 
velling, or employing agents when he was in 
England. Much of his extant correspondence 


7 6 


deals with his various artistic transactions. 
In Additional MS. 15970 are many letters to 
' good Mr. Petty/ who was his chaplain and 
his agent at Rome. Writing on one occasion 
from Frankfort, 5 Dec. 1636, he says: 'I wish 
you sawe the Picture of a Madonna of [Diirer], 
which the Bishoppe of Wirtzberge gave me 
lastweeke as I passed by that way, and though 
it were painted at first upon an uneven board 
and is vernished, yet it is more worth then 
all the toyes I have gotten in Germany e, and 
for such I esteeme it, having ever carried it 
in my owne coach since I had it : and howe 
then doe you think I should valewe thinges of 
Leonardo, Raphaell, Corregio, and such like ? ' 
Again, in the same year, when at Nurem- 
berg, he bought the Pirkheymer Library, 
which had belonged to the kings of Hungary, 
and was presented, through Evelyn's efforts, 
by Arundel's son to the Royal Society. In 
the same way he acquired the intaglios and 
medals from Daniel Rice. He always gave 
instructions that his purchases should be 
conveyed to England by the shortest sea 
route. Sir William Russell, writing from 
the Hague in the beginning of 1637, says : 
' The ship wherein his goods were fraughted 
(amongst which are many thousands most 
excellent pieces of painting and Bookes which 
his Lordship gathered in his journey) is still 
at the Rotterdam, kept in with the ice ever 
since his Lordship parted ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
8th Rep. App. p. 554). He bought many 

S'.ctures, &c., from Henry Vanderborcht of 
russels, and employed Vanderborcht's son, 
a painter and engraver, to collect for him, and 
also to draw his curiosities. He arranged his 
collections in the galleries of Arundel House, 
London. Ultimately he deposited there 37 
statues, 128 busts, 250 inscribed marbles, ex- 
clusive of sarcophagi, altars, and fragments, 
besides pictures, chiefly those of Hans Hol- 
bein, gems, &c. Selden described the marbles 
in his 'Marmora Arundeliana,' London, 
1628, afterwards incorporated in Prideaux's 
' Marmora Oxoniensia,' 1676. The countess 
received part of these treasures, most of 
which she bequeathed to her son, William, 
viscount Stafford, and this portion of the pro- 
perty was sold by auction by Stafford's suc- 
cessors in 1720. Arundel's grandson, Henry, 
sixth duke of Norfolk [q. v.], inherited the 
chief portion of the collection. He gave 
many of the statues and inscribed marbles 
(the famous Arundel marbles) to the univer- 
sity of Oxford in 1667. Other of the statues 
were sold later to William Fermor, lord Leo- 
minster [q. v.], whose daughter-in-law, Hen- 
rietta Louisa Fermor, countess of Pomfret 
[q. v.], presented these also to Oxford in 
1755. In 1685, and again in 1691, the sixth 

Duke of Norfolk's son, Henry, seventh duke 

\. v.], directed sales of the paintings and 

rawings, retaining only a few family pic- 

tures. When his wife left him in 1685, she 

carried with her the cabinets and gems, leav- 

ing them in 1705 to her second husband, Sir 

John Germain [q. v.], whose widow, Lady 

Betty, bestowed some of them on Sir Charles 

Spencer and the Duke of Marlborough. The 

coins and medals were bought by Heneage 
Finch, second earl of Winchilsea [q. v.], and 
were sold by his executors in 1696. The 

famous bust of Homer passed thro.ugh the 
hands of Dr. Meade and the Earl of Exeter 
before it reached the British Museum. 

There are several portraits of Arundel. 
In 1618 Van Somer painted him with his wife, 
and there is a portrait by Vandyck in the 

i Sutherland Gallery, which has been engraved 
by Tardieu, W. Sharp, and Tomkins. A half- 
length painting by Rubens is at Castle 
Howard, and was engraved by Houbraken. 
Vandyck designed a family group, which 
was afterwards finished by Frutiers. 

[The most detailed memoir is in Lloyd's 
Memoirs, ed. 1677, p. 284; cf. also Ashtead 
and its Howard Possessors ; Doyle's Baronage ; 
Sir Edward Walker's Historical Observations, 
ed. 1705, p. 209; Walpole's Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing, ed. Wormim, i. 292 ; Collins's Peerage, ed. 
1779, i. 110; Gardiner's Hist, passim; Cam- 
den's Annals of King James I, p. 642; Stow's 
Annals, p. 918; Historical Anecdotes of some of 
the Howard Family, by C. Howard, 1817, p. 75; 
The Howard Papers, by H. K. Staple Causton ; 
Lives of Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, and 
Anne Dacres, his Wife, 1837, p. 167 ; Tierney's 
Hist, of Arundel ; Blomefield's Norfolk, i. 239 ; 
Lodge's Illustrations, iii. 331 , &c. ; Nichols's Pro- 
gresses of James I, ii. 5, 141 ; Allen's Lambeth, 
p. 309; Lords' Journals; State Papers, &c. There 
are letters from and to the earl in Clarendon's 
Correspondence, in Sir Thomas Koe's Negotia- 
tions, pp. 334, 444, 495, at the College of Arms, 

j and in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 15970. Many re- 
ferences to him are also in Evelyn's Diary ; au- 
thorities quoted.] E. T. B. 

HOWARD, WALTER (1759-1830?), 
called the ' Heir of Poverty/ born on 19 May 
1759, was son of William Howard, by Cathe- 
rine Titcombe of St. Helier, Jersey, and 
grandson of Charles Francis Howard of Over- 
acres, and lord of Redesdale,Northumberland. 
His father claimed kinship with the ducal fa- 
mily of Norfolk ; in 1750 he sold Overacres, the 
I seigniories of Redesdale and Harbottle, and 
the advowson of Elsdon, Northumberland, 
to the Earl of Northumberland, and thence- 
forward appears to have been supported by 
Edward Howard, duke of Norfolk (1686- 
1777) [q. v.] Walter was sent by the duke 
to the college at St. Omer, but, being a pro- 




testant, lie was soon withdrawn. In 1773 
he was placed with a wine merchant at 
Oporto. In 1777 his father and the duke 
died. He returned to England, and found 
that Duke Edward had bequeathed him an 
annuity of 45/. The new duke, Charles 
(1720-1786) [q. v.], became his friend, and 
continued the allowance previously made to 
his father. In 1793 he was much embarrassed 
by debts. The eleventh duke, Charles (1746- 
1815) [q. v.], seems to have satisfied himself 
from a pedigree in the College of Arms that 
Howard's claims to kinship with him were 
fictitious. On 21 Dec. 1795 Howard was re- 
leased from a debtor's prison, and by the 
duke's steward established at Ewood, Surrey, 
on a small property. The duke ordered him 
to be called ' Mr. Smith.' When he went to 
London to complain of this grievance, the 
duke refused to see him, and would not allow 
him to resume occupation of Ewood. Howard 
now devoted himself to correct the College 
of Arms pedigree of the ducal family, and 
to regain the Ewood property. He wrote 
to the lord chancellor, and tried to address 
the court of chancery in July 1809, and even 
attempted to address the House of Lords. 
Thomas Christopher Banks [q. v.] wrote a 
foolish pamphlet in his support, and drew 
up for him a petition to the king. Howard 
presented a petition to the prince regent on 
25 April 1812, and waylaid the prince in 
Pall Mall on 12 May, for which he apologised 
in another letter. He was taken into custody 
on presenting himself at Norfolk House, and, 
after examination before a magistrate, was 
committed to prison. He obtained some al- 
lowance from the twelfth duke, Bernard Ed- 
ward (1765-1842) [q. v.], and is believed to 
have died in 1830 or 1831. By his wife, Miss 
Jane Martin of Gateside, Westmoreland, he 
left no issue. 

[Howard Papers, edited by H. K. S. Causton 
(1867), chiefly compiled from papers presented 
to the author by Howard's widow out of grati- 
tude for the interest manifested "by Mr. Causton 
and his father in her husband's case.] GK Gr. 

iudge,was perhaps the son of John Ho ward of 
"Wiggenhall, Norfolk (living 1260), by Lucy, 
daughter of John Germund. The family, 
which was probably of Saxon origin, belonged 
to the class of smaller gentry, and was settled 
in the neighbourhood of Lynn, Norfolk. The 
name Howard, Haward, or Hayward, is said 
to have been compounded of haye (hedge) 
and ward (warden), and to have denoted 
originally an officer whose principal duty it 
was to prevent trespass on pasture-land. 
Howard was counsel to the corporation of 
Lynn, and appears as justice of assize for the 

northern counties in 1293, and was in the 
following year commissioner of sewers for 
the north-west of Norfolk. He was sum- 
moned to parliament as j, justice in 1295, and 
on 11 Oct. 1297 was appointed a justice of 
the common pleas. In the following year he 
purchased Grancourt's manor, East Winch, 
near Lynn, where he had his principal seat. 
In 1305, and again in 1307, he was one of 
the commissioners of trailbaston. He must 
have died or retired in the summer or autumn 
of 1308, the patent of his successor, Henry 
le Scrope, being dated 27 Nov. in that year. 
In or about the reign of Henry VII a figure 
of him kneeling in his robes with the legend 
' Pray for the soul of William Howard, chief 
justice of England,' was inserted in one of 
the stained-glass windows in the church of 
Long Melford, Suffolk. He does not seem, 
however, to have held the office of chief jus- 
tice (DUGDALE, Orig. 44, Chron. Ser. 34). 
Howard married, first, Alice, daughter of 
Sir Robert Ufford, ancestor of the first earls 
of Suffolk ; secondly, Alice, daughter of Sir 
Edmund de Fitton of Fitton in Wiggenhall 
St. Germains, Norfolk. By his first wife he 
had no issue ; by the second two sons, Sir 
John and Sir William. By the marriage of 
Sir Robert Howard, a lineal descendant of 
Sir John, with Margaret, daughter and coheir 
to Thomas de Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, 
part of the estates of the duchy passed to 
their son, Sir John, first duke of Norfolk of 
the Howard family [q. v.] 

[Henry Howard's Memorials of the Howard 
Family, 1834, App. i.; Ellis's Letters of Emi- 
nent Literary Men (Camden Soc.), 115; Cal. 
Inq. post mortem, i. 171 ; Promptorium Parvu- 
lorum (Camden Soc.) ; Blomefield's Norfolk, ed. 
Parkin, ix. 190 et seq. ; Genealogist, ed. Mar- 
shall, ii. 337 et seq.; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 
265; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. pp. 31, 33; Parl. 
Writs, i. 29 (3) ; Madox's Exch. ii. 91 ; Kot. 
Parl. i. 178, 218 ; Collins's Peer age, ed.Brydges, 
i. 51 et seq. ; Foss's Lives of the Judges.] 

J. M. E. 

HOWAED OF EFFINGHAM (1510 P-1573), born 
about 1510, was the eldest son of Thomas 
Howard, second duke of Norfolk [q. v.], by 
his second wife. He was educated at Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge, under Gardiner, and at a 
very early age came to court. In 1531 Howard 
went on his first embassy to Scotland, and 
was entertained by James V at St. Andrews. 
His mission seems to have been to propose a 
marriage between James and the Princess 
Mary. He was with Henry VIII at Boulogne, 
and at the coronation of Anne Boleyn he was 
deputy earl-marshal. Henry liked and trusted 
him. In January 1532 he ' won of the king 



at shovillabourde 91.' In February 1534-5 
he went to Scotland to invest James V with 
the Garter (State Papers Henry VIII, v. 2 ; 
Diurnal of 'Occur rents , Bannatyne Club, 19). 
Chapuys, who suspected much more than 
was really designed by the mission, added, in 
his letter to Charles V, l People are astonished 
at the despatch of so stupid and indiscreet a 
man.' But Queen Margaret on 4 March wrote 
to Henry, commending Ho ward's ' honorable, 
pleasaunt, and wys ' behaviour. King James V, 
who a few days previously bore similar testi- 
mony, offered him the confiscated lands and 
goods of James Hamilton, the sheriff of Lin- 
lithgow, brother of Patrick Hamilton [q. v.] 
These Howard refused, and Hamilton was 
restored to favour. In 1535 he was in France 
on diplomatic business (Chronicle of Calais, 
Camd. Soc. p. 45). In February 1535-6 
Howard was again sent to Scotland, in com- 
pany with William Barlow [q. v.], the bishop- 
elect of St. Asaph, to recommend to James 
and his court the adoption in Scotland of 
Henry's ecclesiastical policy. Howard was 
instructed to set forth 'his grace's proceed- 
inges,' and to 'inculce and harpe uppon the 
spring of honour and promt.' He had also to 
propose to James an interview with Henry. 
He returned to Scotland once more in April 
1536 (Hamilton Papers, i. 29, &c. ; Diurnal 
of Occur rents, p. 20). 

In 1537 and 1541 Howard was engaged 
on an embassy to France (cf. State Papers 
Henry VIII, vol. viii. pt. v. contd.) While 
there Cromwell informed him and his col- 
league, the bishop of Worcester, of the death 
of Jane Seymour, and, at the king's request, 
asked them to report which of the French 
princesses would be suitable for her successor. 
In December 1541 Howard, who had been 
recalled from France on 24 Sept. (ib. p. 610), 
together with his wife, was charged with 
shielding the immoralities of his kinswoman, 
Queen Catherine Howard, and both were 
convicted of misprision of treason (see App. 
ii. 3rd Eep. Dep. Keeper of Public Records, 
p. 264), but were pardoned [see under CATHE- 
RINE, d. 1542]. They lost, however, the 
manor and rectory of Tottenham, which had 
been granted to them in 1537 (NEWCOTTRT, 
Repertorium, i. 753). Howard accompanied 
Hertford in the invasion of Scotland of 1544. 
In the same year he took part in the siege of 
Boulogne, and in 1546 one of the many 
orders in council directed to him instructed 
him to prepare ships for the ' sure wafting ' 
of the money which Wotton and Harrington 
were to convey to the army in France. 

From 29 Oct. 1552 to December 1553 
Howard was lord deputy and governor of 
Calais, with a fee of 100/. a year ; in October 

1553 he was admitted to the privy council. 
On 14 Nov. 1553 he was appointed lord ad- 
miral of England. Clinton, however, the 
former admiral, did not resign at once, so that - 
the patent was not made out until 10 March 
1553-4. On 2 Jan. 1553-4 he received the 
Spanish ambassadors at the Tower wharf, and 
rode with them up through the city to Durham 
Place. He was made K.G. in 1554. When Sir 
Thomas Wyat approached London, Howard 
was very active in the defence of the queen. 
He shut Ludgate in Wyat's face. 'And 
that night ' (3 Feb. 1553-4), says Wriothesley, 
' the said Lord Admirall watched the [London] 
Bridge with iii c men, and brake the draw- 
bridge, and set rampeers with great ordinance 
there.' As a reward for his exertions he 
was created Baron Howard of Effingham on 
11 March 1553-4 ; the manor of Effingham, 
Surrey, had been granted him byEdward VI in 
1551. But Howard's active devotion to Eliza- 
beth's interests roused the suspicions of Mary 
and her advisers. In 1554 he remonstrated 
with Gage for his ill-usage of the princess, had 
a conversation with her in the Tower in 1555, 
and when in 1558 Elizabeth came as a pri- 
soner to Hampton Court, he visited her, and 
' marvellous honorably used her grace ' (Ho- 
LINSHED, p. 1158). Howard was, however, 
popular with the seamen, and was too power- 
ful to be interfered with. He met Philip 
when he came to England at the Needles, 
and though there were fears that he would 
carry him away to France, he brought him 
safely to Southampton. In 1555 he con- 
veyed Philip to Flanders. But he was still 
exposed to suspicion, and in 1556 thought of 
resigning his office. Next year, however, he 
was cruising in the Channel, and in 1558 Mary 
appointed him lord chamberlain of the house- 
hold. In 1558 Mary designed to send him on 
an embassy to France, but he was too ill to go. 

Under Elizabeth Howard was reappointed 
lord chamberlain, and was again employed 
in diplomacy. He negotiated with Wotton 
and the Bishop of Ely the treaty of Chateau 
Cambresis in the early part of 1559 (cf. in- 
structions in Cal. State Papers, Foreign Ser. 
1559, No. 293), and afterwards went to Paris 
with Wotton and Throckmorton (May 1559) 
to induce the king of France to swear to 
observe it. 1 1 assure you,' he wrote to Cecil, 
24 May 1559, of the charges imposed on him, 
1 there is no day that I escape under 10/. a 
day, and sometimes more, besides rewards to 
minstrels and others.' However, on leaving 
France he had ' a very large and honorable pre- 
sent of very fair and stately plate gilt, amount- 
ing to 4,140 ozs., and worth 2,0667. 13s. 4^.' 

In March 1559 Howard sent home to Eliza- 
beth reports of French gossip about schemes 




for her marriage ; personally he favoured an 
Austrian alliance. In August 1564 he ac- 
companied the queen on a visit to Cambridge ; 
he lodged in Trinity Hall, and was created 
M.A. He took the queen's part against the 
northern earls in the rebellion of 1569, and 
in 1572 ceased to be lord chamberlain on 
becoming lord privy seal. Holinshed says 
that he died at Hampton Court on 12 Jan. 
1573, others that his death took place at his 
house at Reigate. He was buried in Reigate 
Church. In the latter part of his life he bought 
considerable estates in Surrey, besides those 
which he had by royal grant ; but in 1567 he 
complained of poverty, and it seems that he 
would have been made an earl had he had the 
necessary property. In his will he began a 
clause making a bequest to the queen, but left 
it blank. A portrait which has been engraved 
is in the possession of the Earl of Effingham. 
Howard married first, before 1531, Kathe- 
rine (d. 1535), daughter of John Boughton 
of Tuddington, Bedfordshire, by whom he 
had a daughter Agnes, who married William 
Paulet, third marquis of Winchester (cf. 
Letters and Papers Henry VIII, v. 149 ; some 
curious particulars as to the daughter's mar- 
riage will be found in Wills from Doctors' 
Commons, Camd. Soc., ed. Bruce, p. 31) ; 
secondly, before 1536, Margaret (d. 1581), 
daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage of Coity , Gla- 
morganshire. The letter of London to Lord 
Lisle (ib. vi. 322), giving an account of the 
festivities at the second marriage as occurring 
in 1533, must be misdated, if the first wife's 
epitaph in the Howard Chapel at Lambeth 
is correct. By his second wife he had, besides 
other issue, two sons, Charles, who is sepa- 
rately noticed, and William, afterwards Sir 
William of Lingfield. 

[Authorities quoted ; Howard's Indications of 
Memorials of the Howard Family; Cal. of State 
Papers, passim ; Froude's Hist, of England ; 
Burton's Hist, of Scotland, 2nd ed. iii. 161 ; Lind- 
say of Pitscottie'sChron. ; Tytler's Hist, of Scot- 
land ; Stow's Annals ; Acts of the Privy Council; 
Manning's Surrey, i. 277, &c., iii. 505 ; G-. E. C.'s 
Peerage ; Burke's Peerage ; Camden's Ann. ed. 
Hearne, ii. 284 ; Burnet's Hist, of the Kef. ed. 
Pocock,vols. i. ii.iii. ; Machyn's Diary; Chronicle 
of Queen Jane and of two years of Queen Mary, 
ed. J. G. Nichols (Camd. Soc.), pp. 41, 43, &c. ; 
"Wriothesley's Chronicle, ed. Hamilton (Camd. 
Soc.), i. 21, 132, 133, ii. 109, 110, 117, 118; 
Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 32646, if. 59-71 ; MS. 
Cotton.Calig. B. ii. 233 ; Cooper's A thenae Cantabr. 
i. 308, 559 ; Literary Eemains of Edward VI, 
ed. Nichols (Roxburghe Club), xxiv, xxv, cclviii, 
cclix, ccci, ccciii, 260, 271, 358, 363, 384, 461 ; 
Strype's Annals and Eccl. Mem. ; paper by 
G-. Leveson-Gower, F.S.A., in vol. ix. of Surrey 
Archaeological Collections.] W. A. J. A. 


I 1640), < Belted Will,' was the third son of 
i Thomas Howard III, fourth duke of Norfolk 
| [q. v.], by his second wife Margaret, daughter 
i of Lord Audley. He was born at Audley 
End, Essex, on 19 Dec. 1563, and his mother 
died three weeks after his birth. His father 
j soon afterwards married the Dowager Lady 
Dacre of Gilsland, and betrothed his children 
to the Dacre heiresses, so that at the age of 
eight William Howard was contracted to 
I Lady Elizabeth Dacre. He was educated 
I by Gregory Martin, fellow of St. John's Col- 
! lege, Oxford, a good scholar, and an adherent 
| of the old religion ; but he fled from England 
before he had time to produce much impres- 
sion on the boy's mind. The execution of his 
father in 1572 left the boy under the nomi- 
nal care of his half-brother, Philip Howard 
: (1557-1595) [q. v.] ; but probably he was 
i brought up by the Earl of Arundel, his 
i brother's grandfather on the mother's side. 
His marriage with Elizabeth Dacre was 
solemnised at Audley End on 28 Oct. 1577, 
and after that he proceeded to Cambridge, 
where he probably entered at St. John's Col- 
lege, as in later life he presented that college 
i with some books ' devotissimse mentis gra- 
! tissimum testimonium ' (ORJTSBY, Household 
Books, p. x, ft.) In 1581 he took up his abode 
with his wife, probably at a house called 
Mount Pleasant, in Enfield Chase, Middlesex, 
where his eldest son was born on 6 Dec. 1581. 
He soon became involved in the fortunes of 
I his brother Philip, earl of Arundel [q. v.] ; 
1 was imprisoned with him in 1583, and joined 
the church of Rome in 1584. He was again 
imprisoned in 1585, when his brother tried 
to leave the kingdom, but was not arraigned 
with him, and was released in 1586. 

Elizabeth disliked the Howards, and Wil- 
liam knew that he was a suspected man. For 
many years he was involved in lawsuits about 
his wife's possessions. The claims of the 
Dacre heiresses had been disputed in 1569 by 
their uncle, Leonard Dacre, and the dispute 
was revived by another uncle, Francis Dacre, 
in 1584. There is a full account of the various 
suits written by William in Appendix i. to 
Ornsby's ' Household Books.' It is sufficient 
to say that the claims of Francis Dacre were 
disallowed ; but the knowledge of the un- 
popularity of the Howards induced a northern 
neighbour, Gerard Lowther, to set up a title 
for the queen to the baronies of Gilsland and 
Brough. The case was tried at Carlisle in 
1589, and was unopposed, as Howard was 
again in prison. Lowther pursued his course 
of dispossessing the Howards of their lands 
on the queen's behalf. Elizabeth took pos- 
session of most of them, and made Howard 



an allowance of 400/. a year. Ultimately 
in 1601 the queen permitted the sisters, Lady 
Arundel and Lady Elizabeth Howard, to buy 
back their lands by a payment of some 
10,000/. each, and the long lawsuit was 
ended to the profit of the royal coffers. A 
partition was made of the estates between 
the two sisters, and in 1603 Howard took up 
his abode at Naworth Castle, Cumberland, a 
house which is indissolubly connected with 
his name as its restorer (an account of 
Howard's works at Naworth is given by C. J. 
Ferguson, ' Naworth Castle,' in the Trans- 
actions of the Cumberland and Westmoreland 
ArchcBological Society, iv. 486, &c.) 

After settling at Naworth, Howard brought 
an upright character, a sound judgment, and 
a cultivated mind to the work of restoring 
order and furthering civilisation in the wild 
districts of the borders. He lived in a patri- 
archal fashion with his sons and their wives 
and families. He improved his estates, en- 
couraged agriculture, and strove to promote 
the well-being of the people. His praise- 
worthy efforts were not always approved by 
his neighbours, and many attempts were 
made to bring him into trouble as a recusant. 
On account of his religion he held no public 
post till 1618, when he was made one of the 
commissioners for the borders (RYMER, Fce- 
dera, xvii. 53). He insisted on the due exe- 
cution of the laws, and by his perseverance 
annoyed the neighbouring justices and the 
captain of Carlisle Castle, whose shortcomings 
lie laid before the privy council ; but his pro- 
ceedings were always in accordance with the 
law. Scott, in the < Lay of the Last Min- 
strel,' has turned him into a mythical hero 
by the name of l Belted Will.' ' But Scott 
has also made him lord warden, an office 
which he never held, and has transferred to 
him legends which properly belong to his 
Dacre ancestors. He was not known in his 
own days as 'Belted Will,' but ' Bauld [bold] j 
Willie,' and his wife ' Bessie with the braid j 
[broad] apron,' in allusion to her ample dower. 
Their ' Household Books/ which extend with 
some gaps from 1612 to 1640, give copious 
information of their domestic economy, which 
became a pattern to the neighbourhood. A 
diary of some southern visitors in 1634 gives 
a pleasant description of the generous hospi- 
tality of Naworth Castle, and says of its 
hosts : ' These noble twain could not make 
above twenty-five years both together when 
first they married, that now can make above 
140 years, and are very hearty, well, and 
merry ' (Household Books, Appendix, p. 

Howard was also a scholar and an anti- 
quary. Early in life he began to collect books 

and manuscripts, and in 1592 published at 
London an edition of Florence of Worcester's 
' Chronicon ex Chronicis, auctore Florentio 
Wigorniensi Monacho,' which he dedicated 
to Lord Burghley. He formed at Naworth 
a large library, of which some of the printed 
books remain (there is a catalogue in the 
' Household Books,' Appendix, p. 473). The 
collection of manuscripts has unfortunately 
been dispersed. A small portion is in the 
Arundel MSS. in the Royal College of Arms ; 
but many valuable manuscripts in other col- 
lections may be identified as belonging to 
Howard by his marginal notes. It is clear 
that he was a man of considerable learning, 
and that his library was valuable. He was 
a friend of Cotton, Camden, and Spelman, 
and a correspondent of Ussher, who collated 
one of his manuscripts of the letters of Abbot 
Aldhelm (Veterum Epistolarum Sylloge, p. 
129). His intimacy with Cotton led to the 
marriage of one of his daughters to Cotton's 
eldest son, afterwards Sir Thomas Cotton. 
Camden calls Howard ' a singular lover of 
valuable antiquity and learned withal .' When 
a proposal was made in 1617 to revive the 
Society of Antiquaries, which James I had 
for some reason suppressed, a memorial in 
favour of the project sets the name of Howard 
first in the list of its probable members 
(Archceologia, vol. i. xvii). Living close to 
the Roman Wall, Howard collected Roman 
altars and inscriptions, and sent drawings of 
them, made with his own hand, to Camden, 
who was working at his ' Britannia ' (Brit. 
p. 642). These he kept in the garden at 
Naworth, where they were seen by Stukeley 
in 1725 (Iter Boreale, p. 58). Even in Stuke- 
ley's day they were suffering from neglect, 
and were subsequently scattered or destroyed. 
Some information about them is to be found 
in Horsley's 'Britannia Romana,' pp. 254-8, 
and Bruce's ' Lapidarium Septentrionale,' pp. 
176-8, 197-9. Howard's declining years were 
disturbed by the outbreak of civil troubles, 
and after the battle of Newburn in August 
1640 there were fears that the Scots army 
would advance on Carlisle and attack Naworth 
on the way. It was therefore thought pru- 
dent to carry the old man to Greystock as a 
place of greater safety. He was so feeble 
that he had to be borne in a litter, and soon 
after his arrival there he died early in October, 
having survived his wife abo ut a year. Among 
his ten children were Philip, whose grandson, 
Charles Howard (1629-1685) [q. v.], was 
created Earl of Carlisle in 1661, and Sir 
Francis of Corby Castle, Cumberland, a 
royalist colonel. There is a portrait of him 
by Cornelius Janssen at Castle Howard, and 
one of his wife at Gilling Castle, Yorkshire. 




[The life of Howard has been carefully told 
by Ornsby in the Introduction to the Household 
Books of Lord William Howard (Surtees Society), 
and the Appendix contains a number of illustra- 
tive documents ; Howard's Memorials of the 
Howards ; Duke of Norfolk's edition of the Lives 
of Philip Howard, earl of Arundel, and Anne 
Dacres, his wife ; Hutchinson's History of Cum- 
berland, p. 133, &c.; Scott's Lay of the Last 
Minstrel, notes; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 281; 
Lonsdale's Worthies of Cumberland; Lysons's 
Magna Britannia, ' Cumberland/ pp. 32 and 
clxxix-xxxi ; Grillow's Dictionary of the English 
Catholics, iii. 455-8.] M. C. 

STAFFORD (1614-1680), was fifth son of Tho- 
mas, earl of Arundel and Surrey [q. v.], by his 
wife Lady Alathea Talbot, third daughter, 
and event ually sole heiress, of Gilbert, seventh 
-earl of Shrewsbury. He was born on 30 Nov. 
161 4, and was brought up as a Roman catholic. 
He was made a knight of the Bath at the coro- 
nation of Charles I in February 1626, and 
married (mar. lie. Bishop of London, 11 Oct. 
1637) Mary, the daughter of the Hon. Edward 
Stafford, and sister of Henry, fifth and last 
baron Stafford, who died in 1637. Roger Staf- 
ford, the last male heir of the Staffords, hav- 
ing been compelled to surrender to the king 
the barony of Stafford by an enrolled deed 
dated 7 Dec. 1639, Howard and his wife 
were created by letters patent of 12 Sept. 
1640 Baron and Baroness Stafford, with, re- 
mainder, in default of male issue, to their 
heirs female. A grant was also made to them 
of the same precedence as had been enjoyed 
by the fifth Baron Stafford ; but as this was 
subsequently considered illegal, Stafford was 
further created Viscount Stafford on 11 Nov. 
1640, and took his seat for the first time in 
the House of Lords on the following day 
{Journals of the House of Lords, iv. 90). Upon 
the outbreak of the civil war Stafford retired 
with his wife to Antwerp, but subsequently 
returned to this country (State Trials, vii. 
1359). The statement in Doyle's l Official 
Baronage ' that Stafford served as a volun- 
teer in the royal army (1642-6) is inaccurate, 
as it is clear that he was beyond the seas in 
1643 (CLARENDON, Hist, of Rebellion, 1826, 
iv. 630). In June 1646 a pass was granted j 
him to return to England, and in July 1647 
he obtained leave to go to Flanders to fetch 
his wife and family (Journals of the House of 
Lords, viii. 384, ix. 327). In a letter to the 
Protector, dated Amsterdam, 1 Jan. 1656, 
Stafford, after mentioning his former petition 
on behalf of his nephew Thomas, earl of 
Arundel, 'kept in cruell slavery in Padua,' 
asks for permission to repair to England to 
communicate personally to Cromwell < a busi- 


ness of far greater importance wholy concern- 
ing your owne person and affayres ... not 
fitt to communicate to paper ' ( Thurloe State 
Papers, 1742, iv. 335). Though Stafford 
was allowed to return, no interview be- 
tween him and Cromwell appears to have 
taken place (ib. vi. 436). On 30 June 1660 
an order was made by the House of Lords 
for the restitution of Stafford's goods (Jour- 
nals of the House of Lords, xi. 79). Ac- 
cording to Burnet, Stafford considered that 
he had not been rewarded by Charles II as 
he deserved, and so ' often voted against the 
court and made great applications always to 
the Earl of Shaftsbury ' (Hist, of his own 
Time, ii. 262). In 1664 Stafford petitioned the 
king, without success, to restore his wife to 
the earldom of Stafford and barony of Newn- 
ham and Tunbridge as fully as though her 
ancestor, Edward, duke of Buckingham, had 
never been attainted ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1663-4, p. 446). On 18 Jan. 1665 he was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and 
in 1672 served as member of the council of 
that society. On 3 July 1678 he had an 
altercation with the Earl of Peterborough in 
the House of Lords, and was enjoined by the 
lord chancellor 'not to resent anything as 
passed between them this day ' (Journals of 
the House of Lords, xiii. 270). 

In consequence of the false information 
of Titus Oates a warrant was issued by the 
lord chief justice, at the instance of the 
speaker, for the apprehension of Stafford and 
four other catholic lords, namely, the Earl 
of Powis and Lords Arundell of Wardour, 
Belasyse, and Petre. On the following day 
Stafford, having first informed the House of 
Lords of the issue of the warrant, surrendered 
himself, and was committed to the King's 
Bench prison, whence he was subsequently re- 
moved to the Tower. [For the preliminary 
proceedings against ' the five popish lords ' see 
art. ARUNDELL, HENRY.] On 21 May 1680 
Stafford, who was still confined to the Tower, 
was refused bail by the court of king's bench 
(LuTTRELL, i. 45), and on 10 Nov. following 
the House of Commons resolved unanimously 
to proceed with the prosecution and to place 
Stafford on his trial first (Journals of the 
House of Commons, ix. 650). According to 
Reresby, the reason of the selection was that 
Stafford was ' deemed weaker than the other 
lords in the Tower for the same crime, and 
less able to labour his defence ' (p. 236). On 
30 Nov. 1680 the trial of Stafford for high 
treason was commenced inWestminster Hall. 
It lasted seven days (see EVELYN, Diary, ii. 
150-4). Heneage, lord Finch, the lord chan- 
cellor, presided as lord high steward. The 
managers for the commons included SergeaB b 



Maynard, Sir William Jones, Sir Francis Win- 
nington, and George Treby. Stafford,who was 
only allowed to consult his counsel when 
points of law arose, defended himself with 
greater ability than was anticipated. Dugdale, 
Gates, and Turberville all bore false witness 
against him. Gates declared that he had deli- 
vered a commission to him from the pope as 
paymaster-general of the army which * was to 
be raised for the promoting of the catholic 
interest ' (State Trials, vii. 1348). Dugdale 
and Turberville both swore that Stafford had 
endeavoured to persuade them to murder the 
king (ib. pp. 1343, 1353). Stafford vainly pro- 
tested his innocence. The legal objection 
raised by him 'touching the necessity of two 
witnesses to every overt act as evidence of 
high treason ' after the opinion of the judges 
had been taken upon the point was over- 
ruled (ib. pp. 1525-33). On 7 Dec. Staf- 
ford was found guilty by 55 to 31, and sen- 
tence of death by hanging, drawing, and 
quartering was pronounced by Finch, who 
had shown considerable courtesy and fair- 
ness to the prisoner during the trial. Ac- 
cording to Evelyn, Stafford ' was not a man 
beloved especially of his own family' (Diary, 
ii. 154), and all his kinsmen who took part in 
the trial found him guilty with the exception 
of Lord Mowbray, afterwards seventh duke 
of Norfolk. At Stafford's request Burnet and 
Henry Compton, the bishop of London, visited 
him in the Tower, and to them he solemnly 
protested his innocence. On 18 Dec., having 
promised to discover all that he knew, Staf- 
ford was taken before the House of Lords, 
where i he began with a long relation of their 
first consultations after the Restoration about 
the methods of bringing in their religion, which 
they all agreed could only be brought about 
by toleration. He told them of the Earl of 
Bristol's project, and went on to tell who 
had undertaken to procure the toleration for 
them; and then he named the Earl of Shafts- 
bury. When he named him he was ordered to 
withdraw, and the lords would hear no more 
from him ' (BuKNET, Hist. ii. 272 ; see also 
Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. pt. ii. pp. 43-4). 

Stafford was beheaded on Tower Hill on 
29 Dec. 1680, the king remitting the other 
barbarous penalties. The question whether 
this remission lay in the power of the king 
gave rise to a short debate in the House of 
Commons (Parl. Hist. iv. 1260-1). While 
on the scaffold Stafford read a speech, in which 
he again protested his innocence (State Trials, 
vii. 1564-7). He was buried in the chapel of 
St. Peter ad Vinculainthe Tower on the same 
day, but the exact spot is unknown. 

Stafford left three sons and six daughters. 
His widow was created on 5 Oct. 1688 

Countess of Stafford for her life, and died on 
13 Jan. 1694. Their eldest son, Henry Staf- 
ford Howard, was also on 5 Oct. 1688 created 
Earl of Stafford, with remainder in default of 
male issue to his brothers. Upon the abdi- 
cation of James II he retired to France, where 
on 3 April 1694 he married Claude Charlotte, 
the eldest daughter of Philibert, comte de 
Grammont, and died 27 April 1619 without 
issue. On the death of John Paul Stafford- 
Howard, the fourth earl, on 1 April 1762,. 
this earldom became extinct. 

On 27 May 1685 a bill for reversing Staf- 
ford's attainder was read for the first time 
in the House of Lords. Though it passed 
through the lords and was read a second 
time in the House of Commons (6 June), it 
was dropped upon the outbreak of the Duke 
of Monmouth's rebellion. In the beginning 
of the present century some abortive proceed- 
ings were taken before the committee of privi- 
1 and siibse- 

grand-daughter (House of Lords' Papers, 1808 
No. 80, 1809 No. 107, 1812 No. 18). At 
length in 1824 ' an act for reversing the at- 
tainder of William, late viscount Stafford/ 
was passed (5 Geo. IV, c. 46 ; private act not 
printed). On 6 July 1825 the House of Lords 
resolved that Sir George William Jerningham 
had established his claim to the barony of 
Stafford, created 12 Sept. 1640 (House of 
Lords' Papers, 1825, No. 129 : and Journals, 
Ivii. 1293), and on 1 May 1829 he took his 
seat for the first time. 

A portrait of Stafford by Vandyck belongs 
to the Marquis of Bute, engraved in Lodge's 
' Portraits,' vol. vi. A similar portrait is in 
the possession of the Duke of Norfolk (cf. 
HOWAED, Howard Family, p. 36). Stafford's 
town residence was Tart Hall, ' without the 
gate of St. James's Park' (CUNNINGHAM, 
Handbook for London, 1849, ii. 797-8). 

[Stafford's Memoires, 1682; Luttrell's Brief 
Historical Eelation of State Affairs, 1857, i. 11, 
13, 14, 45, 59-60; Burnet's Hist, of his own 
Time, 1833, i. 19, ii. 184, 193, 262-73, 298-9, 
vi. 277 ; Memoirs and Travels of Sir John 
Reresby, 1813, pp. 216, 236-7, 238, 239 ; Diary 
and Correspondence of John Evelyn, 1857, ii. 
46-7, 129, 150-4, 155; North's Examen, 1740, 
pp. 215-21 ; Causton's Howard Papers; Howell's 
State Trials, 1810, vii. 1217-1576; Macpher- 
son's Hist, of Great Britain, 1776, i. 330-3 ; 
Lingard's Hist. (2nd edit.), xiii. 85-6, 226-49, 
xiv. 33-4; Macaulay's Hist. 1849, i. 259-60, 
522-3, ii. 178; Lodge's Portraits, vi. 41-7; 
Bell's Notices of the Historic Persons buried 
in the Chapel of St. Peter ad Vincula, 1877; 
Papers relative to the two Baronies of Stafford, 
1 807 ; Gent, Mag. 1 797, pt. ii. pp. 667-70 ; Doyle's 



Official Baronage, iii . 39 3 ; Collins's Peerage, 1812, 
i. 125-8; Burke's Extinct Peerage, 1886, pp. 
285-6, 501 ; Foster's Peerage, 1883, pp. 658-9; 
Foster's London Marriage Licenses, p. 717 ; 
Chester's Westminster Abbey Eegisters, pp. 233, 
295-6, 400 ; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. v. 447, vi. 
57.] GK F. B. B. 

HOWAED OP ESCEICK (1626 P-1694), second 
son of Edward, first lord [q. v.], matriculated 
at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, in 
1646, and afterwards went to an inn of court 
(CLARENDON, iii. 634). In 1653 he was a 
soldier in Cromwell's life-guards, and a ' great 
preacher' of the anabaptists (THUELOE, v. 
393), but his views were republican, and he 
took part in the plots of 1655-6 (CLAEENDON, 
iii. 634). Committed to the Fleet in 1657, 
he successfully petitioned Richard Cromwell 
for release in 1658 (Addit. MS. 5716, f. 15). 
In 16.60 Hyde described him as anxious to 
serve the king, likely to be useful among the 
sectaries, and surprisingly well acquainted 
with recent royalist negotiations (Clar. State 
Papers, iii. 658). He sat for Winchelsea in 
the convention parliament, but in 1674 was 
discovered in secret correspondence with Hol- 
land, spent several months in the Tower, and 
was only set free on making a full confession 
(Letters to Sir J, Williamson, Camd. Soc. ii. 
31). Succeeding his brother as Lord Howard 
in 1678, he sat 011 the lords' committees 
which credited Oates's information, and fur- 
thered the trial of his kinsman, Lord Stafford. 
In 1681 he was again sent to the Tower 
on the false charge preferred by Edward 
Fitzharris [q. v.] of writing the ' True English- 
man.' Algernon Sidney's influence procured 
his release (February 1682) and his admis- 
sion to the counsels of the opposition. He 
was arrested on the first rumours of the Rye 
House plot, and, turning informer at Rus- 
sell's trial (July 1683), gave accounts of 
meetings at Hampden's and Russell's houses, 
which mainly led to Russell's conviction. His 
evidence similarly ruined Sidney (EVELYN, 
ii. 190). He was pardoned, and died in ob- 
scurity at York in April 1694. Howard was 
very keen-witted (CLAEENDON), and ' a man 
of pleasant conversation,' but l railed inde- 
cently/ says Burnet, ' both at the king and 
clergy.' By his wife Frances, daughter of 
Sir James, and niece of Sir Orlando, Bridg- 
man, he had six children, including Charles, 
fourth baron, on whose death in 1715 the 
title became extinct. 

[Masters's Corpus Christi Coll. Cambridge ; 
Causton's Howard Papers, pp. 656-8 ; Dal- 
rymple's Memoirs, i. 19, 25 ; Wiffen's Russell 
Memoirs; Grey's Eye House Plot, 1685; Lin- 
gard's Hist. x. 33 ; Luttrell's^Relation ; Burnet's 

History; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. xii. 
l Oy. J 

1868), diplomatist. [See ELLIS, CHAELES 


1797), field marshal. [See GBIFFIN (for- 

JOHN FEANCIS, first LOED, 1762-1839, gene- 
LOED, 1799-1873, diplomatist.] 

HOWE, CHARLES (1661-1742), author 

of ' Devout Meditations,' born in Gloucester- 
shire in 1661, was third son of John Grub- 
ham Howe of Langar, Nottinghamshire. 
John Grubham Howe [q. v.] was his bro- 
ther. In youth Howe spent much time at 
Charles II's court. About 1686 he is said 
to have gone abroad with a near relative who 
had been appointed ambassador by James II. 
It is stated that the ambassador (whose name 
is not given) died, and that Howe success- 
fully managed the business of the embassy, 
but declined to accept the office permanently. 
On returning to England he married Elianor, 
only daughter and heiress of Sir William 
Pargiter, knt., of Greatworth, Northampton- 
shire, and widow of Sir Henry Dering, knt. 
By her he had three sons and three daughters, 
all of whom, with the exception of Leonora 
Maria, who became the wife of Peter Bathurst 
of Clarendon Park, Wiltshire, predeceased 
their mother. She died on 25 July 1696, and 
was buried in Greatworth Church, where an 
inscription, composed by* her husband, re- 
mains. After his wife's death in 1696, Howe 
lived in seclusion in the country, chiefly de- 
voting himself to religious meditation. He 
died on 17 Feb. 1742, and was buried in the 
same vault with his wife and children in 
Greatworth Church. A monument there was 
erected to his memory by his granddaughter, 
Leonora Bathurst. 

Howe's well-known work, ' Devout Medi- 
tations ; or a Collection of Thoughts upon 
Religious and Philosophical Subjects/ was 
written for his own use. Dr. Edward Young, 
author of ' Night Thoughts,' highly com- 
mended it as a remarkable proof ' of a sound 
head and sincere heart.' It was first published, 
posthumously, as ' by a Person of Honour,' in 
1751, together with Young's commendations. 
The author's name was prefixed to the second 
edition, 1752. Other editions are dated Dub- 
lin, 1754, revised by George MacA.ulay ; 3rd 
edit., London, 1761 ; 4th edit., edited by 
MacAulay, 1772 ; and London, 1824. The 
work is included in John Wesley's 'Chris- 
tian Library,' 1819-27, vol. xxvi., and in 



8 4 


Bishop Jebb's ' Piety without Asceticism/ 
1837, pp. 255-404. 

[Baker's Northamptonshire,!. 508-1 1; Bridges's 
Northamptonshire, ed. Whalley, i. 124-7, 184; 
202; Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, viii. 139; 
Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, ii. 469-71, 
555-7 ; Gent. Mag. 1776, p. 249.1 B - H. B. 

diplomatist, the fourth son of John Grub- 
ham Howe of Langar, Nottinghamshire, and 
brother of Scrope, first viscount Howe [q. v.], 
entered the army at an early age. From 
November 1695 till his death he was colonel 
of a regiment of foot. He was gazetted bri- 
gadier-general in April 1704, major-general 
March 1707, and lieutenant-general May 
1709. Being a staunch whig, he held the 
office of groom of the bedchamber thoughout 
William Ill's reign. He also became lieu- 
tenant and ranger of the forests of Alice Holt 
and Wolmer in Hampshire, a post enjoyed 
by his widow after his death. Gilbert White 
recounts that Howe turned out into these 
forests some German wild boars and sows, and 
' a bull or buffalo ; but the country rose upon 
them and destroyed them' (Nat. Hist, and 
Antiq. ofSelborne, 1880, p. 25). He was M.P. 
for Morpeth from December 1701 to April 
1705, and for Wigan from May 1705 to April 
1708. There is no record of his having taken 
any part in the debates, but he appears to 
have been a useful, if somewhat self-seeking, 
supporter of the Godolphin administration 
(Marlborough Despatches, ii. 159-60). He 
was first commissioner of prizes from Septem- 
ber 1703 until July 1705, when he was ap- 
pointed envoy extraordinary to the elector 
of Hanover. In this capacity he succeeded 
in keeping the elector steadfast to the grand 
alliance, in spite of the strained relations 
between the reigning families of England 
and Hanover, and the intrigues of the Eng- 
lish tories. His task was rendered more 
difficult by the injudicious correspondence of 
his wife with the Duchess of Marlborough. 
He was a severe sufferer from gout, but, when 
his health allowed him, accompanied the 
elector on his campaigns. He returned to 
England on leave in June 1709, and died there 
26 Sept. following. 

He married Ruperta, natural daughter of 
Rupert, prince palatine of the Rhine, by Mrs. 
Margaret Hughes [q. v.], by whom he had 
four sons and two daughters. His daughter 
Sophia was maid of honour to Queen Caro- 
line while princess of Wales, and her in- 
trigue with Anthony Lowther and subse- 
quent death are frequently [referred to in the 
society scandal of the period (see Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 8th Rep. pt. i. p. 571). She was the 
heroine of Lord Hervey's ' Epistle of Moni- 

mia and Philocles ' (Letters to and from Hen- 
rietta Countess of Suffolk, 1824, i. 35-6 n.} 
Howe's widow survived him many years, 
leaving behind her i many curious pieces of 
mechanism of her father's constructing ' 
(WHITE, Nat. Hist, and Antiq. of Selborne, 
1880, p. 23). There is a portrait of Howe by 
Sir Peter Lely, an engraving of which by C. 
Sherwin is prefixed to Sir George Bromley's 
< Collection of Original Royal Letters,' 1787, 
opp. p. xxix. A collection of his letters from 
Hanover (1705-6) to George Stepney, the 

! diplomatist, is preserved in the Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MSS. (7075 ff. 3, 71-111, 21551 f. 52). 
Four letters (1707-8) from him to the Earl 
of Manchester are among the Duke of Man- 

| Chester's MSS. (Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. 

! pt. ii. pp. 93, 97, 98, 101) ; one of these is 
printed in Cole's 'Memoirs of Affairs of 
State,' 1733, p. 526. 

[Luttrell's Relation of State Affairs, 1857, v. 
336, 564, 569-70, 586, vi. 170, 445, 493 ; Marl- 
borough Despatches, 1845, i. 472, ii. 328-9, iii. 
309-10, 370, iv. 26, 523 ; Coxe's Memoirs of the 
Duke of Marlborough, 1818, ii. 293-8, 595-6 ; 
Private Correspondence of the Duchess of Marl- 
borough, 1838, i. 189, 257, ii. 381, 386 ; Auto- 
biography and Correspondence of Mrs. Delany, 
2nd ser. 1862, iii. 163 ; Sandford's Genealogical 
Hist, of the Kings and Queens of England, 1707, 
p. 571 ; Chamberlayne's Anglise Notitia, 1692, 
1694, 1702, 1704, 1707, 1708; Annals of Queen 
Anne, 1710, viii. 385; Cal. Treasury Papers, 17 08- 
17l4cxvii.20, 1 720-8 ccxxix.|l 8; Lodge's Peerage 
of Ireland, 1789, v. 82-3; Collins's Peerage of 
England, 1812, viii. 139-40 ; Noble's Biog. Hist. 
1806,ii. 217-19 ; Official Lists of Members of Par- 
liament, i. 596, 603, ii. 3; Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. iii. 6, x. 473-4.] G. F. R. B. 

HOWE, GEORGE, M.D. (1655 P-1710), 
son of John Howe (1630-1705) [q.v.],issaid 
to have graduated M. A. in a Scottish univer- 
sity. He is entered on the Leyden register 
as ' Georgius Howe, Scotus,' student of phy- 
sic, 8 Sept. 1677, aged 22. He graduated M.D. 
at Leyden, and became a licentiate of the 
College of Physicians of London on 30 Sept. 
1679, fellow 1687, and censor 1707. He is 
described in the annals of the college as 'an 
industrious and eminent practiser of physic.' 
He died suddenly of apoplexy on 22 March 
1709-10, while walking in the Poultry (cf. 
LTJTTBELL, Brief ReL, vi. 560), and was buried 
in the same vault as his father in All Hal- 
lows Church, Bread Street. He is identified 
with the Querpo of Sir Samuel Garth's ' Dis- 
pensary: ' 

His sire's pretended pious steps he treads, 
And where the doctor fails the saint succeeds. 

He married Lsetitia Foley, apparently 
daughter of Thomas Foley of Witley, Wor- 



cester, by whom he left two sons, John and 
Philip (both dead without issue in 1729). 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys.i. 453; Peacock's Leyden 
Students (Index Soc.), p. 51; Eogers's Life of John 
Howe, p. 330.] C. C. 

HOWE, JAMES (1780-1836), animal 
painter, was born 30 Aug. 1780 at Skirling in 
Peeblesshire, where his father, William 
Howe, was minister from 1765 till his death 
10 Dec. 1796. After attending the parish 
school Howe was apprenticed to a house- 
painter at Edinburgh, but employed his time 
in painting panoramic exhibitions, devoting 
himself especially to animals. Howe obtained 
a great reputation for his skill in drawing 
horses and cattle, and was employed in draw- 
ing portraits of well-known animals for a 
series of illustrations of British domestic ani- 
mals, published by the Highland Society of 
Scotland to stimulate breeding. He was also 
commissioned by Sir John Sinclair to draw 
examples of various breeds of cattle. A set of 
fourteen engravings of horses from drawings 
by Howe were published and, for the most 
part, engraved by W. H. Lizars [q. v.], at 
Edinburgh in 1824, and a series of forty-five 
similar engravings of horses and cattle was 
published in 1832. Howe came once to 
London to paint the horses of the royal stud, 
but resided principally at Edinburgh, where 
he was a frequent exhibitor at the Edinburgh 
exhibitions, Royal Institution, and Royal 
Scottish Academy from 1808 to the time of 
his death. In 1815 he visited the field 
of Waterloo, and painted a picture of the 
battle, which he exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in London in 1816. Howe died at 
Edinburgh, 11 July 1836. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation; Jos. Irving's 
Book of Scotsmen ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and 
Engravers, ed. E. E. Graves ; information from 
Mr. J. M. Gray.] L. C. 

HOWE, JOHN (1630-1705), ejected 
divine, son of John and Anne How, was 
born at Loughborough, Leicestershire, on 
17 May 1630, and baptised at the parish 
church on 23 May. John How, the father 
(brother of Obadiah Howe, D.D. [q. v.]), for- 
merly a pupil of Francis Higginson [q. v.], 
was usher (1627-32) of the school supported 
by Burton's charity, and curate (1628-34) to 
John Browne, rector of Loughborough. He 
was suspended from the ministry, as an ' irre- 
gular curate,' on 6 Nov. 1634, by the high 
commission court, was imprisoned, and fined 
500J. (reduced to 201. on 19 Feb. 1635) for 
praying before sermon ' that the young prince 
might not be brought up in popery.' In 1635 
he made his way to Ireland with his family ; 
during the rebellion of 1641 his place of re- 
fuge (probably Coleraine) was for several 

weeks besieged. Returning to England, he 
settled in Lancashire, probably serving one of 
the chapelries dependent on Win wick, where 
his son was prepared tor the university at 
the grammar school under Ralph Gorse, B.A. 

Howe was admitted a sizar at Christ's 
College, Cambridge, on 17 May 1647; he 
graduated B.A. in 1648, according to Ca- 
lamy, who ascribes his ' platonick tincture ' 
to his knowledge of Cud worth and his lasting 
friendship with Henry More. In Michaelmas 
term 1648 he removed to Oxford, as bible- 
clerk of Brasenose ; here he graduated B.A. 
on 18 Jan. 1650. In 1650 he was elected 
chaplain of Magdalen; he graduated M.A. 
on 9 July 1652, and was fellow of Magda- 
len probably from 1652 to 1655. He was 
admitted on ' catholic terms ' to the presi- 
dent's ' church meeting ' [see GOODWIN, 
THOMAS]. Shortly after graduating M.A. he 
was ordained at Winwick. This large parish 
was included in the fourth Lancashire classis ; 
but Howe was ordained by Charles Herle 
[q. v.], the rector (whom he revered as a 
' primitive bishop '), with his curates in the 
four chapelries. 

About 1654 (perhaps earlier) he was ap- 
pointed to the perpetual curacy of Great Tor- 
rington, Devonshire, a donative belonging 
to Christ Church, Oxford. He found the 
parishioners divided ; his predecessor, Lewis 
Stukely, was an independent ; he himself 
ranked with the presbyterians ; but he drew 
parties together, and succeeded in establish- 
ing at Torrington a meeting of ' neighbour- 
ing ministers of different persuasions.' His 
labours were unremitting ; on fast days he 
was engaged in the pulpit from nine till four 
with only a quarter of an hour's recess, during 
which the people sang. But his stay at 
Torrington was not long. In 1656 the per- 
petual curacy of .St. Saviour's, Dartmouth, 
Devonshire, was vacant. The parishioners 
were equally divided between Howe and 
another candidate, Robert Jagoe. Thomas 
Boon, Howe's great friend at Dartmouth, 
made interest with Cromwell for his appoint- 
ment. Cromwell insisted on hearing Howe 
preach at Whitehall, and gave him his text 
' while the psalm was singing ' before ser- 
mon. Howe preached for two hours, and 
was turning the hour-glass for the third time 
when Cromwell signed to him to stop. In the 
event Cromwell made him his domestic chap- 
lain. Howe took the office with reluctance, 
and was not easy in it. To his puritan strict- 
ness the life at Whitehall seemed ' in so loose 
a way ' as to give him small chance of use- 
fulness. His parishioners at Torrington could 
not agree on his successor, and besought him 
to return. Baxter's influence prevailed with 




him to stay in London. He stipulated for 
leave to spend three months in the year at 
Torrington, and to appoint a substitute on 
full salary. One of these substitutes was 
Increase Mather [q. v.] Howe preached 
against fanatical notions current in the Pro- 
tector's court ; Cromwell heard with knitted 
brows, but did not remonstrate. Though 
occasionally employed in secret despatches, 
he did not take part in affairs of state, nor 
seek to advance his own interest. Religious 
men of all schools found in him a friend at 
court. Seth Ward, afterwards bishop of Salis- 
bury, was indebted to his good offices, as was 
Fuller, the church historian. 

After Cromwell's death, Howe remained 
at Whitehall as chaplain to Richard Crom- 
well. He was present (not as a member) at 
the Savoy conference in October 1658, when 
the Westminster confession was re-edited on 
congregational principles. Soon afterwards 
he visited Torrington, staying there till the 
spring of 1659. In the advertisement of his 
first publication (a sermon before parliament, 

1659, no copy known) he is described as 
1 preacher at Westminster ; ' he held a lec- 
tureship at St. Margaret's. Of Richard Crom- 
well's ability, as well as of his patriotism, 
Howe spoke always in high terms, defend- 
ing him warmly from the charge of weak- 
ness. Immediately upon Richard's deposi- 
tion (May 1659) Howe resumed the charge 
of Torrington. For alleged sedition in ser- 
mons preached there on 30 Sept. and 14 Oct. 

1660, he was tried, first before the mayor 
(14 Nov.), and again at the following spring 
assize ; on neither occasion was there any 
evidence to sustain the charge. In 1662 he 
was ejected from Torrington by the operation 
of the Uniformity Act. Wilkins, afterwards 
bishop of Chester, wondered at his noncon- 
formity, as he thought him a man of lati- 
tude; he answered that his latitude made 
him a nonconformist. To his own bishop, 
his old friend Seth Ward (then of Exeter), 
before whom he was soon cited for private 
preaching, he specified the requirement of 
re-ordination as an insuperable bar to his 
conforming. Of the process against him 
Ward took no notice. Calamy had heard 
that in 1665 Howe was imprisoned for two 
months in the Isle of St. Nicholas, off Ply- 
mouth ; the story may be doubted. In 1666 
he took the oath prescribed by the Five 
Miles Act, which came into effect 25 March 
1666. He was thus free to choose his resi- 
dence, and being let alone by his bishop 
(neither Ward nor Sparrow interfered with 
him) he preached about at the houses of 
the western gentry, and in 1668 published a 
volume of his Torrington sermons. 

In April 1670 Howe left London for Dub- 
lin to become domestic chaplain to John, 
second viscount Massereene, of Antrim Castle. 
While in attendance on Lord Massereene at 
his Dublin residence, he preached at the pres- 
byterian meeting-house in Cooke Street. The 
date of his arrival in Antrim was at least 
some weeks prior to his dedicatory letter to 
John Upton, dated ' Antrim, April 12, 1671.' 
At Antrim he officiated on Sunday afternoons 
in the parish church, of which the presbyte- 
rians had part use, by Lord Massereene's per- 
mission. His best known work, ' The Living 
Temple,' was written at Antrim. He was 
a member of the Friday conferences known 
as the ' Antrim meeting,' a precursor of the 
presbyterian organisation of the north of 
Ireland. In conjunction with Thomas Gowan 
[q. v.] he took some part (in 1675) in a train- 
ing school for presbyterian divines, probably 
teaching theology. At the end of this year 
he was called to London to succeed Lazarus 
Seaman, D.D., in the co-pastorship of the 
presbyterian congregation in Haberdashers' 
Hall, Staining Lane, Wood Street, Cheap- 
side. A visit to London ended in his remov- 
ing thither, by way of Liverpool, in 1676. 

Next year a controversy on predestination 
arose out of the publication (1677) of a 
tract written by Howe at the instance of 
Robert Boyle. Theophilus Gale [q. v.] at- 
tacked it in the concluding part of his ' Court 
of the Gentiles.' The criticism was pursued, 
after Gale's death, by Thomas Danson [q. v.] 
Howe was defended by Andrew Marvell. 
His position has been incorrectly described as 
Arminian. The protestant feeling excited 
by the so-called ' Popish plot ' led in 1680 
to a renewed effort for the comprehension 
of nonconformists. Lloyd, then bishop of 
St. Asaph, consulted Howe about terms. 
A strong sermon (11 May 1680) against 
schism, by Stillingfleet, then dean of St. 
Paul's, met with a reply from Howe, written, 
as Stillingfleet owned, ' like a gentleman.' In 
the same year occurred his expostulation 
with Tillotson, when, according to Calamy's 
account, based on Howe's own statement, 
Tillotson was moved to tears ' as they were 
travelling along together in his chariot.' The 
period 1681-5 was one of much anxiety to non- 
conformists ; Howe's hearers were arrested, 
and his health suffered from an indoor life, it 
not being safe for him to appear in the streets. 
In 1681 his colleague Daniel Bull [q. v.] dis- 
graced himself. In 1685 Howe addressed 
an able letter (anonymous) on the prosecu- 
tion of nonconformists to Thomas Barlow 
[q. v.], bishop of Lincoln. 

In August 1685 Howe went abroad with 
Philip, fourth baron Wharton. His journey 



was kept so quiet that his congregation did 
not hear of it till he was gone ; he wrote 
them a farewell letter from the continent. 
After travelling about he settled at Utrecht 
in 1686. He took a house and had boarders, 
among whom were George, fifteenth earl of 
Sutherland, and his countess. With Matthew 
Mead [q. v.] and two others he took turns 
in preaching at the English church. Gilbert 
Burnet [q. v.], when in Utrecht (1687), 
preached in the same church. In May 1687, 
shortly after James's declaration for liberty 
of conscience, Howe returned to his London 
flock, having consulted William of Orange 
in regard to this step. Though pressed by 
James himself, Howe resisted every attempt 
to give nonconformist sanction to the royal 
exercise of a dispensing power. Oalamy 
says that William Sherlock, then master of 
the Temple, asked Howe what he would do 
if offered the mastership. He replied that 
he would take the place, but hand the emo- 
lument to the legal proprietor ; whereupon 
Sherlock 'rose up from his seat and em- 
brac'd him.' At the revolution Howe headed 
the London nonconformist ministers in an 
-address of welcome to William. He had 
not lost hope of a policy of comprehension, 
and was in communication with the eccle- 
.siastical commissioners appointed with that 
view. When toleration was granted (1689) 
he addressed a remarkable paper ' to confor- 
mists and dissenters,' recommending mutual 

Howe was a leading spirit in the efforts 
now made for the amalgamation of the pres- 
Ijyterians and congregationalists into one 
body. As early as 1672 they had combined 
in establishing the merchants' lecture on 
Tuesdays at Pinners' Hall ; Howe became 
one of the lecturers in 1677, succeeding 
Thomas Manton, D.D. [q. v.] In 1689 the 
two bodies originated a common fund for 
educating students and aiding congrega- 
tions ; Howe was one of the projectors. A 
union of the two bodies in London was 
effected in 1690 ; the ' heads of agreement ' 
(published 1691), which were largely Howe's 
work, were accepted by all but a few con- 
gregationalists, and formed the basis of simi- 
lar unions throughout the country. This 
* happy union ' was broken in London by a 
controversy arising out of the publication 
(1690) of the work of Tobias Crisp, D.D. [q. v.] 
Howe and others had attested the genuine- 
ness of this publication in a declaration pre- 
fixed to the volume. Baxter at once assailed 
Crisp's antinomian tendency in a pamphlet 
which Howe prevailed upon him to suppress, 
promising that the certificate of genuineness 
should be explained as implying no approval 

of Crisp's writings. This was done in a de- 
claration prefixed to ' A Blow at the Root/ 

troversy became general, Crisp's opponents 
being accused of Arminian and even Socinian 
leanings. Among other healing measures 
Howe published (1693) his merchants' lec- 
tures on ' Christian Contention.' But in 
1693 the common fund was divided ; in 1694 
Williams was excluded from the merchants' 
lectureship, and Howe with three others 
withdrew ; a new lecture was established at 
Salters' Hall. In June 1694 Calamy, who 
wished to be publicly ordained, asked Howe 
to take part ; after consulting Lord-keeper 
Somers he declined. His congregation, in De- 
cember 1694, removed to a new meeting-house 
in Silver Street, Wood Street, Cheapside. 

In 1694 and 1695 Howe published one or 
two tracts, orthodox but cautious, in the 
Socinian controversy, then dying out. His 
controversy with Defoe on ' occasional con- 
formity ' began in November 1700. Howe 
had always been in favour of the practice of 
friendly resort by nonconformists to the parish 
churches, both for worship and sacraments, 
and was opposed to the abortive bill intro- 
duced in the first year of Anne (4 Nov. 1702) 
for preventing such interchanges. Sir Thomas 
Abney (1640-1722) [q. v.], a prominent ' oc- 
casional conformist ' during his mayoralty 
in 1701, was a member of Howe's congrega- 
tion. It was probably in reference to this 
question that William III, shortly before his 
death, sent for Howe for l some very private 
conversation,' in the course of which Wil- 
liam ' ask'd him a great many questions about 
his old master Oliver.' 

Howe was now past seventy and ' began 
to be weary of living.' In Watts's elegy on 
Gouge, who died in January 1700, he speaks 
of Howe as having survived his equals, ' a 
great but single name,' and ' ready to be 
gone.' He laboured under several diseases, 
but was always cheerful, though extremely 
sensitive to pain ; he remained in harness to 
the end. In his last illness Richard Crom- 
well paid him a farewell visit. ' A very few 
days before he died ' he expressed entire con- 
currence in the scheme of non-synodical pres- 
byterianism contained in Calamy's ' Defence 
of Moderate Nonconformity' (1704). He 
died, ' quite worn out,' on 2 April 1705, at 
St. John Street, Smithfield, and was buried 
on 6 April in the church of Allhallows, Bread 
Street. On 8 April his colleague John Spade- 
man preached his funeral sermon. He mar- 
ried, first, on 1 March 1655, Katherine. 
daughter of George Hughes, B.D. [q. v.], and 




had issue (1) George, M.D. [q. v.], (2) John, 
living in 1705 and married ; (3) Obadiah, 
baptised at Torrington, 21 April 1661, died 
before 1705 ; (4) Philippa, baptised at Tor- 
rington, 4 Jan. 1666, married Matthew Col- j 
lett ; (5) James, a barrister of the Middle ! 
Temple, who married Mary Saunders, and 
died 12 April 1714. He married, secondly, 
Margaret (the date and surname are un- 
known), who died at Bath between 20 and 
26 Feb. 1743, aged nearly 90. 

Howe was of fine presence, tall and grace- 
ful, with an air of dignity and a piercing eye. 
His portrait, in long fair wig, engraved by 
James Caldwall [q. v.], from a painting by 
Sir Godfrey Kneller, is in Palmer's ' Non- 
conformist's Memorial,' first edition, 1775, i. 
409 ; the original painting is in Dr. Wil- 
liams's Library, Gordon Square, W.C. An- 
other painting, by JohnRiley, showing Howe 
in his own dark hair, was exhibited in the 
third exhibition of National Portraits, 1868; 
it has been engraved by Trotter. The earliest 
engraved portrait is by White, reproduced by 
J. Pine. Howe delivered his sermons with- 
out his notes ; Thoresby, who heard him on 
19 May 1695, says he ' preached incompar- 
ably.' His writings show an original mind, 
contemplative rather than profound, with 
considerable power of discrimination, and 
some warmth of fancy. His spirit is supe- 
rior to his style ; his diction rarely rises to 
the elevation of his thought ; his sentences 
are negligent, and his punctuation seems de- 
vised for the ruin of perspicuity. He shines 
at his best in his consolatory letters (the 
anonymous one to Lady Russell in 1683 is 
well known), which are full of pathos and 
calm wisdom. He was not without humour ; 
there is the story of his asking a courtier to 
permit him to swear the next oath. On his 
deathbed he made his son George burn all 
his papers, except sermon-notes, ' stitch'd up 
in a multitude of small volumes.' Few of 
his letters are preserved ; most of these will 
be found in Rogers. An undated letter 
(p. 572, 1st edit., p. 536, 2nd edit.), which 
puzzles Rogers, refers to the schismatic action 
of Thomas Bradbury [q. v.] at Newcastle in 

Howe's ' Works ' were collected in 1724, 
fol. 2 vols. ; an enlarged edition was issued 
in 1810-22, 8vo, 8 vols., also 1848, 8vo, 
3 vols., and 1862-3, 12mo, 6 vols. Middle- 
ton (followed by Wilson) enumerates thirty- 
three of his publications, besides prefaces, 
and five volumes of posthumous sermons, 
printed between 1726 and 1744 from short- 
hand reports. Among them are : 1. ' On 
Man's Creation,' &c., 1660, 4to (sermon on 
1 Thess. iv. 18). 2. 'A Treatise on the 

Blessedness of the Righteous/ &c., 1668, 8vo. 
3. ' A Treatise of Delighting in God/ &c. r 
1674, 12mo. 4. ' The Living Temple of 
God/ &c., 1675, 8vo. 5. 'The Reconcile- 
ableness of God's Prescience/ &c., 1677, 8vo. 
6. 'Annotations/ &c., 1685, fol., on the three 
Epistles of St. John, in the continuation of 
Poole's 'Annotations.' 7. 'The Carnality 
of Christian Contention/ &c., 1693,4to. 8. 'A 
Calm and Sober Inquiry concerning the pos- 
sibility of a Trinity/ &c., 1694, 4to. 9. ' Some 
Consideration of a Preface to an Inquiry con- 
cerning . . . Occasional Conformity/ &c., 
1701, 4to. 10. 'A Second Part of the Living 
Temple/ &c., 1702, 8vo (criticises Spinoza). 
11. 'A Discourse on Patience/ &c., 1705, 8vo. 
[Calamy's Memoirs of Howe,prefixed to Works,. 
1724, also issued separately, are the main autho- 
rity for his life; the Life by Henry Rogers,, 
1836 (portrait), reprinted 1879, is an expansion 
of Calamy, with additions from Howe's manu- 
script letters ; there are lives by Hunt, prefixed 
to Works, 1810, by Dunn, 1836, byUrwick, 1846 T 
and by Hewlett, prefixed to Works, 1848 ; Cal. 
State Pupers, Dom. 1634-5, pp. 314, 318, 559, 
&c. ; Spademan's Funeral Sermon, 1705 ; Wood's 
AtheneeOxon. (Bliss), iii. 780, 834, &c., iv. 589, 
&c., Fasti, ii. 120, 171 ; Calamy's Abridgement, 

1713, pp. 576 sq.; Calamy's Account, 1713, pp. 
235 sq., p. 634; Calamy's Continuation, 1727, 
pp. 250, 257 ; Calamy's Own Life, 1830, i. 322 
sq., 344 sq., ii. 31 sq. ; Nelson's Life of Bull, 

1714, pp. 257 sq. ; Birch's Life of Tillotson, 1 753, 
pp. 63 sq. ; Middleton's Biographia Evangelica,. 
1786, iv. 126 sq. ; Palmer's Nonconformist's Me- 
morial, 1802, ii. 81 sq. (portrait engraved by 
Ridley) ; Wilson'sDissentingChurches ofLondon, 
1810, iii. 19 sq.; Granger's Biographical History 
of England, 1824, iv. 65 ; Armstrong's Appendix 
to Martineau's Ordination Service, 1829, p. 86 ; 
Humphreys's Correspondence of Doddridge, 1830,. 
iv. 212; Urwick's Nonconformity in Cheshire, 
1864, p. 232 (letter by Howe) ; Beamont's Win- 
wick, 1876, p. 78; Witherow's Hist, and Lit. 
Memorials of Presb. in Ireland, 1879, i. 54; 
Bloxam's Register of Magdalen, 1853-85 ; 
Jeremy's Presbyterian Fund, 1885, p. ix; Kil- 
len's Hist. Congr. Presb. Church in Ireland, 1886, 
p. 16 ; extracts from parish register at Lough- 
borough, per the Rev. W. G. D. Fletcher, F.S.A.] 

A. Gr. 

(1754-1804), born 22 Aug. 1754, was son of 
Thomas Howe (d. 1776), rector of Great 
Wishford and Kingston Deverill, Wiltshire. 
His mother was Frances, daughter of Thomas 
White of Tattingstone, near Ipswich, Suffolk. 
His paternal grandfather, John Howe, had 
been raised to the peerage in 1741 as Baron 
Ched worth of Chedworth, Gloucestershire. 

Howe was educated first at Harrow, where 
he gave early proof of his lifelong predilec- 
tions for the stage and the turf. He matricu- 


8 9 


lated at Queen's College, Oxford, on 29 Oct. 
1772, but left without a degree after three 
years' residence, and took up his abode at his 
mother's house at Ipswich. His mother 
died in 1778. In 1781 he succeeded his 
uncle, Henry Frederick Howe, third baron 
Chedworth, in his title and estates, but he 
continued to live in comparative seclusion, 
and seldom visited his large landed properties 
in Gloucestershire and Wiltshire. Late in 
life he lived in the house of a surgeon named 
Penrice at Yarmouth, and devoted himself 
to a study of Shakespeare. He died un- 
married on 29 Oct. 1804, and the barony 
became extinct. He was buried, as he had 
directed, beside his mother in St. Matthew's 
churchyard, Ipswich, on the fifth day after 
his death. The inscription on his monument 
in St. Matthew's Church describes him as a 
man of unusually cultivated tastes and of 
whig sympathies. 

He neglected his relatives in his will, and 
left much to his friend Penrice, the Yarmouth 
surgeon with whom he resided. Charles 
James Fox, ' the illustrious statesman and 
true patriot/received a legacy of 3,000/.; many 
theatrical and other friends were liberally 
remembered ; and large legacies were left to 
his executors and trustees, by whom the 
Howe estates in Gloucestershire were divided 
and sold in 1811 for 268,635Z. Chedworth's 
relatives unsuccessfully disputed his will on 
the ground of insanity. To prove his sanity, 
Penrice edited for publication Chedworth's 
' Notes upon some of the Obscure Passages 
in Shakespeare's Plays ; with Remarks upon 
the Explanations and Amendments of the 
Commentators in the Editions of 1785, 1790, 
1793,' London, 1805 (MARTIN, Bibliographi- 
cal Catalogue of Books Privately Printed, 
London, 1834, p. 100). 

Chedworth published in his lifetime two 
pamphlets, respectively entitled ' Two Ac- 
tions between John Howe, Esq., and G. L. 
Dive, Esq., tried by a Special Jury before 
Lord Mansfield at the Assizes holden at Croy- 
don, August 1781,' 2nd edit., London, 1781 ; 
and A Charge delivered to the Grand Jury 
at the General Quarter Sessions of the Peace 
for the County of Suffolk,' Ipswich [1793]. 
Many years after Chedworth's death a friend, 
Thomas Crompton, published l Letters from 
the late Lord Chedworth to the Rev. Thomas 
Crompton, written from January 1780 to 
May 1795,' London, 1828. 

[Gent. Mag. 1804, Ixxiv. 1242-4, 1806, Ixxvi. 
672, 1030-2, 1201-7, ISll.vol. Ism. pt, ii. p. 80 ; 
Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, i. 393 ; Burke's 
Dormant and Extinct Peerages, 1883, p. 288; 
Haslewood's Monumental Inscriptions in the 
Parish of St. Matthew, Ipswich, pp. 16, 273; 

Burial Register of St. Matthew's, Ipswich ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. of Printed Books ; Gael's paper 
on Stowell House and Park in the Transactions of 
the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society, 1877-8, ii. 47-52.] B. H. B. 


(1657-1722), commonly known as ' Jack 
How,' politician, born in 1657, was second 
son of John Grubham How of Langar, Not- 
tinghamshire, and member of parliament for 
Gloucestershire from 1661 to 1679. His 
mother was Annabella, third and youngest 
illegitimate daughter and coheiress of Em- 
anuel Scrope, lord Scrope of Bolton and earl 
of Sunderland. She was legitimised by act 
of parliament in 1663, died on 20 March 
1703-4, and was buried on 30 March in 
Stowell Church, Gloucestershire, where a 
monument was placed on the north wall of 
the chancel to her memory by Howe. Early 
in life he figured as ' a young amorous spark 
of the court.' In 1679 he brought an accu- 
sation against the Duchess of Richmond, 
which on investigation proved to be false, 
and he was forbidden to attend the court. 
At this period he wrote verses, and, accord- 
ing to Macaulay, was notorious for his savage 
lampoons. With the Revolution he entered 
upon a political career. He sat for Ciren- 
cester in the Convention parliament, January 
1689 to February 1690, and in its two suc- 
cessors 1690-5 and 1695-8. The county of 
Gloucester returned him in 1698, and again 
in January 1701. At the subsequent elec- 
tion (December 1701) the whigs concen- 
trated all their efforts against him and ejected 
him from the seat. In Anne's first parliament 
(1702) Howe was returned for four constitu- 
encies, Bodmin, Gloucester city, Gloucester 
county, and Newton in Lancashire (COURT- 
NEY, Parl Repr. of Cornwall, p. 237), and 
chose his old seat for Gloucestershire. A 
petition by Sir John Guise, his opponent for 
the county, against his return was defeated 
by 219 votes to 98, * a great and shameful 
majority' in the opinion of Speaker Onslow, 
After 1705 he ceased to sit in parliament. 

At the beginning of William Ill's reign 
Howe urged severe measures against such 
politicians as Carmarthen and Halifax, who 
had been identified with the measures of 
James II. He was then a strong whig, and 
in 1689 was appointed vice-chamberlain to 
Queen Mary. Early in March 1691-2 the 
queen dismissed him from that post, and he 
at the same time lost the minor position of 
keeper of the mall. In the following Novem- 
ber he was summoned before the court of 
verge for ' cutting and wounding a servant 
of his in Whitehall,' and on pleading guilty 
was pardoned (December 1692). Thence- 


9 o 


forward he ranked among the fiercest of the 
tories. He took an active part against Burnet 
for his ' Pastoral Letter,' and declaimed ve- 
hemently against the prosecution of the war 
and on behalf of Sir John Fen wick. He took 
a special pleasure in serving among those ap- 
pointed by the House of Commons to bring 
in a bill on the forfeited estates in Ireland 
(December 1699), and thundered in parlia- 
ment over the grants to William's Dutch 
friends of some of the property. Howe's at- 
tack on the partition treaty, which he de- 
nounced by the title of the 'Felonious Treaty,' 
was so savage that William exclaimed that 
but for their disparity of station he would 
have demanded satisfaction. He invariably 
denounced foreign settlers in England and 
standing armies. When the army was re- 
duced (1699) he succeeded in obtaining half- 
pay for the disbanded officers. 

With Queen Anne's accession Howe was 
once more a courtier, and in 1702 moved 
that a provision of 100,000^. a year should 
be secured to her consort, Prince George of 
Denmark. He was created a privy council- 
lor on 21 April 1702, and vice-admiral of 
Gloucester county on 7 June. On the retire- 
ment of Lord Ranelagh, the post of pay- 
master-general was divided, and Howe was 
appointed paymaster of the guards and gar- 
risons at home (4 Jan. 1702-3). On 15 May 
1708 he became joint clerk to the privy 
council of Great Britain. After Anne's death 
his places were taken from him, and his name 
was left out of the list of privy councillors. 
He then retired to Stowell House in Glouces- 
tershire, an estate which he had purchased, 
and died there in June 1722, being buried in 
the chancel of the church on 14 June. His 
wife was Mary, daughter and coheiress of 
Humphry Baskerville of Poentryllos in Here- 
fordshire, and widow of Sir Edward Morgan 
of Llanternam, Monmouthshire. His son 
and heir, John Howe, was the first Lord 
Chedworth. An account of Stowell House 
and Park is printed in the ' Transactions of 
the Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological 
Society,' ii. 47-52. Howe was possessed of 
some wit and of vigorous speech, but he 
lacked judgment. There are verses by him 
in Nichols's 'Collection of Poetry,' i. 194, 
210-12, and he is said to have written a 
* Panegyric on King William.' An anecdote 
by Sir Thomas Lyttelton in illustration of 
his speaking talents is in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine,' xix. 364-5, and he is introduced 
into Swift's ballad ' On the Game of Traffic.' 
A satirical speech of Monsieur Jaccou (i.e. 
Jack How), purporting to be ' made at the 
general quarter sessions for the county of 
G r,' and ridiculing his vanity and French 

leanings, was printed (Brit. Mus.) Macaulay 
speaks of him as tall, thin, and haggard in look. 
[Henry Sidney's Diary of Charles II, i. 100- 
1 22 ; De la Pry nne's Diary (Surtees Soc.),pp. 242, 
243 ; Rudder's (rloucestershi re, p. 708 ; Thoroton's 
Nottinghamshire, i. 205 ; Collins's Peerage, ed. 
Brydges, viii. 140-] ; Lodge's Irish Peerage, ed. 
Archdall, v. 81; Macaulay's Hist, passim; Lut> 
trell's Brief Hist. Eelation, ii. 390, 395, 611, 
614, 641, iv. 594, v. 228,238; Burnet's Own 
Time, Oxford ed. v. 47-8, 49, 55, 62 ; Nichols's 
Poets, viii. 284-5 ; Gloucestershire Notes and 
Queries, i. 241-2.] W. P. C. 

HOWE, JOSEPH (1804-1873), colonial 
statesman, born on 13 Dec. 1804 in a cottage 
on the bank of the North-west Arm at Halifax 
in Nova Scotia, was the son of John Howe 
(1752-1 853), who was for many years king's 
printer there and postmaster-general of the 
lower provinces. His mother, the daughter 
of Captain Edes, was his father's second wife. 
Joseph received no regular education. When 
fourteen he was apprenticed as a compositor 
in the 'Gazette' office at Halifax. He 
devoted many odd hours to reading, and 
during his apprenticeship published a poem 
called ' Melville Island,' descriptive of a 
small island at the head of the North-west 
Arm. In 1827, in partnership with James 
Spike, he purchased the 'Halifax Weekly 
Chronicle,' and changed its name to the 
' Acadian.' He became himself its non-poli- 
tical editor. Before the year was out, how- 
ever, he sold his half-share to his partner, and 
himself bought for 1,050 J. in 1828, from a 
journalist named Young, a paper, founded 
three years previously, called the ' Nova Sco- 
tian.' From the outset the ' Nova Scotian/ 
under his direction as its sole editor and pro- 
prietor, succeeded beyond all expectation. In 
it he published two series of papers by him- 
self, the first called ' Western and Eastern 
Rambles ' through all parts of the British 
North American possessions, and the second 
entitled ' The Club/ a sort of transatlantic 
' Noctes Ambrosianse.' Howe also reported 
with his own hand the debates in the As- 
sembly and the trials in the courts of law. 
Among his collaborateurs was Thomas Chand- 
ler Haliburton [q. v.], better known as 'Sam 
Slick,' for whom, at a heavy loss to himself, 
he published the now standard ' History of 
Nova Scotia.' In 1829 Howe became an 
ardent free-trader, and in 1830 commenced 
in his journal a series of remarkable papers 
entitled ' Legislative Reviews.' On 11 Jan. 
1832 he opened, with an inaugural address, 
a mechanics' institute in Halifax. In 1835 
his strenuous opposition to the local govern- 
ment led to an action for libel (The King 
v. Joseph Howe). He conducted his own 



defence, and spoke for six hours and a half 
with an eloquence which at once esta- 
blished his reputation as an orator. He ob- 
tained a verdict of not guilty, and was con- 
ducted home in triumph. This case established 
upon sure foundations freedom of the press in 
the colony. In November 1836 Howe was 
elected, by a majority of more than one thou- 
sand, member for the county of Halifax in the 
local parliament. On 4 Feb. 1837 he made 
his maiden speech. On the llth of that 
month he inaugurated his agitation for se- 
curing to Nova Scotia responsible govern- 
ment by laying twelve resolutions before the 
lower house, and about the same time began 
his advocacy of the right of the cities of the 
British colonies generally to municipal privi- 
leges. From April to November 1838, in 
company with i Sam Slick/ he was in Europe 
on a first visit, and travelled through various 
parts of England, Ireland, Scotland, and the 
, continent of Europe. The Tyrian brig in 
which he sailed out was overtaken by the 
Sirius, which was concluding its trial trip as 
the first steamship to carry mails across the 
Atlantic. Howe interested himself in the 
matter, and drew up the letter addressed 
(24 Aug. 1838) to Lord Glenelg, then colonial 
secretary, which led to the contract for the 
carriage of mails between Samuel Cunard 
[q. v.] and the English government. On his 
return home he published an account of his 
journey under the title of 'The Nova Scotian 
in England.' 

During Howe's absence in Europe the Earl 
of Durham had come and gone as governor- 
general of British North America. Lord 
Durham's ' Report in favour of Responsible 
Government in the Five Provinces ' (dated 
February 1839) led to. the realisation of 
Howe's desire for independent government. 
In 1840 Howe was appointed a member of 
the executive council and showed great skill 
as an administrator. In the late autumn of 
that year he was elected speaker of the House 
of Assembly. During four years he served 
as provincial secretary under Sir John Har- 
vey. He was in England from November 
1850 to April 1851 as a delegate from Nova 
Scotia, and on three occasions afterwards 
acted in the mother-country as agent for the 
lower provinces ; his essay on the organisation 
of the empire appeared in 1866. In 1870 he 
was appointed secretary of state for those pro- 
vinces in the Dominion of Canada ; and, on the 
resignation in May 1873 of General Sir Hast- 
ings Doyle, he was nominated governor of 
Nova Scotia. He had hardly been installed in 
office when he died suddenly at Halifax on 
1 June 1873. 

In 1828 Howe married Catharine Susan 

Ann, the only daughter of Captain John 
MacNab, by whom he had ten children. 

[Personal recollections ; The Speeches and 
Public Letters of the Hon. Joseph Howe, com- 
piled by William Annand in 2 vols. imp. 8vo, 
1858; Men of the Time, 8th ed. p. 510; Athe- 
nseum, 7 June 1873.] C. K. 

HOWE, JOSIAS (1611P-1701), divine, 
born about 1611, was the son of Thomas 
Howe, rector of Grendon-Underwood, Buck- 
inghamshire. Howe told Aubrey that Shake- 
speare took his idea of Dogberry from a con- 
stable of Grendon (Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 
24489, 250). He was elected scholar of 
Trinity College, Oxford, on 12 June 1632, 
and graduated B.A. on 18 June 1634, M.A. 
in 1638 (WooD, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 96- 
97). On 26 May 1637 he was chosen fellow 
of his college. A sermon which he de- 
livered before the king at Christ Church on 
Psalm iv. 7 was, it is said, ordered by Charles 
to be printed about 1644 in red at Lichfield's 
press at Oxford. Only thirty copies are sup- 
posed to have been printed, probably without 
a title-page. Hearne, who purchased a copy 
at the sale of Dr. Charlett's library on 14 Jan. 
1723, has given an interesting account of 
it in his edition of Robert of Gloucester's 
1 Chronicle ' (ii. 669). Howe's preaching be- 
fore the court at Oxford was much admired, 
and on 10 July 1646 he was created B.D. 
Howe was removed from his fellowship by 
the parliamentary visitors in 1648 for ' non- 
appearance' (Register, Camd. Soc., p. 552), 
but was restored in 1660, and died in college 
on 28 Aug. 1701. He has commendatory 
verses before the l Works ' of Thomas Ran- 
dolph, 1638, and before the ' Comedies, 
Tragicomedies, and other Poems ' of Wm. 
Cartwright (London, 1651). 

[Authorities in the text.] Gr. G-. 

HOWE, MICHAEL (1787-1818), bush- 
ranger in Tasmania, was born at Pontefract 
in 1787. After serving for some time on 
board a merchantman, and incurring an evil 
reputation at home as a poacher, he entered 
on board a king's ship. Deserting from her 
he was tried at York in 1811 for highway 
robbery, and was sentenced to seven years' 
transportation. On his arrival in Van Die- 
men's Land he was assigned to a settler, from 
whom he ran away into the bush, and be- 
came the leader of a large band of ruffians. 
For six years he led this wild life, the terror 
of all decent people. Twice he surrendered 
on proclamations of pardon, but on each oc- 
casion was suffered to escape and return to the 
bush. Once he was apprehended, and under 
:he guard of two men was marched towards 
the town, but killing both his guards escaped 
again. At last a reward of one hundred 



guineas was placed on his head, with a free 
pardon and passage to England if required. 
Howe's position became desperate ; he had 
quarrelled with his associates ; he attempted 
to free himself, by another murder, from the 
native girl who had lived with him . She fled 
and gave information of his hiding-places. 
With her assistance a party of three men, bent 
on obtaining the hundred guineas, tracked 
him, overtook him, and endeavoured to make 
him prisoner. After a desperate resistance 
he was killed by a blow from the butt-end of 
a musket. His head was cut off and carried 
into Hobart Town. In his knapsack was 
found a pocket-book, in which he had written 
with kangaroo's blood notices of miserable 
dreams, and a list of seeds, vegetables, &c., 
showing it was thought an intention to 
settle somewhere if he made good his escape. 

[Quarterly Review, xxiii. 73, an article based 
on Michael Howe, the last and worst of the Bush- 
rangers of Van Diemen's Land. Narrative of the 
Chief Atrocities committed by this great Mur- 
derer and his Associates during a period of six 
years. From Authentic sources of Information, 
Hobart Town, 12mo, 1818. It is said by the 
Quarterly Eeview to be ' the first child of the 
press of a state only fifteen years old ; ' Bon wick's 
The Bushrangers, illustrating the Early Days of 
Van Diemen's Land (1856), p. 47. The same 
author's Mike Howe, the Bushranger of Van 
Diemen's Land (1873), though a work of fiction, 
professes to be 'a narrative of facts as to the 
leading incidents of the bushranger's career.'] 

J. K. L. 

HOWE, OBADIAH (1616 ?-l 683), di- 
vine, born in Leicestershire about 1616, was 
the son of William Howe, incumbent of 
Tattershall, Lincolnshire (Cox, Magna Bri- 
tannia, l Lincolnshire,' p. 1444). In 1632 he 
became a member of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 
and graduated B.A. on 23 Oct. 1635 ( WOOD, 
Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 478), M.A. on 26 May 
1638 (ib. i. 501). At the time of the battle 
of Winceby (1643) he was rector of Stickney, 
Lincolnshire, and is said to have entertained 
the leaders of the parliamentary forces the 
day before the fight (THOMPSON, Hist, of Bos- 
ton, ed. 1856, pp. 171-2). He was afterwards 
vicar of Horncastle and rector of Gedney, 
Lincolnshire. At the Restoration he again 
changed sides, and managed to obtain the 
vicarage of Boston (1660). On 9 July 1674 he 
accumulated his degrees in divinity at Oxford 
(WOOD, Fasti, ii. 344, 345). He died on 
27 Feb. 1682-3, and was buried in Boston 
Church (THOMPSON, p. 777). The well-known 
John Howe (1630-1705) [q. v.] was his 
nephew. Besides two sermons, he published : 
1. ' The Universalist examined and convicted, 
destitute of plaine Sayings of Scripture, or 
Evidence of Reason. In Answer to a Treatise 

entituled "The Universality of Gods free 
Grace in Christ to Mankind," ' 4to [London], 
1648. 2. ' The Pagan Preacher silenced ; or, 
an Answer to a Treatise of Mr. John Good- 
win entituled " The Pagans Debt & Dowry " 
. . . With a Verdict on the Case depending 
between Mr. Goodwin and Mr. Howe by the 
learned George Kendal, D.D.,' 2 pts.4to, Lon- 
don, 1655. Goodwin, in the preface to his 
* Triumviri ' (4to,London, 1658), says of Howe 
' that he was a person of considerable parts 
and learning, but thought so most by himself/ 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 65-6.] 

G. G. 

1799), admiral of the fleet, born in London 
on 8 March 1725-6, was second son of 
Emmanuel Scrope Howe, second viscount 
Howe in the peerage of Ireland, and of Mary 
Sophia Charlotte, daughter of the Baroness 
Kielmansegge, afterwards Countess of Dar- 
lington. Scrope Howe, first viscount Howe 
[q. v.], was his grandfather. In 1732 his 
father was appointed governor of Barbadoes, 
where he died in March 1735. It is stated by 
Mason that Richard Howe was sent, for the 
time, to school at Westminster. According 
to the Westminster school-lists, a boy of the 
name of How or Howe was there from 1731 
to 1735, but no Christian name is given, and 
the identification is doubtful (information 
from Mr. G. F. Russell Barker). It is believed 
that he went to Eton in or about 1735. On 

16 July 1739 he was entered on board the 
Pearl, then commanded by the Hon. Edward 
Legge [q. v.], but probably remained at Eton 
for another year. On 3 July 1740 he joined 
the Severn, to which Legge was moved, and 
accompanied Anson as he sailed from St. 
Helens on his voyage round the world [see 
ANSON, GEORGE, LORD]. The Severn, however, 
got a very short way beyond Cape Horn, being 
driven back in a violent storm ; and, after re- 
fitting at Rio de Janeiro, she returned to Eng- 
land, where she paid off, 24 June 1742. Sir 
John Barrow (Life of Earl Howe, p. 7) lays 
some stress on the severity of this initiation 
of young Howe to the naval service ; but it 
appears that for him the hardships were re- 
duced to the minimum, if we may accept the 
statement of a hostile witness many years 
afterwards, to the effect that during the voyage 
he messed with the captain, and lived in the 
captain's cabin (An Address to the Right 
Honourable the First Lord Commissioner of 
the Admiralty, by an Officer, 1786, p. 29). On 

17 Aug. 1742 hejoinedthe Burford,with Cap- 
tain Franklin Lushington, and went in her to 
the West Indies, where he was present at 
the attack on La Guayra on 18 Feb. 1742-3 
[see KNOWLES, SIR CHARLES], when Lush- 




ington was mortally wounded. On 10 March 
Howe was moved by Knowles into his own | 
ship, the Suffolk. On 10 July he was sent 
to the Eltham as an acting lieutenant ; but 
on 8 Oct. again joined the Suffolk as mid- | 
shipman. He passed his examination at An- | 
tigua on 24 May 1744, and on his certificate 
it is stated that ' he hath gone to sea upwards j 
of eight years,' four of them in the Thames j 
merchant ship, William Marchant, master. 
He may possibly have accompanied his father 
to the West Indies in 1732, and have had 
his name entered on the books of the ship in 
which they took their passage, but it is quite 
certain that he had no such service as was 
implied. The day after passing he was pro- 
moted by Knowles to be lieutenant of the 
Comet fireship, which came home, and was | 
paid off in August 1745. Howe's commission 
as lieutenant was confirmed on the 8th ; on j 
the 12th he was appointed to the Royal j 
George ; and on 5 Nov. was promoted to com- 
mand the Baltimore sloop employed in the 
North Sea and on the coast of Scotland. On 
1 May 1746, the Baltimore, in company with 
the 20-gun frigate Greyhound and the Terror 
sloop, fell in, on the west coast of Scotland, 
with two large French privateers, frigates of 
32 and 34 guns. A brisk action ensued, but 
the English ships were overmatched and were 
beaten off, the Baltimore being very roughly 
handled, and Howe himself severely wounded. 
He had before this, 10 April 1746, been 
posted to the Triton, which he joined on his 
return to Portsmouth. In the following year 
he convoyed the trade to Lisbon, where he 
exchanged into the Ripon, bound for the 
Guinea coast, whence he crossed to Barba- 
dbes and joined Knowles at Jamaica a few 
days after the action off Havana. On 29 Oct. 
1748 he was appointed by Knowles as his 
flag-captain in the Cornwall, which, on the 
conclusion of the peace, he brought to Eng- 
land. In March 1750-1 he was appointed 
to the Glory of 44 guns, and again sent to the 
Guinea coast, where he found a very angry 
feeling existing between the English and 
Dutch settlements : the Dutch negroes, it 
was said, had attacked the English, and on 
both sides several prisoners had been made. 
Howe not, it would appear, without a dis- 
play of force induced the Dutch governor- 
general to conclude an agreement for the 
mutual restoration of the slaves, and the re- 
ference to Europe of the matters in dispute. 
He then, as before, crossed to Barbadoes and 
Jamaica, and arrived at Spithead on 22 April 
1752. On 3 June he commissioned the Dol- 
phin frigate, and for the next two years was 
employed in the Mediterranean, and more 
especially on the Barbary coast. On her re- 

turn to England in August 1754 he resigned 
the command, and in the following January 
was appointed to the Dunkirk of 60 guns, one 
of the ships which sailed for North America 
with Boscawen in April [see BOSCAWEN, 
EDWARD]. On 7 June they fell in with the 
French fleet off the mouth of the St. Law- 
rence, but the fog obscured it. The next 
morning three ships were still in sight, six or 
seven miles to leeward ; the Dunkirk hap- 
pened to be the nearest to them, and about 
noon came up with the sternmost of them, 
the Alcide of 64 guns. Her captain, the 
Chevalier Hocquart, refused Howe's request 
to shorten sail and wait for the admiral, and 
on a signal from the flagship, the Dunkirk 
opened fire. The Alcide was caught almost 
quite unprepared, and was speedily over- 
powered. The Torbay fortunately joined the 
Dunkirk in time to save Hocquart's credit 
and put an end to useless slaughter. One of 
the other French ships was also taken. The 
story goes that there were several ladies on 
the Alcide's deck when the Dunkirk hailed 
her ; that on Hocquart's refusal to close the 
admiral, Howe warned him that he was going 
to fire, but granted a short delay in order 
that their safety might be provided for, and 
that Hocquart utilised this delay to make 
what preparation was then possible. Some 
preliminary conversation certainly took place, 
but the details of it, beyond the formal de- 
mand to wait on the admiral, have been very 
differently and loosely reported. The inci- 
dent derives some importance from the fact 
of its being ' the first gun ' which, according 
to the Duke deMirepoix, would be considered 
equivalent to a declaration of war, and which, 
in point of fact, did proclaim the actual begin- 
ning. The date is here given from the Dun- 
kirk's log. 

During the summer of 1756 Howe, still in 
the Dunkirk, commanded a squadron of small 
vessels appointed for the defence of the Chan- 
nel Islands, which the French were preparing 
to attack. They had already occupied the 
island of Chaussey, but on Howe's arrival 
agreed to withdraw to the mainland, and 
their forces were sent back to Brest. Howe 
was thus able to distribute his squadron, and, 
while keeping an effective watch on the is- 
lands, to cruise against the enemy's privateers 
and commerce in the entrance to the Channel 
till the end of the year, when he returned to 
Plymouth to refit. During the spring of 1757 
he was again cruising in the Channel ; in May 
he was elected member of parliament for 
Dartmouth, which he represented in succes- 
sive parliaments till 1782, when he was called 
to the upper house ; and on 2 July he turned 
over, with his whole ship's company, to the 




Magnanime oi 74 guns, which had been cap- 
tured from the French in 1748, and was, at 
this time, by far the finest vessel of her class 
in the English navy. In her he took part in 
the abortive expedition against Rochefort 
[see HAWKE, EDWARD, LORD], and being ap- 
pointed to lead in against the battery on the 
island of Aix, reduced it almost unaided. 
The soldier officers decided to attempt nothing 
further, and the fleet returned to England. 

In 1758 minor expeditions against the 
French coast were resolved on, and the com- 
mand of the covering squadron was given to 
Howe, much to the annoyance of Hawke. 
His complaint, however, was against the ad- 
miralty, not against Howe, with whom he 
seems to have continued on friendly terms. 
The Magnanime being considered too large 
for the particular service, Howe moved into 
the 64-gun ship Essex, on board which he 
hoisted a distinguishing pennant, having 
under his orders, what with 50-gun ships, 
frigates and sloops, store-ships and trans- 
ports, a fleet of upwards of 150 sail. It was 
resolved in the first instance to attack St. 
Malo, and the expedition, consisting of some 
15,000 men of all arms, under the command 
of the Duke of Marlborough and Lord George 
SACKVILLE], was put on shore in Cancale 
Bay on 5-6 June, but after burning the ships 
in the harbour and on the stocks, re-embarked 
on the llth. From St. Malo the expedition 
moved backwards along the coast into Caen 
Bay. The weather prevented an immediate 
landing, and the general proposed to attempt 
Cherbourg. There also the weather was 
bad, and Marlborough impatiently requested 
Howe to return to St. Helens, where, accord- 
ingly, the squadron and its convoy anchored 
on 1 July. Howe is said to have been dis- 
gusted with the costly farce, and to have 
conceived a most unfavourable opinion of the 
generals, especially of Sackville, which he 
took no pains to conceal. According to Wai- 
pole, ' they agreed so ill, that one day Lord 
George, putting several questions to Howe 
and receiving no answer, said, " Mr. Howe, 
don't you hear me ? I have asked you seve- 
ral questions." Howe replied, " I don't love 
questions " ' (Memoirs oftheHeign ofGeorgell, 
iii. 125 w.) After the two generals were put 
on shore, the command of the troops was en- 
trusted to Lieutenant-general Bligh [see 
BLIGH, EDWARD]. Prince Edward, second 
son of Frederick, prince of Wales, who now 
entered the navy, was sent on board the 
Essex under Howe's care, and, indeed, at 
Howe's charge. ' He came,' Howe wrote 
many years afterwards in a private letter, 
' not only without bed and linen almost of 

every kind, but I paid also for his uniform 
clothes, which I provided for him, with all 
j other necessaries, at Portsmouth ' (BARROW, 
' p. 58). The expedition sailed on 1 Aug. ; on 
the 6th it was before Cherbourg, and the 
; bombs began to play on the town ; the next 
: day the troops were landed some little dis- 
tance to the west, and the place was occu- 
pied without opposition. Howe then brought 
the fleet into the roadstead, and co-operated 
with Bligh in burning the ships, overturning 
the piers, demolishing the forts and maga- 
zines, and destroying the ordnance and am- 
munition. For near fifty years no further 
attempt was made to convert Cherbourg into 
a naval port. It was then resolved to attack 
St. Malo, and after some delay caused by 
boisterous weather, the fleet anchored in St. 
Lunaire Bay on 3 Sept ; the next day the 
troops were landed. The weather then set in 
stormy, and Howe moved the fleet into the 
bay of St. Cas, where it was sheltered from 
the westerly gale. But on shore the council 
of war resolved that nothing could be done, 
except get back to the ships as quickly as 
possible. The country was meantime roused, 
the local militia and armed peasants as- 
sembled, together with six thousand regular 
soldiers. These harassed the English on the 
march, and fell on the rearguard as they at- 
tempted to embark. The loss was great, and 
as, under the heavy fire from the French 
field-pieces, the boats hesitated to approach 
the shore, it would have been greater, but 
for the personal efforts of Howe, who was 
everywhere present encouraging his men. 
There was no doubt gross mismanagement, 
but amid much recrimination, Howe, whose 
conduct was highly commended, even by 
the land officers, was held guiltless (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. pt. iii. p. 73) ; but it 
is untrue that ' the slaughter among the sea- 
men was very great.' The Essex had one man 
killed and one wounded ; in the whole squa- 
dron the loss was nine killed and twenty 
wounded (Howe to Clevland, 12 Sept.) 

By the death of his elder brother, killed at 
Ticonderoga on 5 July 1758, Howe succeeded 
to the title as fourth viscount, and to the 
family estates ; he had till then been mainly 
dependent on his pay. In 1759 he took part, 
in the Magnanime, in the blockade of Brest 
under Hawke. In the brilliant swoop on 
the French fleet as it attempted to shelter 
itself in Quiberon Bay on 20 Nov., the Mag- 
nanime was the leading ship, and after a 
sharp'engagement with the Formidable,whose 
fire she silenced, attacked the Th6s6e, which 
was sunk, though whether from the Magna- 
nime's fire, or swamped through her lower 
deck ports, is doubtful. During 1760 and 




1761 Howe continued in the Magnanime at- 
tached to the grand fleet in the Bay of Bis- 


and for some time as commodore in 

was landed for the capture of Philadelphia. 
It was afterwards occupied, during October 
and November, in clearing the passage up 

Basque roads. In 1762, on Prince Edward, j the Delaware, which the Americans had ob- 
then Duke of York and rear-admiral, hoist- j structed by so-called ' chevaux de frise ' 
ing his flag on board the Princess Amelia, j frames of solid timber bristling with iron 
Howe, at his special request, was appointed ! spikes, devised, it was said, by Franklin, 
his flag-captain (22 June). The Princess i These, flanked by heavy batteries on shore, 
Amelia was paid off at the peace, and Howe ; proved formidable obstacles, and the work 
accepted a seat at the admiralty under Lord of removing them was one of both difficulty 
Sandwich, and afterwards under Lord Eg- I and danger (BEATSON, v. 125, 261-73). The 
mont, until August 1765, when he was ap- ! water-way once opened, the store-ships and 
pointed treasurer of the navy, an office then transports moved up to Philadelphia, and 
held to be extremely lucrative, from the j lay alongside the quays till the evacuation 
large sums of money passing through his I of the city in the following June. Howe, 
hands, and of which he had the use, some- j with several of the men-of-war, also re- 
times for several years (Parliamentary Pa- \ mained at Philadelphia till, on news of the 
pers, 1731-1800, vol. x. Fourth Report of probability of war with France, he ordered 
the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the ships to collect oft* the mouth of the 
fees ... at Public Offices). The practice was ! Delaware ; and, after transporting the troops 
sanctioned by custom, but it is implied that j across the river, he, with the shipping, re- 
Howe considered it irregular, and refused to | turned to Sandy Hook, where he learned that 
profit by it, and that * the balance was regu- | the Toulon fleet had sailed under the com- 
larly brought up ' (BAEEOW, p. 77). He re- mand of M. d'Estaing, and that Vice-admi- 
signed the office on his promotion to the rank ral John Byron [q. v.] was on his way to join 
of rear-admiral, on 18 Oct. 1770, and in the ! him with a strong reinforcement. On 5 July 
following month, consequent on the dispute [ he had intelligence of the French fleet on the 
with Spain concerning the Falkland Islands ' coast of Virginia ; on the llth it came insight 

[see FAEMEE, GEOEGE], was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief in the Mediterranean. The 
appointment was, however, annulled on the 
Spanish quarrel being peacefully settled. 
On 7 Dec. 1775 Howe was promoted to be 

and took up a position about four miles off". 
Howe had meantime been busy stationing 
his small force to the best advantage. He 
in person examined the soundings and studied 
the set of the currents at different times of 

vice-admiral ; in the following February he ! the tide. A line of seven ships was anchored, 
was appointed commander-in-chief in North ! with springs on their cables, across the chan- 

America, and received a commission, jointly 
with his younger brother, General Sir Wil- 
liam Howe, who was already there in com- 
mand of the army, l to treat with the revolted 
Americans, and to take measures for the 

nel, and was supported at the southern end by 
a battery on the island, and at the northern 
by three smaller ships commanding the bar. 
The rest of his force formed a reserve. D'Es- 
taing's force was vastly superior, not so much 

restoration of peace with the colonies.' Al- in the number as in the size of his ships ; but 
ready, in 1774, Howe had made the ac- i the English position was strong, and d'Es- 
quaintance of Franklin, then residing in taing was easily persuaded that there was 

London, and had often conversed with him 
on the colonists' grievances. It was there- 
fore supposed that he was peculiarly fit to 
bear a conciliatory message. But he did not 
arrive in America till after the declaration 
of independence on 4 July 1776, from which 
rongress would not go back and which he 
"could not accept. Official negotiation was 
consequently impossible, while both Franklin 
and Washington refused private discussion. 
It only remained to prosecute the war ; but 
as the colonists had no fleet, the work of the 
navy was limited to supporting and co- 
operating with the army in the reduction of 
Long Island and of New York in August 
and September 1776 ; and again, in the sum- 
mer of 1777, in the expedition up Chesapeake 
Bay to the Head of Elk, where the army 

not sufficient depth of water for his large 
ships. After lying off Shrewsbury inlet for 
eleven days he weighed anchor on 22 July 
and came off the entrance of the channel, 
but after some hours of apparent indecision, 
stood away to the southward. His depar- 
ture was just in time to allow a safe en- 
trance to the scattered reinforcement which 
came to Howe within the next few days. 
So strengthened, Howe put to sea, hoping to 
defend Ehode Island. He was off the en- 
trance to the harbour on 9 Aug., but D'Es- 
taing had occupied it two days before, and 
on the 10th came out with his whole fleet as 
though to give battle, which Howe, with a 
very inferior force, was unwilling to accept. 
The fleets remained in presence of each other 
till the evening of the llth, when they were 


9 6 


blown asunder in a violent gale. The French 
were completely dispersed and many of their 
ships wholly or partially dismasted, in which 
state some of them, and especially d'Estaing's 
flagship, the Languedoc of 80 guns, were 
very roughly handled by English 50-gun 
ships. By the 20th d'Estaing had gathered 
together his shattered fleet, but, after ap- 
pearing again off Rhode Island, went to Bos- 
ton to refit. Thither Howe followed him, 
after hastily refitting at Sandy Hook ; but, 
finding the French ships dismantled, and 
evidently without any immediate thought of 
going to sea, he went back to Sandy Hook. 
Availing himself of the admiralty's permis- 
sion to resign the command, he turned the 
squadron over to Rear-admiral Gambier, to 
await Byron's arrival, and sailed for England 
on 25 Sept. He had asked to be relieved as 
early as 23 Nov. 1777, and the admiralty had 
sent him the required permission on 24 Feb., 
at the same time expressing a hope in com- 
plimentary terms ' that he would find no oc- 
casion to avail himself of it.' He arrived at 
Portsmouth on 25 Oct. 1778, and struck his 
flag on the 30th. 

His discontent seems to have been largely 
due to the appointment of a new commis- 
sion to negotiate with the colonists ; the two 
Howes were, indeed, named as members of 
it, but junior to the Earl of Carlisle [see 
LISLE], with whom they declined to act (cf. 
BARROW, p. 103). He knew, too, that the war 
had been mismanaged by the interference of 
an incompetent minister; that the navy had 
been starved; and he believed that he was to 
be made the ministerial scapegoat. His pro- 
motion to be vice-admiral of the red had, he 
moreover considered, been unduly delayed. 
His suspicions of the bad faith of the ministry 
were soon confirmed at home. His conduct, 
he said in the House of Commons on 8 March 
1779, had been arraigned in pamphlets and 
newspapers, written, in many instances, by 
persons in the confidence of ministers. He 
challenged the most searching inquiry into 
his conduct; he said that he had been de- 
ceived into his command; that, tired and 
disgusted, he would have returned as soon 
as he obtained leave, but he could not think 
of doing so while a superior enemy remained 
in the American seas ; and that he seized the 
first opportunity after Byron's arrival had 

S'ven a decided superiority to British arms, 
e finally declined ' any future service so 
long as the present ministers remained in 
office.' For the next three years, though 
attending occasionally in the House of 
Commons, he resided principally at Porter's 
Lodge, a country seat near St. Albans, which I 

he had purchased after the conclusion of the 
seven years' war. 

The change of ministry in the spring ot 
j 1782 called him again into active service. 
On 2 April he was appointed commander- 
in-chief in the Channel ; on the 8th was 
promoted to be admiral of the blue ; and on 
the 20th was created a peer of Great Britain 
by his former title in the peerage of Ireland, 
Viscount Howe of Langar in Nottingham- 
shire. It was also on the 20th that he 
hoisted his flag on board the Victory at Spit- 
head, and, being presently joined by Barring- 
ton [see BARRINGTON, SAMUEL], he proceeded 
to the North Sea, where for some weeks he 
was employed in keeping watch over the 
Dutch in the Texel. In June he was re- 
called to the Channel by the news of the 
allied French and Spanish fleet, numbering 
forty sail of the line, having come north from 
Cadiz, and having on the way captured a 
great part of the trade for Newfoundland. A 
rich convoy was expected from Jamaica, and 
it became Howe's duty, with only twenty- 
two ships, to clear the way for this and to 
keep the Channel open. The real object of 
the allies was, no doubt, to prevent the relief 
of Gibraltar. But the jealousies between the 
admirals led, towards the end of July, to the 
retirement of their powerful fleet to Cadiz. 

On 15 Aug. Howe anchored at Spithead, 
when the fleet was ordered to refit with all 
possible haste. While refitting, the loss of 
the Royal George occurred [see DURHAM, SIB 
29 Aug. On 11 Sept. the fleet sailed for Gi- 
braltar ; it consisted of thirty-four ships of the 
line, besides frigates and smaller vessels ; and, 
what with transports, store-ships, and pri- 
vate traders, numbered altogether 183 sail. 
The passage was tedious ; it was not till 
8 Oct. that the fleet was off Cape St. Vincent, 
and the next day Howe learned that the> 
allied fleet of some fifty ships of the line was; 
at anchor off Algeciras. By noon of the lltti 
the relieving fleet was in the Straits, the 
transports and store-ships leading, the ships 
of war following in three divisions, ready to> 
draw into line of battle. Cordova, in com- 
mand of the allied fleet, made no attempt to 
interrupt them ; but only four of the store- 
ships got to anchor off Gibraltar ; the others, 
careless of orders and the force of the current, 
were carried to the eastward into the Medi- 
terranean. Howe followed them ; but to 
bring them back was a work of difficulty, 
which the enemy might have rendered im- 
possible. Howe had only thirty- three ships 
of the line ; Cordova had forty-six, and, had 
he brought the English to action, must have 
prevented the relief of the fortress. On the 




13th he got under -way : but, refusing to 
engage and neglecting to maintain his posi- 
tion between the English fleet and the Rock, 
he allowed Howe to get to the westward of 
him, so that when, on the 16th, the wind 
came round to the east, the convoy was able 
to slip in at pleasure, while the ships of war, 
lying to the east of the bay, guarded against 
any interruption. By the 19th the stores 
and troops had been landed ; when Cordova 
appeared at the eastern entrance of the 
Straits, Howe was at liberty to take sea- 
room to the westward, and, by hugging the 
African shore, let the empty transports get 
clear away. On the next morning, 20 Oct., 
the wind was northerly, both fleets in line 
of battle, the allies some five leagues to wind- 
ward : they had the advantage of both numbers 
and position; and with the African shore at 
no great distance to leeward, the English could 
not have avoided action if it had been reso- 
lutely offered. But though by sunset Cordova's 
fleet approached the English, he would not 
attempt a sustained attack. A distant fire 
was continued in a desultory manner for about 
four hours, when the combatants separated, 
and the next day the allies passed out of sight 
on their way to Cadiz, leaving Howe free to 
pursue his homeward voyage. He anchored at 
St. Helens on 14 Nov. This relief of Gibraltar, 
in presence of a fleet enormously superior in 
numbers, called forth general commendation. 
The king of Prussia wrote in his own hand 
expressing his admiration, and Frenchmen 
and Spaniards acknowledged that they had 
been outwitted. Few were aware of the 
real weakness of the Spanish fleet, which 
had forced on Cordova a timid policy ; and, 
though the French officers complained bit- 
terly of the inefficiency of their allies, their 
reports were not made public (cf. CHEVALIEK, 
i. 184) ; but Chevalier, though well ac- 
quainted with them, still considers the opera- 
tion as one of the finest in the whole war, and 
as worthy of praise as a victory (ib. p. 358). 
It was, beyond question, a very brilliant 
achievement ; but we now understand the 
Spanish share in it. Against a French fleet 
of equal numbers, commanded by a Suffren 
or a Guichen, Howe's task would have been 
incomparably more difficult. As it was, Lord 
Hervey,the captain of the Raisonnable, being, 
it is said, in a bad humour at having been 
sent out of England just at that time, pub- 
lished a letter reflecting on Howe's conduct 
on 20 Oct. If we had been led,' he wrote, 
' with the same spirit with which we should 
have followed, it would have been a glorious 
day for England.' On this, Howe sent him 
a challenge ; but the duel did not take place, 
for, though the parties met, Hervey made a 
VOL. xxvin. 

j full retractation on the ground (BAEEOW, 
p. 421). 

In January 1783 Howe was appointed 
first lord of the admiralty, and, though in 
April he gave place to Koppel, he was rein- 
stated in the office in December, and held it 
; till July 1788, when he was succeeded by 
the Earl of Chatham. The period of his 
administration was not a time of organising 
fleets, but of reducing establishments. The 
navy was on a war footing, and the reduction 
i could not be accomplished without injury to 
private interests or disappointment to per- 
sonal expectations. Howe was bitterly at- 
tacked in parliament and in print. In one 
pamphlet, more than usually spiteful, he was 
described as ' a man universally acknowledged 
to be unfeeling in his nature, ungracious in 
his manner, and who, upon all occasions, 
discovers a wonderful attachment to the dic- 
I tates of his own perverse, impenetrable dis- 
i position ' (An Address to the Right Honour- 
\ able the First Lord Commissioner of the Ad- 
miralty upon the visible decreasing Spirit, 
' Splendour, and Discipline of the Navy, by an 
Officer, 1787). The reforms in dockyard 
| administration and the technical improve- 
| ments which Howe introduced (cf. DEEEICK, 
| Memoirs of the Royal Navy, pp. 178-87) 
brought new enemies into the field (cf. An 
Address to the Right Honourable the First 
Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty upon the 
pernicious Mode of Coppering the Bottoms of 
King's Ships in time of Peace, 1786). Howe 
j felt that he was not fairly supported by Pitt, 
and obtained permission to resign (BAEEOW, 
pp. 191-2). As an acknowledgment of his 
services, he was created Earl Howe and 
Baron Howe of Langar, with a remainder of 
the barony to his eldest daughter (19 Aug. 

In May 1790, on the occasion of the dis- 
pute with Spain relative to Nootka Sound, 
Howe was appointed to the command of the 
fleet in the Channel. He was at this time 
the senior admiral of the white, and on join- 
ing the Queen Charlotte was ordered to hoist 
the union-flag at the main, with the temporary 
rank of admiral of the fleet, in compliment, 
it would seem, not only to himself but also 
to the six exceptionally distinguished flag- 
officers placed under his orders. In August 
it was reported that the Spanish fleet was at 
sea, and for a month Howe cruised between 
Ushant and Scilly, with thirty-five sail of the 
line, which he exercised continually, both in 
naval evolutions and in the new code of 
signals, which he had been elaborating for 
several years. On 14 Sept. the fleet returned 
to Spithead, and on the accommodation of 
the differences with Spain, most of the ships 


9 8 


were paid off. Howe himself struck his flag 
in December. On the death of Lord Rodney, 
May 1792, he was appointed vice-admiral of 
England, and on 1 Feb. 1793 was again or- 
dered to take command of the Channel fleet, 
with, as before, the temporary rank of ad- 
miral of the fleet. It was not, however, till the 
end of May that the fleet was actually formed, 
and that Howe hoisted the union-flag on 
board the Queen Charlotte. During the rest 
of the year the fleet was pretty constantly at 
sea, though frequently obliged by stress of 
weather to take shelter in Torbay. Once or 
twice Howe sighted small squadrons of the 
French, but at a distance which permitted 
their easy escape. Scurrilous writers repre- 
sented him as spending his time in dodging 
in and out of Torbay. One epigram, after 
reciting how Caesar had taken three words to 
relate his brave deeds, concluded 

Howe sua mine brevius verbo complectitur uno, j 
Et ' vidi ' nobis omnia gesta refert. 

With his ships strained by continual bad 
weather, Howe returned to port in the middle 
of December, confirmed in the opinion which 
he had long held probably from the time of 
the arduous service off Brest in 1759 that 
the keeping the fleet at sea for the purpose of 
watching an enemy lying snugly in port was 
a mistake (BARROW, p. 216 ; cf. Parl. Hist. 
3 March 1779, xx. 202). Hawke before him, 
as St. Vincent and Nelson afterwards, held 
a different opinion, and naval strategists are 
still divided on the question. 

It was not till the middle of April 1794 
that the ships were refitted and again as- 
sembled at St. Helens : on 2 May they, num- 
bering thirty-two sail of the line, put to sea. 
Howe, for the first time since the beginning 
of the century, reverted to the seventeenth- 
century practice of organising the fleet in j 
three squadrons and their divisions under the ! 
distinguishing colours, appointing the several 
admirals to wear the corresponding flag, irre- 
spective of the mast or colour to which they 
were entitled by their commission (Naval 
Chronicle, i. 28). This may have been sug- 
gested by the unusual number of seven ad- 
mirals in one fleet, and also by the coinci- 
dence of the commanders in the second and 
third posts being respectively admirals of the 
white and of the blue. Off the Lizard six 
of the ships were detached to the southward 
in charge of convoy, and Howe, with the 
remaining twenty-six, cruised on the parallel 
of Ushant, looking out for a fleet of provision 
ships coming to Brest from America. To 
protect these the French fleet put to sea on 
the 16th, under the command of Rear-admiral 
Yillaret-Joyeuse and the delegate of the 

Convention, Jean Bon Saint- Andr6, who ap- 
pears to have been except in the details of 
manoeuvring the fleet the true commander- 
in-chief (cf. CHEVALIER, ii. 127, 131). On 
the 19th their sailing was reported to Howe, 
but it was not till the morning of the 28th 
that the two fleets came in sight of each 
other. The English were dead to leeward; 
but by the evening their van was up with 
the enemy's rear, and a partial action ensued, 
in which the three-decked ship Revolution- 
naire, which closed the French line, was cut 
off and very severely handled. Completely 
dismasted, with four hundred men killed or 
wounded, she struck her colours. Night, 
however, was closing in ; Howe signalled the 
ships to take their place in the line ; and the 
Revolutionnaire made good her escape, and 
eventually got into Rochefort. The Auda- 
cious, with which she had been most closely 
engaged,was also dismasted, and being unable 
to rejoin the fleet bore up for Plymouth. 

On the morning of 29 May the English 
were still to leeward, and Howe, unable to 
bring on a general action, resolved to force 
his way through the enemy's line. A partial 
engagement again followed, and three of the 
French ships, having sustained some damage, 
fell to leeward, were surrounded by the Eng- 
lish, and were in imminent danger of being 
captured. To protect them, Villaret-Joyeuse 
bore up with his whole fleet, and in so doing 
yielded the weather-gage to the English. 

During the next two days fogs, the neces- 
sity of repairing damages, and the distance 
to which the French had withdrawn, pre- 
vented Howe from pushing his advantage ; 
but by the morning of 1 June he had ranged 
his fleet in line of battle on the enemy's 
weather beam, and about four miles distant. 
He made the signal for each ship to steer for 
the ship opposite to her, to pass under her 
stern, and, hauling to the wind, to engage 
her on the lee side. The signal was only 
partially understood or acted on. Many, 
however, obeyed the signal and the admiral's 
example. A few minutes before ten the 
Queen Charlotte passed under the stern of the 
French flagship the Montagne [see BOWEK, 
JAMES, 1751-1835], and at a distance of only a 
few feet poured in her broadside with terrible 
effect. As she hauled to the wind to engage 
to leeward, the 80-gun ship Jacobin blocked 
the way. She thrust herself in between the 
two, and for some minutes the struggle was 
very severe. Within a quarter of an hour the 
Queen Charlotte lost her fore top-mast, and 
the Montagne escaped with her stern and 
quarter stove in, many of her guns dis- 
mounted, and three hundred of her men 
killed or wounded, but with her masts and 




rigging comparatively intact. The picture of 
the battle by Loutherbourg, now in the 
Painted Hall at Greenwich, wrongly shows 
the Queen Charlotte on the Montagne's lee 
bow. 'If we could have got the old ship 
into that position,' Bowen is reported to have 
said on seeing the picture, 'we must have 
taken the French admiral.' 

At the same time as the Montagne, the 
Jacobin also made sail, and Howe, seeing 
other French ships doing the same, made the 
signal for a general chase. The battle was 
virtually won within twenty minutes from 
the time of the Queen Charlotte's passing 
through the French line, and by noon all 
^concerted resistance was at an end. The 
afternoon was passed in overwhelming and 
taking possession of the beaten ships. Seven 
were made prizes, of which one, the Vengeur, 
afterwards sank with a great part of her men 
still onboard [see HAKVEY, JOHN, 1740-1794]. 
That five or six more were not captured was 
ascribed to the undue caution of the captain 
of the fleet, Sir Eoger Curtis [q. v.], upon 
whom devolved the command at the critical 
moment, Howe being worn out by years and 
the exertions of the previous days (BARROW, 
pp. 251, 253-8, and Codrington's manuscript 
notes, BOURCHIER, i. 27). But though this 
lapse detracted on cooler consideration from 
the brilliance of the victory, popular enthu- 
siasm ran very high, especially when Howe, 
with the greater part of the fleet, towed the 
six prizes into Spithead on 13 June. In nu- 
merical force the two fleets had been fairly 
equal, and what little disparity there was was 
in favour of the enemy ; and of other differ- 
ences no account was taken. 

On 20 June the king, with the queen and 
three of the princesses, went to Portsmouth, 
and in royal procession rowed out to Spit- 
head. There he visited Howe on board the 
Queen Charlotte, presented him with a dia- 
mond-hilted sword, and signified his inten- 
tion of conferring on him the order of the 
Garter. The incident was painted by H. P. 
Briggs in an almost burlesque picture now 
in the Painted Hall. Gold chains were given 
to all the admirals. Graves and Hood were 
created peers on the Irish establishment. One 
circumstance alone marred the general hap- 
piness. Howe, in his original despatch, pub- 
lished in the ' Gazette ' of 10 June, had not 
mentioned any officers by name except the 
captain of the fleet and the captain of the 
Queen Charlotte. On arriving at Spithead 
he was desired by the admiralty to send in 
' a detail of the meritorious services of indi- 
viduals.' A few days later the order was 
repeated. On the 19th he wrote privately 
to Lord Chatham, deprecating the proposed 

selection, which he feared ' might be followed 
by disagreeable consequences.' But on the 
order being again repeated, he sent off a list 
on the 20th made up hastily, adding a note 
to the effect that it was incomplete. Howe 
had directed the several flag-officers to send 
in the names of those who had distinguished 
themselves, and they, supposing the required 
list to be a mere useless form, filled it up in 
a modest, perfunctory, or careless manner, 
and many notable names were omitted [see 
CUTHBERT, LORD]. The list was, however, 
not only gazetted, but the honours which the 
king freely bestowed were regulated by it ; 
and Howe was accused of having cast an 
unmerited slur on the reputation of his com- 
rades in arms. 

It is said by Sir Edward Codrington (BAR- 
ROW, manuscript note, pp. 250, 264) that Howe 
and the Earl of Chatham were on bad terms, 
and that Howe's recommendations for promo- 
tion were not attended to. A more direct slight 
was offered by Chatham's brother, the prime 
minister, who represented to Howe that it 
would be for the advantage of the public 
service that he should forego the king's pro- 
mise of the Garter. As a compensation he 
offered him a marquisate, on his own respon- 
sibility, but this Howe coldly declined (ib. 
&, 262). The king, however, conferred the 
arter upon him 2 June 1797. 
On 22 Aug. Howe sailed from St. Helens 
with a fleet of thirty-seven ships of the line, 
and cruised between Ushant and Scilly till 
the end of October, when he was driven by 
stress of weather into Torbay. On 9 Nov. 
he again put to sea, and on the 29th returned 
to Spithead. The state of his health made 
him wish to be relieved from the command, 
but yielding to the king's wishes he retained 
it, on being allowed to be absent on leave 
during the winter. In the spring of 1795, 
on the news of the French fleet being out, he 
again hoisted his flag on board the Queen 
Charlotte, and put to sea in quest of it ; but 
returned, on the news of its having gone back 
to Brest, much damaged in a gale. He con- 
tinued nominally in command for two years 
longer, but was during most of the time at 
Bath, the fleet being actually commanded 
by Lord Bridport [see HOOD, ALEXANDER, 
VISCOUNT BRIDPORT]. Howe, as Bridport's 
senior and nominal commander-in-chief, ex- 
pected a degree of deference which Bridport 
did not pay, and the neglect offended Howe, 
who attributed the ill-feeling which sprang 
up to incidents which had occurred more 
than seven years before, while he was at the 
admiralty. He wrote to Curtis on 24 Oct. 
1795, that if he resumed ' the command at 

H 2 




sea ' he would refuse to serve with Bridport 
(BARROW, pp. 416-7). 

In March 1796, on the death of Admiral 
Forbes [see FORBES, JOHN, 1714-1796], Howe 
was promoted to be admiral of the fleet, and 
at the same time appointed general of ma- 
rines. He unwillingly resigned the office of 
vice-admiral of England, which (he held) was 
superior to all other naval rank except that 
of lord high admiral (BARROW, p. 311). In 
April 1796 Howe was ordered to Portsmouth 
to preside at the court-martial on Vice-admiral 
Cornwallis [see CORNWALLIS, SIR WILLIAM]. 
It was his last actual service, though he was 
still compelled by the king's solicitations to 
retain the nominal command. The position 
was anomalous, and seems not only to have 
given rise to the bad feeling between himself 
and Bridport, but to be largely responsible 
for the serious occurrences of the spring of 
1797. In the first days of March, Howe, 
while at Bath, received petitions from the 
crews of several of the ships at Spithead, 
praying for ' his interposition with the ad- 
miralty' in favour of the seamen being 
granted an increase of pay and rations, and 
a provision for their wives and families. As 
the handwriting of three of these petitions 
was clearly the same, Howe conceived them 
to be fictitious, and as Sir Peter Parker, the 
port admiral, and Lord Bridport concurred 
in this opinion, no notice was taken of them, 
further than a representation to that effect 
to Lord Spencer, then first lord of the ad- 
miralty. But on 15 April the seamen broke 
out into open mutiny, and though then per- 
suaded to return to their duty, the mutiny 
again broke out on 7 May. Apparently at 
the particular desire of the king, the admiralty 
then begged Howe to go to Portsmouth and 
see what was to be done, although a few days 
before he had sent in his final resignation, 
and it had been accepted. Accordingly, on 
11 May, he visited the ships and heard the 
demands of the men ; on the following days 
the differences were arranged, the mutineers 
accepted Howe's assurances, and on the 16th 
the fleet put to sea (Howe to Duke of Port- 
land, 16 May 1797, in BARROW, p. 341). 

This negotiation was Howe's last official 
act, though in his retirement he continued to 
take the keenest interest in naval affairs. 
His mind remained perfectly clear, though 
his body was disabled by attacks of gout. In 
the summer of 1799, in the absence of his 
regular medical adviser, he was persuaded to 
try ' electricity,' then spoken of as a uni- 
versal remedy. This, it was believed, drove 
the gout to the head, and with fatal effect ; 
he died on 5 Aug. 1799. He was buried in 
the family vault at Langar, where there is a 

monument to his memory ; another and more 
splendid monument by Flaxman was erected 
at the public expense in St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Notwithstanding Howe's very high repu- 
tation, both among his contemporaries and 
his successors, he can scarcely be considered 
a tactician of the first order, though in per- 
fecting and refining the code of signals he left 
a powerful instrument to the younger officers 
(cf. Nelson to Howe, 8 Jan, 1799, in NICOLAS, 
Nelson Despatches, iii. 230). He was abreast 
of his age, but scarcely in advance of it, and 
even on 1 June 1794 he got no further than 
forcing an unwilling enemy to close action 
with equal numbers ; the victory was mainly" 
won by the individual superiority of the Eng% 
lish ships (cf. CHEVALIER, ii. 146-9). As to his 
personal character, his courage and his taci- 
turnity were almost proverbial ; he was hap- 
pily described by Walpole as ' undaunted as 
a rock and as silent.' His features were 
strongly marked, and their expression harsh 
and forbidding ; his manner was shy, awk- 
ward, and ungracious, but his friends found 
him liberal, kind, and gentle. On the other 
hand, those whose claims, not always well 
founded, he was unable or unwilling to 
satisfy, maintained that he was l haughty, 
morose, hard-hearted, and inflexible.' But 
by general consent he is allowed to have been 
temperate, gentle, and indulgent to the men 
under his command, who, on their part, 
adored him, whether as captain or admiral, 
and appreciated his grim peculiarities. ' I 
think we shall have the fight to-day,' one is 
reported to have said on the morning of 
1 June ; ' Black Dick has been smiling.' The 
confidence which he had acquired was fully 
shown in the negotiations with the mutineers 
at Spithead. It has been said that he was 
lax in his discipline; it may be that he trusted 
more to personal influence than to system ; 
but no mutiny or even discontent ever oc- 
curred in any ship or squadron under his 
command. The mutinous and disorderly con- 
duct of the crew of the Queen Charlotte 
(BRESTTON, Naval History, i. 414) after his 
virtual retirement is distinctly attributed by 
Sir Edward Codrington to the mistaken in- 
terference of Sir Roger Curtis (BARROW, 
manuscript note, p. 301). 

Howe married, on 10 March 1758, Mary, 
daughter of Colonel Chiverton Hartop of 
Welby in Leicestershire, and by her had issue 
three daughters. To the eldest of these, Sophia 
Charlotte, married in 1787 to Penn Assheton 
Curzon, the barony descended, the English vis- 
county and earldom becoming extinct on 
Howe's death. The Irish titles passed to his 
brother, Sir William Howe,who died without 
issue in 1814. Lady Howe's son, Richard Wil- 




liam PennCurzon, born in 1796, succeeded his 
paternal grandfather as second Viscount Cur- 
zon in March 1820, assumed the name of 
Howe on 7 July 1821, and on 15 July 1821 
was created Earl Howe. On the death of 
his mother, 3 Dec. 1835, he also succeeded 
to the barony. A portrait of Howe by Gains- 
borough is in the possession of the Trinity 
House; another, by Gainsborough, and a 
third, anonymous, belong to the family. A 
fourth, by Singleton, is in the National Por- 
trait Gallery. 

[The standard Life of Howe by Sir John Bar- 
row is meagre and inaccurate ; the most valuable 
part of it consists of extracts from Howe's cor- 
respondence, but these are given unsatisfactorily, 
generally without either date or name. A copy 
of Barrow's Life of Howe, enriched with manu- 
script notes by Sir Edward Codrington, is in the 
British Museum (C. 45, d. 27), bequeathed by 
Codrington's daughter, Lady Bourchier. As 
Codrington was acting as signal lieutenant on 
board the Queen Charlotte during May and June 
1794, his personal evidence is of high authority ; 
but some of the notes, written on second-hand 
information, are not to be depended on. An ar- 
ticle in the Quarterly Review (Ixii. 1), based on 
Barrow's Life, is, on the whole, very fair ; better 
indeed than the book itself. The other memoirs 
of Howe are untrustworthy in details. They 
are : British Magazine and Review, June 1783 ; 
Naval Chronicle, i. 1 ; Charnock's Biog. Nav. v. 
457 ; Ralfe's Nav. Biog. i. 83. Mason's Life of 
Howe, far from good, but written from personal, 
though not intimate, knowledge of Howe, does 
not altogether deserve Barrow's sneer (p. 76) ; 
Bourchier's Life of Codrington (vol. i. chap, i.) 
reproduces the substance of many of the manu- 
script notes referred to above, with fuller details. 
Other sources of information are : official cor- 
respondence and other documents in the Public 
Record Office ; Beatson's Nav. and Mil. Memoirs ; 
James's Naval History ; Chevalier's Hist, de la 
Marine fra^aise (i.) pendant la guerre de 1'Inde- 
pendance americaine, and (ii.) sous la premiere 
Republique. The pamphlets relating to the 
several periods of Howe's career are numerous ; 
some of these have been mentioned in the text ; 
another, hostile, though not so abusive, is A 
Letter to the Right Honourable Lord Viscount 
H e on his naval conduct in the American War 
(1779), with which may be compared the more 
favourable Candid and Impartial Narrative of 
the Transactions of the Fleet under the Command 
of Lord Howe ... by an Officer then serving in 
the Fleet (1779).] " J. K. L. 

(1648-1712), born in November 1648, was 
eldest son of John Grubham Howe of Lan- 
gar, Nottinghamshire, by his wife Annabella, 
the natural daughter of Emanuel Scrope, earl 
of Sunderland (created 1627), to whom was 
granted the precedency of an earl's legitimate 

daughter 1 June 1663. John Grubham Howe 
[q. v.], Charles Howe [q. v.], and Emanuel 
Scrope Howe [q. v.] were his brothers. He 
was knighted on 11 March 1663, and was 
created M.A. of Christ Church, Oxford, on 
8 Sept. 1665. From March 1673 to July 
1698 he sat in parliament as M.P. for Not- 
tinghamshire. Howe was a staunch and 
uncompromising whig. On 5 Dec. 1678 
he carried up the impeachment of William 
Howard, lord Stafford [q. v.], to the House of 
Lords (Journals of the House of Lords, xiii. 
403-4). In June 1680 Howe, Lord Russell, 
and others met together with a view to deliver 
a presentment to the grand jury of Middlesex 
against the Duke of York for being a papist, 
but the judges having had notice of their 
design dismissed the jury before the present- 
ment could be made (Hut. MSS. Comm. 7th 
Rep. pt. i. p. 479). On 23 Jan. 1685 he ap- 
peared before the king's bench and pleaded 
not guilty to an information ' for speaking 
most reflecting words on the Duke of York.' 
Howe made a humble submission, and on the 
following day the indictment was withdrawn 
(LUTTRELL, i. 326). He took a part in bring- 
ing about the revolution, and with the Earl 
of Devonshire at Nottingham declared for 
William in November 1688 (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 9th Rep. pt. ii. p. 460). On 7 March 
1689 he was made a groom of the bedcham- 
ber to William III, and held the post until 
the king's death. In 1693 he was made sur- 
veyor-general of the roads (LUTTRELL, iii. 
60), and in the same year was appointed, in 
succession to Elias Ashmole [q. v.], comp 
troller of the accounts of the excise, an office 
which he appears to have afterwards sold, 
not to Lord Leicester's brother, as Luttrell 
states (vi. 606), but to Edward Pauncfort 
(Calendar of Treasury Papers, 1714-19, p. 
29). Howe was created Baron Clenawley 
and Viscount Howe in the peerage of Ire- 
land, by letters patent dated 16 May 1701, 
but does not appear to have taken his seat 
in the Irish House of Lords. At the general 
election in October 1710 he was once again 
returned for Nottinghamshire. He died on 
16 Jan. 1712 at Langar, where he was buried. 
Howe married : first, in 1674, Lady Anne 
Manners, sixth daughter of John, eighth 
earl of Rutland, by whom he had one son, 
John Scrope, who died young, and two daugh- 
ters, Annabella and Margaret; secondly, in 
1698, the Hon. Juliana Alington, daughter 
of William, first baron Alington of Wymond- 
ley, by whom he had four children : viz. 
(1) Emanuel Scrope, who succeeded him as 
the second viscount, and was appointed 
governor of Barbadoes, where he died on 
29 March 1735 ; (2) Mary, who was appointed 




in 1720 a maid of honour to Caroline, prin- 
cess of Wales, and married first, on 14 June 
1725, Thomas, eighth earl of Pembroke and 
fifth of Montgomery, and secondly, in Octo- 
ber 1735, the Hon. John Mordaunt, brother 
of Charles, fourth earl of Peterborough, and 
died 12 Sept. 1749 ; (3) Judith, who became 
the wife of Thomas Page of Battlesden, Bed- 
fordshire, and died 2 July 1780 ; and (4) Anne, 
who married on 8 May 1728 Colonel Charles 
Mordaunt. Howe's widow survived him 
many years, and died on 10 Sept. 1747. The 
Irish titles became extinct upon the death 
of his grandson William, fifth viscount Howe 
[q. v.], in 1814. 

[Luttrell's Brief "Relation, 1857, i. 49, 326, iii. 
60, 546, iv. 423, 649, v. 38, vi. 606 ; Eudder's 
Hist, of Gloucestershire, 1779, p. 708; Lodge's 
Peerage of Ireland, 1789, v. 80, 83-5 ; Collins's 
Peerage of England, 1812, i. 345 ; Edmondson's 
Baron. Geneal. i. 44, v. 434, vi. 27 ; Le Neve's 
Monumenta Anglicana, 1700-15 (1717), p. 251 ; 
Townsend's Catalogue of Knights, 1833, p. 37 ; 
Catalogue of Oxford Graduates, 1851, p. 339 ; 
Chester's London Marriage Licences, 1887, 718; 
Calendar of Treasury Papers, 1557-1696 pp. 474- 
475, 1697-1702 p. 419, 1720-8 p. 377; Official 
Eeturn of Lists of Members of Parliament, pt. i. 
pp. 526, 537, 543, 548, 560, 567, 575, pt. ii. p. 22.] 

G. F. E. B. 

HOWE or HOW, WILLIAM (1620- 
1656), botanist, born in London in 1620, was 
sent to Merchant Taylors' School on 11 Dec. 
1632 (ROBINSON, Merchant Taylors' School, i. 
134). He became a commoner of St. John's 
College at Oxford in 1637, when eighteen, 
graduated B.A. in 1641, and M.A. 21 March 
1643^, and entered upon the study of medi- 
cine (WOOD, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 2, 58). 
He took up arms in the king's cause, and for 
his loyalty was promoted to the command of 
a troop of horse. On the decline of the royal 
fortunes he resumed his medical profession, 
and practised in London, at first living in 
St. Lawrence Lane, and afterwards in Milk 
Street, Cheapside, where he died, after a few 
weeks' illness, on 31 Aug. 1656. By his own 
directions, he was buried at the left side of his 
mother, in the churchyard of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, at ten o'clock at night. His 
will was proved by his widow Elizabeth, as 
sole executrix, on 22 Sept. of that year. 

Ho we published : 1.' PhytologiaBritannica, 
natales exhibens Indigenarum Stirpium 
sponte emergentium,' London, 1650, an 
anonymous octavo of 134 pages, first attri- 
buted to Howe by C. Merrett in his ' Pinax,' 
1666. It is the earliest work on botany re- 
stricted to the plants of this island, and is a 
very full catalogue for the time. In its com- 
pilation he was helped by several friends. 

2. 'Matthieede Lobel Stirpium illustrationes, 
plurimas elaborantes inauditas plantas, sub- 
reptitiis Joh. Parkinsoni rapsodiis (ex codice 
insalutato) sparsim gravatse. . . . Accurante 
Guil. How, Anglo,' London, 1655, 4to. The 
latter was a fragment of a large work planned 
by Lobel, and seems to have been published 
to discredit Parkinson, who is vindictively 
attacked by the editor in his notes, although 
he had bought the right to use Lobel's ma- 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 418-19 ; 
E. Pulteney's Sketches, i. 169-72; Eegisters, 
Probate Court, London, and St. Margaret's, 
Westminster.] B. D. J. 

HOWE (1729-1814), general, was younger son 
of Emanuel Scrope Howe, second viscount 
Howe, by his wife Mary Sophia, eldest daugh- 
ter of Baron Kielmansegge. His elder bro- 
thers were George Augustus, third viscount 
Howe killed at Ticonderoga and Richard, 
earl Howe, K.G. [q. v.], the admiral. Wil- 
liam Howe was born on 10 Aug. 1729. He 
was educated at Eton, and on 18 Sept. 1746 
was appointed cornet in the Duke of Cum- 
berland's light dragoons (Home Office Mil. 
Entry Book, xix. ff. 386-7), in which he 
was made lieutenant on 21 Sept. 1747. The 
' duke's dragoons/ as the regiment was called, 
was formed out of the Duke of Kingston's 
regiment of horse after the battle of Cullo- 
den, served in Flanders in 1747-8, and was 
disbanded at its birthplace, Nottingham, early 
in 1749. Howe became captain-lieutenant 
in Lord Bury's regiment (20th foot) 2 Jan. 
1750, and captain on 1 June the same year. 
He served in the regiment until his promo- 
tion, Wolfe being major at the time, and 
afterwards lieutenant-colonel commanding 
the regiment. On 4 Jan. 1756 Howe was 
appointed major in the newly raised 60th 
(Anstruther's) foot, which was renumbered 
| as the 58th foot (now 1st Northampton) in 
I February 1757. He became lieutenant-colonel 
on 17 Dec. 1759, and the year after took the 
regiment out from Ireland to America, and 
commanded it at the siege and capture of 
Louisburg, Cape Breton. Wolfe, a personal 
friend, wrote soon after : l Our old comrade, 
Howe, is at the head of the best trained 
battalion in all America, and his conduct in 
the last campaign corresponded entirely with 
the opinion we had formed of him ' (WRIGHT, 
Life of Wolfe, p. 468). Howe commanded 
a light infantry battalion, formed of picked 
soldiers from the various regiments employed, 
in the expedition to Quebec under Wolfe. 
He led the forlorn hope of twenty-four men 
that forced the entrenched path by which 
Wolfe's force scaled the heights of Abraham 




Before dawn on 13 Sept. 1759. After the 
-capture of Quebec the light battalion was 
broken up, and Howe rejoined the 58th, and 
commanded it during the defence of the city 
in the winter of 1759-60. He commanded a 
brigade of detachments under Murray in the 
expedition in 1760 to Montreal, which com- 
pleted the conquest of Canada. He likewise 
commanded a brigade at the famous siege 
of Belle Isle, on the coast of Brittany, in 
March-June 1761, and was adjutant-general 
of the army at the conquest of Havana in 
1762. When the war was over no officer had 
a more brilliant record of service than Howe. 
He was appointed colonel of the 46th foot j 
in Ireland in 1764, and was made lieutenant- | 
governor of the Isle of Wight in 1768 
(Home Office Mil. Entry Book, xxvii. 266). ! 
When Howe's elder brother, the third vis- 
count, fell at Ticonderoga in 1758, his mother 
issued an address to the electors of Notting- 
ham, for which the viscount had been mem- 
ber, begging their suffrages on behalf of her 
youngest son, then also fighting for his coun- 
try in America. The appeal was successful 
(cf.HoRACEWALPOLE, Ze^ers, ii. 173). Howe 
represented Nottingham in the whig interest 
until 1780. 

He became a major-general in 1772, and 
in 1774 was entrusted with the training of 
companies selected from line regiments at 
home in a new system of light drill. This 
resulted in the general introduction of light 
companies into line regiments. After train- 
ing on Salisbury Plain, the companies were 
reviewed by George III in Richmond Park 
and sent back to their respective regiments. 
The drill consisted of company movements 
in file and formations from files. 

When the rupture with the colonies oc- 
curred, Howe, who condemned the conduct 
of the government, and told the electors of 
Nottingham (as they afterwards remembered) 
that he would not accept a command in 
America, was the senior of the general officers 
sent out with the reinforcements for General 
Gage [see GAGE, THOMAS, 1721-1787]. They 
arrived at Boston, Massachusetts, at the end 
of March 1775. Howe wished to avoid 
Boston, on account of the kindly feeling of 
the province towards his late brother (a 
monument to the third viscount was put up 
in Westminster Abbey by the state of Massa- 
chusetts), and on account also of his dis- 
belief in Gage's fitness for the command (DE 
FoNBLANQUEjZj/e ofBurgoyne). Howe com- 
manded the force sent out by Gage to attack 
the American position on Charleston heights, 
near Boston, which resulted in the battle of 
Bunker's Hill, on 17 June 1775. Howe, with 
the light infantry, led the right attack on the 

side next the Mystic, and, it is said, was for 
some seconds left alone on the fiery slope, every 
officer and man near him having been shot 
down. After two repuhes the position was 
carried, the Americans merely withdrawing 
to a neighbouring height. Howe became a 
lieutenant-general, was transferred to the 
colonelcy of the 23rd royal Welsh fusiliers, 
and was made K.B. in the same year. On 
10 Oct. 1775 he succeeded Gage in the com- 
mand of the old colonies, with the local rank 
of general in America, the command in 
Canada being given to Guy Carleton [q. v.] 
Howe remained shut up in Boston during 
the winter of 1775-6. Washington having 
taken up a commanding position on Dor- 
chester Heights, Howe withdrew to Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, evacuating Boston without 
molestation on 6 March 1776. Learning at 
Halifax that a concentration of troops on 
Staten Island (for an attack on New York) 
was in contemplation, Howe removed his 
troops thither, and awaited reinforcements. 
Part of these arrived in the fleet under his 
brother, Viscount (afterwards Earl) Howe, 
the newly appointed naval commander-in- 
chief on the American station. The rein- 
forcements reached Boston in June and Staten 
Island in July 1776. Letters patent under 
the great seal had in the meantime been issued, 
on 6 May 1776, appointing Howe and his 
brother special commissioners for granting 
pardons and taking other measures for the 
conciliation of the colonies. Their efforts were 
of no avail (BANCROFT, v. 244-551). With 
additional reinforcements, including a large 
number of German mercenaries, Howe's force 
now numbered thirty thousand men, and he 
landed near Utrecht, on Long Island, 22 Aug. 
1776. He defeated the American forces, but 
refused to allow the entrenchments at Brook- 
lyn to be attacked, as involving needless 
risk. The entrenchments were abandoned 
by the Americans two days later, and on 
15 Sept. Howe captured and occupied New 
York. He defeated the enemy at White 
Plains on 28 Oct. 1776, and immediately 
afterwards captured Fort Washington, with 
its garrison of two thousand men, and Fort 
Lee. Cornwallis [see CORNWALLIS, CHAELES, 
first marquis], with the advance of the army, 
pushed on as far as the Delaware, and win- 
tered between Bedford and Amboy, and 
Howe, with the main body of the army, went 
into winter quarters in and around New 
York, where Howe is accused of having 
set an evil example to his officers of dissipa- 
tion and high play (BANCROFT, v. 477). He 
did not take the field again until June 1777, 
when the army assembled at Bedford. But 
Washington was not to be drawn from his 




position, so Howe, leaving Clinton at New 
York, embarked the rest of his army, with a 
view to entering Delaware Bay, and thereby 
turning the American position. Contrary 
winds delayed the enterprise, and the troops 
did not reach the Chesapeake until late in 
August. A landing was effected ; on 11 Sept. 
1776 Howe defeated the enemy at Brandy- 
wine, and after a succession of skirmishes 
took up a position at Germantown on 26 Sept. 
Lord Cornwallis, with the grenadiers of the 
army, occupied Philadelphia next day. On 
4 Oct. the Americans attacked Germantown, 
but were repulsed. On 17 Oct. Burgoyne's 
force, approaching from Canada, surrendered 
at Saratoga. Howe, who complained that 
he was not properly supported at home, sent 
in his resignation the same month. A num- 
ber of movements followed, but Howe failed to 
bring Washington to a general action, and on 
8 Dec. 1777 he went into winter quarters at 
Philadelphia, ' being unwilling to expose the 
troops longer to the weather in this inclement 
season, without tents or baggage for officers 
or men.' Bancroft accuses Howe of spend- 
ing the winter (1777-8) in Philadelphia in 
the eager pursuit of pleasure, so that, to the 
surprise of all, no attack was made on Wash- 
ington's starving troops in their winter 
quarters at Valley Forge, although their 
numbers were at one time reduced to less 
than five thousand men (ib. vi. 46-7). It 
should be said that in the opinion of Sir 
Charles (afterwards first Earl) Grey [q. v.], 
one of the ablest and most energetic of the 
English generals present, the means available 
were never sufficient to justify an attempt on 
Valley Forge (HowE, Narrative,^. 42). Howe 
received notice that his resignation was ac- 
cepted in May 1 778. Before leaving America 
his officers, with whom he was a favourite, 
gave him a grand entertainment, which they 
called a ' mischianza.' It opened with a mock 
tournament, in which seven knights of the 
1 Blended Rose ' contended with a like num- 
ber of the ' Burning Mountain ' for fourteen 
damsels in Turkish garb, and it ended at 
dawn with a display of fireworks, in which 
a figure of Fame proclaimed in letters of fire, 
1 Thy laurels shall never fade.' The whole 
affair excited much animadversion and end- 
less ridicule. Before leaving Philadelphia, 
Howe sent General Grant [see GRANT, JAMES, 
1720-1806] to intercept Lafayette, who had 
crossed the Schuykill, following himself in 
support. Lafayette cleverly eluded Grant, 
and Howe returned to Philadelphia. He 
embarked for England on 24 May 1778, being 
succeeded in the command by Clinton [see 
CLINTON, SIR HENRY, 1738-1795]. Horace 
Walpole speaks of Howe's visits, after his 

return home, to the great camps which had 
been formed in expectation of invasion (Let- 
ters, iii. 134). He appears to have been a 
frequent speaker in the House of Commons 
on American affairs (Parl. Hist. vols. xix- 
xxi.) Early in 1779 Howe and his brother 
the admiral, thinking their conduct had been 
unjustly impugned by the ministry, obtained 
a committee of the whole house to inquire 
into the conduct of the war in America. 
Various witnesses were examined, but the 
inquiry was without result. The ministers 
could not substantiate any charge against 
Howe, and he on his part failed to prove 
that he had not received due support. The 
committee adjourned sine die on 29 June 
1779, and did not meet again. Howe pub- 
lished a ' Narrative of Sir William Howe 
before a Committee of the House of Com- 
mons ' (London, 1780, 4to), in which he 
solemnly declared that, although preferring 
conciliation, his brother and himself stretched 
their limited powers to the utmost verge ot 
their instructions, and never suffered their 
efforts in the direction of conciliation to in- 
terfere with the military operations. There 
appears to have been some idea of reappoint- 
ing Howe to the American command. In 
1782 he was appointed lieutenant-general of 
the ordnance, and ex officio colonel en second 
of the royal artillery and engineers, and in 
1785 was transferred from the colonelcy of the 
23rd fusiliers to that of the 19th (originally 
23rd) light dragoons. At the time of the 
Nootka Sound dispute Howe was nominated 
for the command of the so-called ' Spanish 
armament ' the force under orders for em- 
barkation in the event of war being declared 
(CORNWALLIS, Correspondence, ii. 110). He 
became a full general on 23 Oct. 1793. After 
the commencement of the French war he had 
command of the northern district, with head- 
quarters at Newcastle, and in 1795 com- 
manded a force of nine thousand men en- 
camped at Whitley, near Newcastle, the 
largest camp formed in the north of England 
during the war. Later, when the French 
armies had overrun Holland, he held the im- 
portant command of the eastern district of 
England, with headquarters at Colchester. 

On the death of Earl Howe, in 1799, Howe 
succeeded to the Irish title only as fifth vis- 
count. He resigned his post under the ord- 
nance, on account of failing health, in 1803. 
He had been appointed governor of Berwick- 
on-Tweed in 1795, and was transferred to 
that of Plymouth in 1805. He died at Ply- 
mouth, after a long and painful illness, on 
12 July 1814, when the Irish, as distinct from 
the English, title became extinct. 

On 4 June 1765 he married Frances, fourth 



daughter of the Right Hon. William Conolly, 
of Castletown, co. Kildare, and his wife, Lady 
Anne Wentworth. There was no issue. 

Personally, Howe was six feet in height, 
of coarse mould, and exceedingly dark. He 
was an able officer, with an extensive know- 
ledge of his profession ; but as a strategist 
he was unsuccessful. American writers cre- 
dit him with an indolent disposition, which 
sometimes caused him to be blamed for the 
severities of subordinates into whose conduct 
he did not trouble to inquire. 

[Foster's Peerage, under ' Howe ; ' Collins's 
Peerage, 1812 edit. vol. viii. uuder 'Baroness 
Howe ; ' Home Office Military Entry Books, ut 
supra ; Wright's Life of Wolfe ; Knox's Narra- 
tive of the War (London, 1762); Parkman's 
Montcalm and Wolfe (London, 1884), vol. ii. 
chap, xxvii. ; Murray's Journal of the Defence 
of Quebec, in Proc. Hist. Soc. (Quebec, 1870); 
Colburn's United Serv. Mag. December 1877 and 
January 1878, account of 58th foot; Beatson's 
Nav. and Mil. Memoirs, vols. iii-vi. passim ; 
Bancroft's Hist, of the United States, vols. iv-vi. ; 
Eoss's Cornwallis Correspondence,!. 20, 23, 28-9, 
31, 39, ii. 110, 282; De Fonblanque's Life and 
Opinions of Eight Hon. John Burgoyne ; Howe's 
Narrative before a Select Committee of the House 
of Commons (London, 1780) ; Parl. Hist. vols. 
xviii-xxi. ; London Gazette, under years ; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 5th, 6th, 9th, 10th (iv.), and par- 
ticularly llth (iv.) Marquis Townshend's MSS. 
and llth (v.) Earl of Dartmouth's MSS. 
Eeports ; Journal of Howe's Army in 1776 ; 
Brit. Mus. Egerton MS. ff. 7-9 ; Howe's Letters 
to General Haldimand, Addit. MSS. 21734 f. 149, 
21807-8; Broad Arrow, 14 Sept. 1889, p. 312 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1814, pt. ii. p. 93.] H. M. C. 


LITTLE (d. 825), Welsh prince, is said to 
have been son of Rhodri, a reputed de- 
scendant of Cunedda and king of Gwynedd 
or North Wales. But Rhodri died in 754, and 
nothing is heard of Howel or of his brother 
Cynan whom the tenth-century genealogy of 
Owain ab Howel Dda makes son of Rhodri, 
until over fifty years later. Possibly they 
were Rhodri's grandsons, who emerge from 
obscurity when the downfall of the Mer- 
cian overlordship gave Welsh kings a better 
chance to attain to power. In 813 there was 
war between Howel and his brother Cynan, in 
which Howel conquered. It apparently arose 
from Cynan driving Howel out of Anglesey, 
and resulted in Howel's restoration in 814. In 
81 6 Howel was again expelled, but the Saxons 
invaded Snowdon and slew Cynan. This pro- 
bably brought Howel back again. He died 
in 825. The name Vychan comes from a late 

[Ancales Cambrise ; Brut y Tywysogion.] 

T. F. T. 

(d. 950), the most famous of the early Welsh ' 
| kings, was the son of Cadell, the son of 
I Rhodri Mawr, through whom his pedigree 
was traced by a tenth-century writer up to 
Cunedda and thence to ' Anne, cousin of the 
Blessed Virgin' (pedigree of Owain ab Howel 
in Y fymmrodor, ix. 169, from Harl. MS. 
3859). His father, Cadell, died in 909 (An- 
nales Cambrics in Y Cymmrodor, ix. 167), 
whereupon he must have succeeded to his 
dominions. The late account is that Howel 
succeeded to Ceredigion,which was his father's 
portion, while his uncle Anarawd continued 
to rule over Wales as overking. This is 
likely enough, as Howel's immediate descend- 
ants are certainly found reigning in Cere- 
digion and Dyved. On Anarawd's death in 
915 (ib. ix. 168) Howel, it is said, became 
king of Gwynedd, and therefore of all Wales 
(Gwentian Brut y Tywysogion, pp. 17-21, 
Cambrian Archaeological Association, 1863). 
But this cannot be proved, and Idwal, son of 
Anarawd, continued to reign as a king until 
his death in 943. The notion that Wales was 
regularly divided into three kingdoms, corre- 
sponding to the districts of Gwynedd, Powys, 
and Dyved, is only to be found in quite late 
writers. Howel is only one of many Welsh 
kings in contemporary or nearly contempo- 
rary sources. 

Subject to ^Ethelflsed and her husband 
^Ethelred, in the early part of his reign, 
Howel became the direct subordinate of Ed- 
ward the Elder on the death of the Lady of 
the Mercians, probably in 918 [see ETHEL- 
FLEDA} Immediately afterwards Edward 
took possession of Mercia, whereupon the 
kings of the North Welsh, Howel, Clitauc 
or Clydog his brother, and Idwal his cousin, 
and all the North Welsh race, sought him to 
be their lord (Anglo-Saxon Chron. s. a. 922). 
Clitauc's death may have further strengthened 
Howel's position. Anyhow four years later 
Howel, king of the West Welsh, is the only 
Welsh prince mentioned among the princes 
ruled over by ^Ethelstan (ib. s. a. 926) ; and 
William of Malmesbury, in adopting this pas- 
sage in his ' Chronicle/ describes this Howel 
as ' king of all the Welsh.' But West Wales 
more generally means Cornwall. 

The reality of Howel's dependence is best 
attested by the large number of meetings 
of the witenagemot he attended, attesting 
charters along with the other magnates of 
the West-Saxon lords of Britain. He sub- 
scribed charters drawn up by the witan at 
the following dates all in the reign of Athel- 
stan 21 July 931 (KEMBLE, Codex Diplo- 
maticus, v. 199), 12 Nov. 931 (ib. ii. 173), 
30 Aug. 932 (ib. v. 208), 15 Dec. 933 (ib. ii. 




194), 28 May 934 (ib. ii. 196), 16 Dec. 934 
(ib. v. 217), and 937 (ib. ii. 203) ; see also 
the charters, asterisked by Kemble, dated 
17 June 930, 1 Jan. and 21 Dec. 935, ib. ii. 
170, v. 222, ii. 203). Howel also attested 
charters drawn up by Eadred's wise men, 
dated 946 and 949 (ib. ii. 269, 292, 296). He 
usually styles himself ' Howel subregulus,' 
or ' Huwal undercyning,' but in the later 
charters issued after the death of his cousin 
Idwal in 943, it is perhaps significant that ! 
he becomes * Howel regulus,' and in the 
charter of 949 he is ' Howel rex.' Other 
Welsh reguli, such as Idwal and Morcant, 
also attested some of these charters. The 
tenth-century Welsh annalist and Simeon of 
Durham call him ' rex Brittonum.' 

The only other clearly attested fact in 
Howel's life is his pilgrimage to Rome in 
928 (Annales Cambrics in Y Cymmrodor, ix. 
168). The later chroniclers put the death of 
his wife Elen in the same year. His death is 
assigned by the tenth-century chronicle to 950 ' 
(ib. ix. 169), with which Simeon of Durham \ 
(Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 687), who fixes it in 951, 
is in practical agreement. The date given in 
the ' Brats/ 948, is plainly too early. 

Howel was married to Elen, the daughter 
of Loumarc (d. 903), the son of Hymeid, who 
may perhaps be identified with the Hymeid, 
king of Dyved, who, in fear of Howel's uncles 
and father, became the vassal of King Alfred 
(AssER, Vita JElfredi in Mon. Hist. Brit. 
p. 488). Elen's pedigree is traced by the 
tenth-century annalist with the same par- 
ticularity as that of her husband through 
Arthur up to Constantine the Great and his 
mother Helena, who is of course claimed as 
a Briton (Y Cymmrodor, ix. 171). Howel 
had several sons, who after his death fought 
fiercely with the sons of Idwal his cousin. 
Owain, the eldest son, was his successor, and 
it was during his reign that the genealogies 
and annals which are so valuable a source 
for Howel's history were drawn up. Howel's 
other sons were Dyvnwal, Rhodri, and Gwyn 
(Annales Cambrics, called Etwin in Brut y 

Howel's chief fame is as a lawgiver, but 
the vast code of Welsh laws which goes by 
the name of the ' Laws of Howel the Good ' 
only survives in manuscripts of comparatively 
late date. There are two Latin manuscripts, 
one at the British Museum of the thirteenth 
century (Cott. MS. Vesp. E. 11), and the 
other at Peniarth, of the twelfth century, 
while the earliest Welsh manuscript of the 
* Black Book of Chirk/ also at Peniarth, is not 
earlier than 1200 (information kindly supplied 
by Mr. J. Gwenogvryn Evans, who is prepar- 
ing an edition of the ' Chirk Codex ' and the 

oldest Latin manuscript). The prefaces con- 
tain an account of the circumstances under 
which the laws were drawn up. According to 
the oldest manuscript of the ' North Welsh 
Code/ Howel, ' seeing that the Welsh were 
perverting the laws,' summoned to him six 
men from each cymmwdof the Principality to 
the White House on the Tav (y Ty Gwyn ar 
Tav, probably Whitland in the modern Car- 
marthenshire), four laymen and two clerks, the 
latter to prevent the laymen from ' ordaining 
anything contrary to holy scripture.' They met 
in Lent ' because every one should be pure at 
that holy time.' These wise men carefully ex- 
amined the old laws, rejected some, amended 
others, and enacted some new ones. Howel 
then promulgated the code they drew up, 
and he and the wise men pronounced the 
curse of all the Welsh on those who should 
not obey the laws, and on all judges who 
undertook judicial duties without knowing 
the three columns of law and the worth of 
tame and live animals, or on any lord who 
conferred office on such a judge. After this 
Howel went with the bishops of St. David's, 
St. Asaph, and Bangor, and some others to 
Rome, where the laws were read before the 
pope, who gave them his sanction. 'And from 
that time to the present the laws of Howel 
the Good are in force.' The 'Dimetian' and 
'Gwentian' codes, the manuscripts of which 
are later, add a few additional particulars 
which are of less authority. Gwent was 
certainly no part of Howel's dominions. 

The form in which the laws of Howel 
Dda now exist does not profess to preserve 
the shape which he gave them. In a few 
exceptional cases only is a law described as 
being the law as Howel established it (e.g. 
i. 122, 234, 240, 252, &c.) The 'Gwynedd 
Code' frequently refers to the amendments 
made by Bleddyn ab Cynvyn (i. 166, 252, 
8vo ed.), who died in 1073, while the 
; Dyved Code ' mentions changes brought 
about by the Lord Rhys ab Gruflydd ab 
Tewdwr (i. 574), who died in 1197. The 
laws manifestly contain much primitive cus- 
tom which may be referred back to Howel's 
time or to an earlier date, but it is almost 
impossible to accurately determine the dates 
of the various enactments. Some of the de- 
tails of court law show curious traces of 
' early English influence, for example in such 
titles as 'edling' and 'edysteyn' (discthegn). 
. Like all early codes it leaves the impression of 
' greater system and method than could really 
have prevailed. The existing documents, and 
especially those of later date, were plainly 
drawn up by persons anxious to magnify the 
1 departed glory of their country, and to uphold 
| the impossible theory of a definite organisa- 




tion of Wales into Gwynedd, Deheubarth, 
and Powys (e.g. i. 341), with the overlord at 
Aberffraw exacting- tribute from the depen- 
dent kings, though himself dependent on the 
'kingof London' (i, 235). The terminology of 
the laws is plainly late, for example terms like 
'tewysauc' (prince) and ' tehuysokaet ' (prin- 
cipality) are certainly post-Norman, as earlier 
Welsh rulers are described as kings. Neither 
would the Anglo-Saxon monarch be described 
as ' king of London ' before the Conquest. 
And the systematic representation of the 
cymmwds points to the Norman inquests or 
even to the later aggregations of the shire 
representatives in parliament. Otherwise 
Howel the Good has the credit of anticipating 
the English House of Commons by more than 
three hundred years. But the 'laws of Howel' 
both deserve and require more minute critical 
analysis than they have hitherto received. 
As indicating the national legal system, they 
were clung to with great enthusiasm by the 
Welsh up to the time of the conquest of 
Gwynedd by Edward I. They were looked 
upon with no unnatural dislike by champions 
of more advanced legal ideas like Edward I 
and Archbishop Peckham, who regarded them 
as contrary to the Ten Commandments (Re- 
gistrum Epist. J. Peckham, i. 77, ii. 474-5, 
Rolls Ser.) The Welsh traditional judgment 
on Howel was that he was ' the wisest and 
justest of all the Welsh princes. He loved 
peace and justice, and feared God, and go- 
verned conscientiously. He was greatly 
loved by all the Welsh and by many of the 
wise among the Saxons, and on that account 
was called Howel the Good' ( GwentianBrut, 
p. 25). 

[The contemporary or nearly contemporary 
sources are the tenth-century Harleian Annales 
Cambrise and genealogies, the Anglo-Saxon 
Chron., and the early English charters. The 
Harleian Chronicle is confused in the Eolls Series 
edition of Annales Cambrise with other manu- 
scripts of much later date. The genealogy of 
Howel is given in pref. p. x. But both chronicle 
and genealogies have been carefully edited by 
Mr. Egerton Phillimore in Y Cymmrodor, ix. 
141-83, 1888. The extracts relative to Howel are 
also to be found in Owen's Ancient Laws and In- I 
stitutes of Wales, i. xiv-xvi. The dates assigned | 
in the text are the inferences of modern editors. I 
Annales Cambrise (Rolls edit.) gives the later 
Latin chronicles. See also Brut y Tywysogion 
(Rolls edit.), or better in J. Grwenogvryn Evans's 
carefully edited Red Book of Hergest, vol.ii. 1890; 
the 'laws of Howel' were first printed from imper- 
fect and late manuscripts by Dr. William Wotton 
in 1730 in folio, with the title 'Cyfreithjeu, seu 
Leges Wallicse Ecclesiasticae et Civiles Hoeli Boni 
et aliorum Principum, cum Interp. Lat. et notis 
et gloss.,' and in the third volume of the Myvy- 

rian Archaiology of Wales, 1807. These editions 
have been superseded by Aneurin Owen's Ancient 
Laws and Institutes of Wales, with an English 
translation of the Welsh text, London, 1 841, Re- 
cord Commission, 1 vol. fol. or 2 vols. 8vo (the 
8vo edition is here cited) ; the ecclesiastical part 
of the law has been printed from Owen's edition 
in Haddan and Stubbs's Councils and Eccles. 
Docs. i. 209-83 ; see also F. Walter's Das alte 
Wales. Hubert Lewis's Ancient Laws of Wales 
(1889) is a disappointing book.] 'T. F. T. 

that is, HOWEL THE BAD (d. 984), North 
Welsh prince, was the son of leuav, son of 
Idwal, who was imprisoned and deprived of 
his territory by his brother lago about 969 (An- 
nales Cambrice, but not in the tenth-century 
MS. A). In 973 Howel was one of the Welsh 
kings who attended Edgar at Chester, pro- 
mising to be his fellow-worker by sea and 
land (FLOE. WIG. in Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 578). 
This submission procured him English aid 
against his uncle lago, whom he drove out 
of his kingdom of Gwynedd. Henceforward 
he reigned in lago's stead. Howel always 
showed that preference for the foreigner which 
caused patriotic historians of a much later 
generation to call him Howel the Bad, though 
there is nothing to show that he otherwise 
justified the title. lago was taken prisoner 
about 978. In 979 Howel defeated and slew 
Cystennin, son of lago, at the battle of Hir- 
barth. Having secured his kingdom, Howel 
joined his Saxon allies in 982, and invaded 
Brecheiniog (Annales Cambria, but cf. Brut 
y Tywysogion). In 984 he was himself slain 
by the treachery of the Saxons. 

[Annales Cambrise (Rolls Ser.); Brut y Tywys- 
ogion (Rolls Ser. and ed. J. Gwenogvryn Evans) ; 
the Gwentian Brut (Cambrian Arch. Assoc.) adds 
many, probably doubtful, details.] T. F. T. 

HOWEL AB EDWIN (d. 1044), a South 
Welsh prince,was son of Edwin, son of Eineon, 
who was the son of Owain, the eldest son and 
successor of Howel Dda [q. v.] In 1033, after 
the death of Rhydderch, son of lestin, ruler 
of Deheubarth since 1023, Howel and his 
brother Maredudd succeeded to the govern- 
ment of South Wales as being of the right 
line of Howel Dda. The sons of Rhydderch 
seem to have contested Howel and his bro- 
ther's claim, and next year a battle was fought 
at Hiraethwy between the rival houses, in 
which, if the ' Gwentian Brut ' can be trusted, 
the sons of Edwin conquered. In 1035 Mare- 
dudd was slain, but before the year was out 
the death of Caradog [q. v.], son of Rhydderch, 
equalised the position of the combatants. 
After a few years of comparative peace 
Ho wel's son Meurug was captured by the Irish 




Danes in 1039. In the same year Gruffydd ab 
Llewelyn [q. v.] became king of North Wales, 
and after devastating Llanbadarn, drove 
Howel out of his territory. In 1041 Howel 
made an effort to win back his dominions, 
but was defeated by Gruffydd at Pencader. 
Howel's wife became Gruffydd's captive, and 
subsequently his concubine. 

In 1042 Howel, who had called the Danes 
from Ireland to his help, renewed the con- 
flict, and won a victory over Gruffydd at 
Pwll Dyvach. Grufi'ydd was taken prisoner 
by the pagan Danes, but he soon escaped and 
reoccupied Howel's territory. In 1044 Howel 
collected a great fleet of his viking allies, and 
entered the mouth of the Towy on another 
effort to win back his own. The final battle 
was fought at the mouth of the river (Aber- 
towy, possibly Carmarthen or somewhere 
lower down the stream). Gruffydd won a 
complete victory, and Howel was slain. 

[Annales Cambriae (Kolls Ser.) (the dates have 
been taken from this exclusively) ; Brut y Tywys- 
ogion (Rolls Ser. or ed. J. Gwenogvryn Evans) ; 
a few additional details from Brut y Tywysogion 
(Cambrian Archseol. Assoc.)] T. F. T. 

warrior and poet, was the son of Owain ab 
Gruffydd ab Cynan, prince of North Wales. 
Pyvog, the daughter of an Irish noble, was 
his mother. ' Brut leuan Brechfa ' (Myv. 
Arch. ii. 720) wrongly states that Owain 
married her in 1130. In 1143, taking ad- 
vantage of a quarrel between his father and 
his uncle Cadwaladr (d. 1172) [q. v.], Howel 
seized some part of Ceredigion, and burnt his 
uncle's castle of Aberystwith. In the follow- 
ing year, in the course of a quarrel with Sir 
Hugh de Mortimer, Howel and his brother 
Cynan ravaged Aberteifi or Cardigan. In 1145, 
in conjunction with Cadell, son of Gruffydd 
ab Rhys [q. v.], prince of South Wales, he 
took Carmarthen Castle. In the next year, 
however, Howel apparently changed sides, 
and joined his forces to those of the Normans 
against the sons of Gruffydd, who had marched 
against the castle of Gwys. Both sides in- 
vited his aid ; but the promise of ' much pro- 
perty ' seems to have turned the scale in 
favour of the Norman alliance, and Howel's 
intervention insured the success of his allies 
(Brut y Tywysoc/ion,no\\sSer.y. 172,MS.D.; ; 
cf. also another account on the same page). 
In the same year he and his brother Cynan 
were engaged in a quarrel with Cadwaladr. 
The brothers called out the men of Mei- 
rionydd, ' who had taken refuge in churches,' 
marched thence and took the castle of Cynvael 
(ib. p. 174). In 1150 Howel suffered a series 
of reverses. The sons of Gruffydd ab Rhys 
tookhis portion of Ceredigion except the castle 

of Pengwern, and in 1152 that also fell into 
their hands. In 1157 Henry II made an effort 
to subjugate Gwynedd, and at the battle of 
Basingwerk was defeated by Owain and his 
sons, among whom was Howel (Ann. Cambr. 
p. 46, Rolls Ser., which gives the date as 1148 ; 
cf. GIK. CAMBK. It. Cambr. vi. 137, Rolls Ser.) 
In 1158 Howel was engaged with a mixed 
force of French, Normans, Flemings, Eng- 
lish, and Welsh against Lord Rhys ab Gruf- 
fydd, who had burnt the castles of Dyved. 
The expedition, however, did not succeed, and 
a truce followed. 

Howel's father died in 1169. According to 
the version of i Brut y Tywysogion,' printed 
in the 'Myvyrian Archaeology,' Howel, as 
Owain's eldest son, thereupon seized the go- 
vernment and kept possession of it for two 
years. During his absence in Ireland, looking 
after certain property which came to him in 
right of his mother and wife, his brother David 
rose up against him. Howel returned, but he 
was defeated, wounded in battle, and taken to 
Ireland, where he is said to have died in 1170, 
leaving his Irish possessions to his brother 
Rhirid. According to the ' Annales Cambriae ' 
(p. 53), Howel was killed by his brother David 
and his men in 1171. An anonymous poem 
places his death at Pentraeth (in Anglesey ?) 
(Myv' Arch. i. 281), while another, quoted 
by Price, names Bangor as his burial-place 
(Hanes CymrUj p. 584). 

Of Howel's poetical works the only known 
remains are eight odes printed in ' My vyrian 
Archaeology,' i. 197-9. 

[Brut y Tywysogion, Rolls Ser. ed.; Ann. Cambr. 
Rolls Ser. ed. ; Gir. Cambr., It. Cambr. vol. vi.; 
Myv. Arch., Denbigh, 1870 ed. ; Price's Hanes 
Cymru.] R. W. 

HOWEL T FWTALL (ft. 1356), or 'Howel 
of the Battle-axe,' was a Welsh knight and 
hero. According to Yorke his father was 
Gruffydd ab Howel ab Meredydd ab Einion 
ab Gwganen (Royal Tribes of Wales, p. 184). 
Sir John Wynne, however, says that he was 
the son of Einion ab Gruffydd (Hist. Gwydir 
Family, pp. 29, 30, 79 ; cf. Table II., ib.) Both 
the accounts agree that he was descended 
from Collwyn ab Tangno, 'lord of Eifionydd, 
Ardudwy, and part of Llyen.' Howel was 
one of the Welshmen who fought at Poictiers 
in 1356, and Welsh tradition very improbably 
made him out to be the actual captor of the 
French king, ' cutting off his horse's head at 
one blow ' (ib. p. 80 n.) Howel undoubtedly 
seems to have fought well, for he was knighted 
by the Black Prince, and received afterwards 
the constableship of Criccieth Castle, and also 
the rent of Dee Mills at Chester, ' besides 
other great things in North Wales ; ' and as 
a memorial of his services a mess of meat 




was ordered to be served before his axe in 
perpetuity, the food being afterwards given 
to the poor ' for his soul's health.' This cere- 
mony is said to have been observed till the 
beginning of Queen Elizabeth's time, eight 
yeoman attendants at 8^. a day having 
charge of the meat (ib. p. 30, and ra.) ' Howel 
was also " raglot " of Aberglaslyn, and died 
between Michaelmas 2 and the same time 
6 Rich. II,' leaving two sons, Meredydd, who 
lived in Eifionydd ; and Davydd, who lived 
at Henblas, near Llanrwst (ib. p. 30 and n. ; 
WILLIAMS, Eminent Welshmen). 

[Yorke's Eoyal Tribes of Wales, ed. Williams; 
Sir John Wynne's Hist. Gwydir Family ; Wil- 
liams's Eminent Welshmen.] K. W. 

HOWELL, FRANCIS (1625-1679), 
puritan divine, son of Thomas Howell of 
Gwinear, Cornwall, matriculated at Exeter 
College, Oxford, on 14 or 24 July 1642, at the 
age of seventeen. In 1648he graduated M. A., 
and was elected fellow of his college and Greek 
reader on 10 Aug. in that year. About 1650 
he was one of the independent ministers ap- 
pointed to preach at St. Mary's, Oxford. On 
28 April 1652 he became the senior proctor, 
and in the following June was among those 
who petitioned parliament for a new visitation 
of the university. Howell was nominated 
one of the visitors, and in 1654, under a fresh 
ordinance, was again placed on the list. In 
the same year (25 March 1654) the professor- 
ship of moral philosophy was bestowed upon 
him. Under a promise of Cromwell, and to 
the detriment of John Howe, he was created 
principal of Jesus College, Oxford, on 24 Oct. 
1657, and consequently vacated in 1658 his 
fellowship at his old college. At the Re- 
storation Howell was ejected from this pre- 
ferment, and retired to London, where he 
preached ' with great acceptance ' as assistant 
to the Rev. John Collins [q. v.] at Lime Street 
Chapel, Paved Alley. He died at Bethnal 
Green on 10 March 1679, and was buried at 
Bunhill Fields. 

[Wood's Univ. of Oxford (G-utch), vol. ii. pt. 
ii. pp. 644, 651-2, 662, 874 ; Wood's Colleges 
(Gutch), p. 578, App. p. 138; Boase's Reg. of 
Exeter College, pp. 69-70; Neal's Puritans, 
1822 ed. iv. Ill; Calamy's Nonconf. Mem. 1802 
ed. i. 234; Calamy's Howe, 1724, p. 19 ; Wil- 
son's Dissenting Churches, i. 229, iii. 23 ; Bur- 
rows's Visit, of Oxford Univ. (Camden Soc.), 
pp. 500, 504.] W. P. C. 

HOWELL, JAMES (1594 P-1666), au- 
thor, was fourth child and second son of 
Thomas Howell by a daughter of James David 
Powell of Bualt. Howell states that his 
brothers and sisters numbered fourteen, but 
three sons, including Thomas, bishop of Bris- 

tol [q. v.], and three daughters composed 
the family according to the pedigree in Brit. 
Mus. MS. Harl. 4181, p. 258. The pedigree 
is traced back by modern representatives to 
Tudwal Gloff (jft. 878), son of Rhodri the 
Great. HowelPs father, curate of Llangam- 
march, Brecknockshire, and afterwards rector 
of Cynwil and Abernant, Carmarthenshire, 
died in 1632, when James recounted his vir- 
tues in a pathetic letter to Theophilus Field, 
bishop of St. David's (Fam. Epist. i. 6, vii.) 
Wood states that James was born at Aber- 
nant, where his father was residing in 1610, 
but, according to Fuller, Howell's elder bro- 
ther, Thomas, afterwards bishop of Bristol 
[q. v.], was born at the Brynn, Llangam- 
march, and Howell, in his * Letters,' mentions 
that place as the residence of his family. 
The Oxford matriculation register states that 
he was sixteen in 1610 ; he was, therefore, 
born about 1594. In a letter dated 1645 (i. 
6, 60) he vaguely speaks of himself as forty- 
nine years old, but Howell's dates are usually 
inexact. He was educated at Hereford Free 
School under ' a learned though lashing 
master' (Epist. i. 1, 2). On 16 June 1610 
he matriculated as l James Howells ' of Car- 
marthenshire from Jesus College, Oxford, and 
graduated B.A. on 17 Dec. 1613. Dr. Francis 
Mansell, Sir Eubule Thelwall, and Dr. Thomas 
Prichard, with whom he corresponded later 
on friendly terms, took much interest in him 
as an undergraduate. In 1623 he was elected, 
according to his own statement, fellow of 
Jesus on Sir Eubule Thelwall's foundation. 
He usually wrote of Oxford as ' his dearly 
honoured mother.' 

Soon after taking his degree Howell, a 
' pure cadet,' who was ' not born to land, 
lease, home, or office ' (i. 6, lx.), was ap- 
pointed by Sir Robert Mansell, the uncle of 
his tutor, Francis Mansell, steward of a glass- 
ware manufactory in Broad Street, London. 
In 1616 he was sent by his employers to the 
continent to obtain materials and workmen. 
A warrant from the council enabled him to 
travel for three years, provided that he did 
not visit Rome or St. Omer. He passed 
through Holland, France, Spain, and Italy, 
became an accomplished linguist, and en- 
gaged competent workmen at Venice and 
j Middleburg. On returning to London about 
1622 he gave up his connection with the 
glasshouse, and, seeking to turn his linguistic 
capacity to account, made a vain application 
to join the embassy of Sir John Ayres to 
Constantinople. Sir James Croft, a friend of 
his father, recommended him as tutor to the 
sons of Lord Savage ; but owing to his youth, 
and to the fact that his pupils were Roman 
catholics, he filled the post for a very short 




time. During 1622 he made a tour in France 
with a young friend, Richard Altham, son of 
Baron Altham, * one of the hopefullest young 
men of this kingdom for parts and person.' 
At Poissy Howell endangered his health by 
close study, and on returning to London was 
attended by Dr. Harvey, the great physician. 
Towards the end of 1622 Howell was sent 
to Spain on a special mission to obtain satis- 
faction for the seizure by the viceroy of Sar- 
dinia of a richly laden ship called the Vine- 
yard, belonging to the Turkey company. Sir 
Charles Cornwallis and Lord Digby had 
already tried in vain to obtain redress, but 
Howell's importunate appeals to the Spanish 
ministers led to the appointment of a com- 
mittee of investigation and to a declaration 
in favour of the English owners of the cap- 
tured ship and merchandise. Howell visited 
Sardinia and induced the viceroy to offer 
compensation, but the viceroy proved insol- 
vent, and Howell on his return toMadrid found 
the situation altered by the presence there 
of Prince Charles and Buckingham. Cotting- 
ton, the prince's secretary, directed him to 
abstain from further action, and after the de- 
parture of the prince and his suite Olivarez 
made it plain that the Spanish government 
had no intention of aiding him. While the 
royal party was at Madrid Howell made the 
acquaintance of many of Prince Charles's re- 
tainers, including Sir Kenelm Digby and 
Endymion Porter, and wrote home spirited 
accounts of the prince's courtship of the in- 
fanta. Digby relates that Howell was acci- 
dentally wounded in the hand while in his 
society at Madrid, and that his ' sympathetic 
powder ' worked its first cure in Howell's case 
(/4 Late Discourse, 1658). Howell returned 
to England at the close of 1624 in company 
with Peter Wych, who was in charge o*f 
the prince's jewels. He made suit for em- 
ployment to the all-powerful Duke of Buck- 
ingham, but his intimate relations (accord- 
ing to his own story) with Digby, earl of 
Bristol, Buckingham's enemy, ruined his 
prospects. A suggestion, which Howell as- 
cribes to Lord Conway in 1626, that he 
should act as ' moving agent to the king ' in 
Italy, came to nothing, because his demand 
for 100/. a quarter was deemed exorbitant. 
But he was in the same year appointed secre- 
tary to Emanuel, lord Scrope (afterwards 
Earl of Sunderland), who was then lord- 
president of the north. The office required 
his residence at York, and in March 1627 
the influence of his chief led to his election 
as M.P. for Richmond, Yorkshire. Late in 
1628 Wentworth succeeded Scrope as lord- 
president. Howell seems to have remained 
private secretary to the latter until Scrope's 

death in 1630, and lived for the time in comfort. 
In December 1628 Wentworth bestowed on 
him the reversion of the next attorney's place 
which should fall vacant at York ; but when 
a vacancy occurred in 1629 Howell sold his 
interest and sent Wentworth (5 May 1629) 
an effusive letter of thanks (Strafford Let- 
ters, i. 50). In 1632 he accompanied, a& 
secretary, the embassy of Robert Sidney, 
earl of Leicester, which was sent to the court 
of Denmark to condole with the king on the 
death of his mother, the queen-dowager. His 
official Latin speeches made, he tells us, an 
excellent impression, and he obtained some 
new privileges for the Eastland company. 
A short i diarium ' of the mission by Howell 
is in Bodl. Libr. MS. Rawl. c. 354. In 1635 
he forwarded many news-letters to Strafford 
from Westminster, and spent a few weeks in 
the same year at Orleans on the business of 
Secret ary Windebank. Still destitute of regu- 
lar employment, he crossed to Dublin in 1639, 
was well received by Strafford, the lord-de- 
puty, was granted a reversion of a clerkship 
of the council, and was sent by Strafford on a 
political mission to Edinburgh and London. 
In London the chief literary men were 
among his acquaintances. Ben Jonson was 
especially friendly with him, and in a letter 
dated from Westminster, 5 April 1636,Howell 
describes ' a solemn supper ' given by Jonson, 
at which he and Carew were present. On 
Jonson's death in 1637 he sent an elegy to 
Duppa, who included it in his ' Jonsonus 
Virbius.' Lord Herbert of Cherbury and Sir 
Kenelm Digby were among his regular cor- 
respondents. In 1640 he began his own lite- 
rary career with the publication of his ' maiden 
fancy,' a political allegory in prose dealing 
with events between 1603 and 1640, entitled 
' Aei/SpoAoyia : Dodona's Grove, or the Vocall 
Forest.' A ' key ' was added, and with the 
second and third editions of 1644 and 1645 
were issued two political tracts, ' Parables 
reflecting upon the Times,' and ' England's 
Teares.' A Latin version was published in 
1646; a second part appeared in 1650. When, 
in the year of its first publication, Howell 
went on some diplomatic business to France, 
he carried with him a French translation 
which he had made of the book, and this, 
after revision by friends in Paris, was pub- 
lished there before he left in the same year. 
On 1 Jan. 1641-2 he presented to the king a 
printed poem entitled ' The Vote, or a Poem 
presented to His Majesty for a New Year's 
Gift,' London, 4to, 1642, and shortly after- 
wards issued his entertaining ' Instructions 
for Forreine Travel/ with a dedication inverse 
to Prince Charles. Accounts of France, Spain, 
and Italy are supplied, to which in a new 



edition of 1650 was added an appendix on 
* travelling into Turkey and the Levant parts.' 
The work was reprinted by Prof. Arber in 

On 30 Aug. 1642 Howell was sworn in at 
Nottingham as clerk of the council, but the 
existing vacancy caused by the promotion of 
Sir Edward Nicholas to a secretaryship of 
state was filled by Sir John Jacob, and Howell 
was promised the next clerkship that fell va- 
cant (Letters, ed. Jacobs, Suppl. p. 667). The 
civil wars rendered the arrangement nugatory, 
and while Howell was paying what he in- 
tended to be a short visit to London early in 
1643 he was arrested in his chambers by order 
of the Long parliament, his papers were seized, 
and he was committed to the Fleet. Accord- 
ing to his own account, his only offence was 
his loyalty. Wood states that he was im- 
prisoned as an insolvent debtor, and in his 
letters from the Fleet he twice refers to the 
pressure of his debts (ib. i. 6, lv., Ix.) It is 
possible that his imprisonment was prolonged 
at the instigation of his creditors. In spite 
of his frequent petitions for release, he re- 
mained in the Fleet for eight years, i.e. till 
1651. Deprived of all other means of liveli- 
hood, he applied himself with remarkable in- 
dustry to literature. At first he confined 
"himself mainly to political pamphleteering. 
He claimed that his ' Casual Discourses and 
Interlocutions between Patricius and Pere- 
grine touching the Distractions of the Times ' 
was the first pamphlet issued in defence of 
the royalists ; a second part, entitled ' A Dis- 
course or Parly continued betwixt Patricius 
and Peregrine upon their landing in France, 
touching the civill wars of England and 
Ireland,' appeared on 21 July 1643 (both are 
reprinted in the ' Twelve Treatises,' 1661). 
In 1643 he wrote his ' Mercurius Hibernicus ' 
(Bristol, 1644, 4to), an account of the recent 
1 horrid insurrection and massacre in Ireland,' 
dated from the Fleet, 3 April 1643. Prynne, 
in his ' Popish Royal Favourite ' (1644), re- 
ferring to Howell's account of Prince Charles's 
visit to Spain in 'Dodona's Grove,' described 
him as * no friend to parliament and a malig- 
nant.' Howell repudiated the charge in his 
' Vindication of some passages reflecting upon 
him ' (1644), to which he added 'A Clearing 
of some Occurrences in Spain at His Majesty's 
being there.' Howell returned to the topic in 
' Preeminence and Pedigree of Parliaments ' 
(1644; reissued 1677), in which he described 
the Long parliament as ' that high Synedrion 
wherein the Wisdom of the whole Senate is 
epitomized.' Prynne adhered to his original 
statement in l A moderate Apology against 
a pretended Calumny,' London, 1644, 4to. 
( England's Tears for the present Wars/ an ap- 

peal for peace, followed immediately, and was 
translated into Latin as ' Anglise Suspiria et 
Lacrymse/ London, 1646, and into Dutch in 
1649 (cf. reprinted in Ha, -I. Misc. and Somers 
Tracts). It was reported to Howell in 1644 
that the king was dissatisfied with some of his 
recent utterances on account of their ' indif- 
ferency and lukewarmness,' and he thereupon 
sent by letter to the king mild assurances of 
his loyalty, 3 Sept. 1644 (Epist. ii. Ixiii.) On 
the same day he completed ' A sober and sea- 
sonable memorandum sent to Philip, Earl of 
Pembroke,' with whom he claimed a distant re- 
lationship [see HERBERT, PHILIP] ; on 3 May 
1645 * The Sway of the Sword,' a justification 
of Charles's claim to control the militia ; and 
on 25 Feb. 1647-8 a defence of the Treaty 
of the Isle of Wight. In 1649 he issued, in 
English, French, and Latin, Charles I's latest 
declaration f touching his constancy in the 
Protestant religion,' and also published an 
amusing, if ill-natured, ' Perfect Description 
of the People and Country of Scotland/ which 
was reprinted in No. 13 of Wilkes's 'North 
Briton ' (August 1762), at the time of the 
agitation against Lord Bute. In 1651 he dedi- 
cated to the Long parliament his ' S.P.Q.V. 
A Survey of the Seignorie of Venice ' (Lon- 
don, 1651, fol.) He was admitted to bail, and 
released from the Fleet in the same year. 

As soon as Cromwell was installed in 
supreme power, Howell sought his favour by 
dedicating to him a pamphlet entitled ' Some 
sober Inspections made into the carriage and 
consults of the late Long Parliament/ Lon- 
don, 1653, 12mo, in the form of a dialogue 
between Phil-Anglus and Polyander (re- 
issued in 1660). Howell commends Cromwell 
for having destroyed the parliament ; com- 
pares the Protector to Charles Martel : argues 
in favour of rule by ' a single person/ and 
condemns ' the common people ' as ' a waver- 
ing windy thing' and 'an humersome and 
cross-grained animal.' Dugdale, writing 
on 9 Oct. 1655, declared that Howell had 
spoken in the tract more boldly of the par- 
liament * than any man that hath wrote since 
they sate ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 
17). On 2 Oct. 1654 Howell addressed ' an 
admonition to my lord Protector and his 
council of their present danger/ in which, 
while urging the need of an hereditary mon- 
archy, he advised Cromwell to conciliate .the 
army by admitting the officers to political in- 
fluence, and to negotiate with Charles Stuart 
a treaty by which Charles should succeed him 
under well-defined limitations. In 1657 he 
offered to write for the council of state ' a 
new treatise on the sovereignty of the seas ' 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 314). 
Throughout the Commonwealth Howell's pen 




was busy. His most popular publication of 
the period was ' Londinopolis. An Historical 
Discourse; or, Perlustration of the City of Lon- 
don and Westminster,' London, 1657, fol., a 
gossipy book largely borrowed from Stow, 
with plates by Hollar. On 23 March 1659-60 
Howell wrote to Sir Edward Walker at 
Brussels of the necessity of ' calling in King 
Charles.' A broadside by him, entitled ' Eng- 
land's Joy Expressed ... to Monck,' appeared 
in 1660. 

On Charles II's restoration, Howell begged 
for an appointment as clerk of the council 
or as assistant and secretary to a royal 
commission for the regulation and advance- 
ment of trade. He pointed out to Lord Claren- 
don that his linguistic acquirements qualified 
him to become ' tutor for languages ' to Queen 
Catherine of Braganza. In February 1661 
he received a free gift from the king of 200/. 
He was appointed at a salary of 100/. a year 
historiographer royal of England, a place 
which is said to have been especially created 
for him, and republished twelve of his poli- 
tical tracts in a volume entitled in one form 
' Twelve Treatises of the Later Revolutions ' 
(1661), and in another 'Divers Historicall 
Discourses,' dedicated to Charles II. A se- 
cond volume was promised, but did not ap- 
pear. In 1661 also he issued a ' Cordial for 
the Cavaliers/ professing somewhat cynically 
to console those supporters of the king who 
found themselves ill-requited for their ser- 
vices in his cause. His equivocal attitude 
led him into a bitter controversy with Sir 
Roger L'Estrange, who attacked his ' Cordial' 
in a l Caveat for the Cavaliers.' Howell re- 
plied in ' Some sober Inspections made into 
those Ingredients that went to the composi- 
tion of a late Cordial call'd A Cordial for the 
Cavaliers.' L'Estrange retorted at the close 
of his ' Modest Plea both for the Caveat and 
Author of it ' with a list of passages from 
Howell's earlier works to prove that he had 
nattered Cromwell and the Long parliament. 
Other political tracts of more decided royalist 
tone followed. His * Poems on severall Choice 
and Various Subjects occasionally composed 
by an eminent author,' were edited by Payne 
Fisher [q. v.], with a dedication to Henry 
King, bishop of Chichester, in 1663. As 
Poems upon divers Emergent occasions' 
they reappeared in 1664. The enthusiastic 
editor declares that not to know Howell 
' were an ignorance beyond barbarism ' (cf. 
Censura Lit. iii. 277). He died unmarried 
in the parish of St. Andrew's, Holborn, and 
was buried on 3 Nov. 1666 ' in the long walke 
neare the doore which goes up the steeple ' 
of the Temple Church (Reg.} He had left 
directions, which were duly carried out, for 

a tomb with a Latin inscription to be set up 
in the Temple Church at a cost of 30/. The 
monument is now well preserved in the Tri- 
forium gallery of the round church at the 
Temple. By his will, dated 8 Oct. 1666 and 
proved 18 Feb. 1666-7, he left small bequests 
of money to his brother Howell, his sisters 
Gwin and Roberta-ap-Rice, and his landlady 
Mrs. Leigh. Three children of his brother 
Thomas, viz. Elizabeth, wife of Jeffrey Ban- 
ister, Arthur and George Howell, besides one 
Strafford, a heelmaker, were also legatees. 
Another nephew, Henry Howell, was made 
sole executor. Many descendants of James's 
brother Ho well Howell still survive in Wales. 
Howell is one of the earliest Englishmen 
who made a livelihood out of literature. He 
wrote with a light pen; and although he shows 
little power of imagination in his excursions 
into pure literature, his pamphlets and his 
occasional verse exhibit exceptional faculty 
of observation, a lively interest in current 
affairs, and a rare mastery of modern lan- 
guages, including his native Welsh. His at- 
tempts at spelling reform on roughly phonetic 
lines are also interesting. He urged the sup- 
pression of redundant letters like the e in 
done or the u in honour (cf. Epist. Ho-el. 
ed. Jacobs, p. 510 ; Parley of Beasts, advt. at 
end). But it is in his 'Epistolae Ho-elianse : 
Familiar Letters, Domestic and Foreign, 
divided into Sundry Sections, partly His- 
torical, Political, and Philosophical,' that 
his literary power is displayed at its best. 
Philosophic reflection, political, social, and 
domestic anecdote, scientific speculation, are 
all intermingled with attractive ease in the 
correspondence which he professes to have 
addressed to men of all ranks and degrees 
of intimacy. The first volume was issued in 
1645, dedicated to Charles I, and with 'the 
Vote ' prefixed ; a ' new,' that is the second 
volume, was issued in 1647; and both toge- 
ther appeared with a third volume in 1650. 
The first three volumes were thus published 
while Howell was in the Fleet. A fourth 
volume was printed in a collected edition of 
1655. Later issues by London publishers 
are dated 1678, 1688, 1705, 1726, 1737, and 
1754. The last three, called respectively 
the ninth, tenth, and eleventh editions, were 
described as 'very much corrected.' In 
1753 another ' tenth ' edition was issued at 
Aberdeen. An eighth edition without date 
appeared after 1708 and before 1726. The first 
volume alone was reissued in the Stott Li- 
brary in 1890. A complete reprint, with 
unpublished letters from the ' State Papers ' 
and elsewhere, was edited by Mr. Joseph 
Jacobs in 1890; a complete commentary is 
to follow in a second volume (1891). 

Ho well 


Most of Howell's letters were in all proba- 
bility written expressly for publication ' to 
relieve his necessities ' while he was in the 
Fleet. In the opening letter of the second 
and later editions it is not in the first 
Howell, while professing to return to Sir J. S. 
of Leeds Castle a copy of Balzac's letters, dis- 
cusses the capacity of epistolary correspon- 
dence, and almost avows that he was pre- 
facing a professedly literary collection. The 
series of letters on languages (bk. ii. lv-lx.), 
like that on religions (id. viii-xi.), is a lite- 
rary treatise with small pretence to episto- 
lary form ; while letters on wines (ii. liv.), 
on tobacco (bk. iii. vii.), on the Copernican 
theory (ib. ix.), or presbyterianism (ib. iii.), | 
are purely literary essays. In the first edition 
of the first volume no dates were appended 
to the letters, but these were inserted in the 
second and later series and in the second and 
all later issues of the first. They run from 
1 April 1617 to Innocents day, i.e. 28 Dec. 
1654. All dated between 26 March 1643 and 
9 Aug. 1648 profess to have been written 
from the Fleet. Throughout the dates are 
frequently impossible. Thus a letter (bk. i. 
2, xii.), dated 19 March 1622, relates suc- 
cessively, as of equally recent occurrence, five 
events known to have happened respectively 
in April 1621, in February 1623, in the spring 
of 1622, at the close of that year, and in 1619 
(GAKDINER, Hist. iv. pp. vi, vii). In letters 
dated 1635 and 1637 (i. 6, xxxii. and ii. 1) 
Howell clearly borrows from Browne's ' Re- 
ligio Medici,' which was not issued till 1645. 
Inaccuracy in the relation of events is also 
common. The letters are all from Howell 
to other persons, and it is obvious that, if 
genuine, they were printed from copies of the 
originals preserved by Howell. But Howell 
himself states that all his papers were seized 
by officers of the Long parliament before he 
entered the Fleet prison. If the letters were 
genuine, one would moreover expect to find 
some of the original manuscripts in the ar- 
chives of the families to members of which 
they were addressed, but practically none are 
known. A few letters assigned to Howell, 
and dated from Madrid in 1623, belonged to 
the Earl of Westmorland in 1885 (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 10th Rep. iv. 23), but these have since 
been sold, and have not been traced. Some un- 
doubtedly genuine news-letters which Howell 
sent to Strafford and Windebank are printed 
in the l Strafford Letters ' and the ' Calendar of 
State Papers ' (1633-5), and are far simpler 
productions than the ' familiar epistles,' in j 
which Howell failed to include them. In the 
second and later books a few letters may be \ 
judged on internal evidence to be what they j 
purport to be, or to have been at any rate 


based on the rough notes of a genuine corre- 
spondence. >uch are the letters which pro- 
fess to have accompanied presentation-copies 
of Howell's books. But the l familiar epistles ' 
as a whole, although of much autobiographic 
interest, cannot rank high as an historical 
authority. They may, however, be credited 
with an immediate literary influence in 
making the penning of fictitious correspond- 
ence a fashionable art. The collections of 
letters by Thomas Forde [q. v.] in 1661, by 
Robert Loveday [q. v.] in 1662, and by the 
Duchess of Newcastle in 1676, were doubtless 
inspired by Howell (cf. EVELYN, Diary, ed. 
Wheatley, iv. 55) ; while Defoe seems subse- 
quently to have drawn from the ' Epistolge 
Ho-elianee ' some hints for his realistic fictions. 
Besides the works already mentioned, 
HowelFs more or less imaginative work in- 
cludes : 'A Nocturnal Progress, or a Peram- 
bulation of most Countries in Christendom, 
Performed in one night by strength of 
magination,' dated by Howell in 1645 (in 
1 Twelve Treatises,' 1661); 'Apologs or Fables 
Mythologized,' a political allegory, 1645 (in 
'Twelve Treatises,' 1661); < Winter Dream,' 
1649 (prose) ; < A Trance, or News from Hell,' 
1649; ' A Vision, or Dialogue between the 
Soul and Body,' 1651; <Ah! Ha! Tumulus, 
Thalamus. Two counter poems,' one on the 
death of Edward Sackville, earl of Dorset , 
the other on the marriage of the Marquis 
of Dorchester, with ' a bridal sonnet,' set to 
music by William Webb, London, 1653, 4to ; 
and ' e;poAoyia. The Parly of Beasts, or 
Morphandra, Queen of the Inchanted Hand,' 
1660, an allegory in the style of ( Dodona's 

His political and historical pamphlets other 
than those already mentioned are ' Lustra 
Ludovici, or the History of Lewis XIII,' 1643 ; 
' An Account of the Deplorable State of Eng- 
land in 1647,' 2 Aug. 1647; < Bella Scot- 
Anglica. A Brief Account of all the Battles 
betwixt England and Scotland/ 1648 ; ' The 
Instruments of a King . . . the Sword, Crown, 
and Sceptre,' 1648 ; ' Inquisition after Blood 
to the Parliament,' 1649 ; < The German Diet 
on the Ballance of Europe,' 1653 ; < A Dis- 
course of the Empire and of the Election of 
the King of the Romans,' 1658, dated from 
Holborn, 1 Jan. 1658 ; ' A Brief Character 
of the Low Countries/ 1660 ; ' A Briefe Ac- 
count of the Royal Matches . . . since the 
year 800,' London, 1662 ; ' UpoebpLa ^aa-tXiicf). 
Discourse concerning the Presidency of 
Kings,' 1664, fol., dedicated to Charles II 
published with * A Treatise concerning Am- 
bassodors/ 1664 (both reissued in Latin trans- 
lations in the same year, the former translated 
by B. Harris, the latter by John Harman) ; 





' Concerning the Surrender of Dunkirk, that it 
was done upon good grounds/ London, 1664. 

To philology and lexicography Howell 
contributed 'Lexicon Tetraglotton, or an 
English-French-Italian-Spanish Dictionary,' 
London, 1659-60, fol., with 'A Particular 
Vocabulary' in the four languages of tech- 
nical terms, and an appendix (published sepa- 
rately in 1659) of ' Proverbs or oldSayed Saws 
and Adages in English or the Saxon tongue, 
Italian, French, and Spanish : whereunto the 
British [i.e. Welsh] for their great antiquity 
and weight are added.' Worthington, writ- 
ing in his 'Diary' (Chetham Soc. i. 350) in 
August 1661, recommended the separate re- 
publication of the appendix, and especially 
of the collection of Welsh proverbs. Howell 
revised and expanded Cotgrave's ' French and 
English Dictionary,' 1650, fol. (other editions 
1660 and 1673), and wrote 'New English 
Grammar ... for Foreigners to learn Eng- 
lish . . ., with l Another Grammar of the 
Spanish or Castilian toung, with some special 
remarks in the Portugues dialect,' and notes 
on travel in Spain and Portugal ' for the ser- 
vice of Her Majesty' (in both English and 
Spanish [printed on opposite pages), 1662. 
After Howell's death appeared 'A French 
Grammar, a Dialogue consisting of all Galli- 
cisms, with Additions of ... Proverbs,' 1673. 

His translations include ' St. Paul's late 
Progress upon Earth,' 1644, from the Italian ; 
'A Venetian Looking-glass . . . touching 
the present Distempers in England,' 1648, 
from the Italian ; ' An exact History of the 
late Revolutions in Naples,' 1650, from the 
Italian of Alexandro Giraffi ; ' The Process 
and Pleadings in the Court of Spain upon 
the death of Antony Ascham,' from the 
Spanish, 1651 ; Josephus's ' History of the 
Jews,' 1652 ; ' The Nuptials of Peleus and 
Thetis,' 1654, from the French ; ' Paracelsus, 
his Aurora. . . . As also the Water-Stone 
of the Wise Men,' 1659 ; Basil Valentine's 
' Triumphant Chariot of Antimony,' 1661 ; 
Paracelsus's ' Archidoxis,' 1661. 

He edited Cotton's 'Posthuma,' 1657, with 
a dedication to Sir Robert Pye [see COTTON, 
SIR ROBERT BRTJCE] ; * Finetti Philoxenis,' 
1656 [see FINET, SIR JOHN] ; ' Parthenopceia, 
or the History of ... Naples,' 1654, pt. i. 
translated from the Italian of Mazella by 
Sampson Lennard, and pt. ii. compiled by 
Howell from various Italian writers. 

Commendatory verses or letters by Howell 
are prefixed to Hay ward's ' Eromena,' 1632 ; 
Cartwright's ' Poems,' 1651 ; and other books 
of the time. Many such poetic pieces are 
collected in Howell's ' Poems.' Howell, 
rather than John Hewit, is the I. H. who 
prefixed verses to the 

A fine portrait of Howell leaning against 
a tree, engraved by Claude Melan or Mellan 
and Abraham Bosse, was first prefixed ta 
the French translation of his 'Dodona's 
Grove,' 1641. It reappeared in his 'Eng- 
land's Teares,' 1644, his 'German Diet,' 1653, 
his ' Londinopolis,' 1657, and his ' Proverbs,' 
1659, and it is inserted in many other of his 
books in the British Museum Library. An 
oil painting, probably made from the engrav- 
ing, belongs to the Rev. H. Howell of Blaina. 
A small vignette by Marshall forms one of the 
nine compartments of the plate prefixed to 
the ' Letters,' 1645. 

[Notes kindly sent by C. E. Doble, esq., and 
C. H. Firth, esq. ; Wood's AthenseOxon. ed. Bliss, 
iii. 744-52 ; Biog. Brit ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. 
ed. Bohn; Epistolse Ho-el. ed. Jacobs, 1890-1 
Strafford Letters ; Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 24492, 
p. 372 (Hunter's Chorus Vatum) ; pedigree lent 
by J. Bagnall Evans, esq. ; curious expressions 
and allusions in the Letters are discussed in 
Notes and Queries, 3rd and 5th ser.] S. L. 

HOWELL, JOHN (1774-1830), called 
IOAN AB HTWEL, soldier and Welsh poet, 
was born in 1774 at Abergwilly, Carmarthen- 
shire, where he received very little schooling. 
He was apprenticed to a weaver, but soon 
joined the Carmarthenshire militia, where- 
he was employed in the band as fife-major. 
He served with his regiment in Ireland in 
1799, and rejoined it on re-embodiment in 
1803. He employed his leisure in improving 
his education, and was discharged as regi- 
mental schoolmaster on 24 July 1815, while 
the regiment was at Bristol. He then be- 
came master of the national school at Llan- 
dovery, Carmarthenshire, where he resided,, 
with few intermissions, until his death. There 
he produced numerous compositions, which 
he sent to various bardic contests. In 1824 
he brought out at Caerfyrddin by subscription 
a small volume entitled ' Blodau Dyfed' (pp. 
xvi, 420), containing selections from the com- 
positions of bards of the district in the past and 
present century, including some productions 
of his own, among which is a ' Carmarthen 
March.' He possessed some talent as a musi- 
cian and teacher of psalmody. His Welsh 
poems had not much fire or subtle imagery, 
but were considered models of metric correct- 
ness and appropriate diction. He died on 
18 Nov. 1830 at Llandovery, and was buried 
beside the porch of Llandingat Church. 

[ Williams's Eminent Welshmen ; Blodau Dyfed 
(Carmarthen, 1824, 12mo); Kolls of the Royal 
Carmarthen Fusiliers Militia in Public Record 
Office, London.] H. M. C. 

HOWELL, JOHN (1788-1863), poly- 
artist, born at Old Lauriston, Edinburgh, in 
1788, was apprenticed to a bookbinder, but 



afterwards was an assistant to Robert Kin- 
near, bookseller, in Frederick Street, Edin- 
burgh, and subsequently spent five years with 
the firm of Stevenson, printers to the univer- 
sity, where he effected improvements in the 
art of stereotyping. He next returned to his 
trade of bookbinding at a workshop in Thistle 
Street, was patronised by Scott among others, 
and invented the well-known * plough ' for 
cutting edges. Acquainted with many odd 
handicrafts, he opened a shop as curiosity 
dealer and china and picture repairer at 
22 Frederick Street, where the sign over the 
door described him as a f polyartist.' The 
shop was not very successful, and Howell 
removed his business to 110 Eose Street, 
where he died 4 April 1863. He was mar- 
ried and left a family. 

Howell on one occasion attempted to use 
a flying machine in what are now the West 
Princes Street Gardens, .but broke one of his 
legs in the experiment. At another time, 
having made, at considerable expense, a 
model in the shape of a fish, he entered the 
machine, tried to swim under water at Leith, 
and was nearly drowned. He was more suc- 
cessful as an amateur doctor and dentist, and 
introduced the manufacture of Pompeian 
plates. His writings show considerable dili- 
gence. He published: 1. ' An Essay on the 
War-galleys of the Ancients,' Edinburgh, 
1826, 8vo. 2. ' The Life and Adventures of 
Alexander Selkirk,' Edinburgh, 1829, 12mo. 
3. < The Life of Alexander Alexander,' Edin- 
burgh, 1830. . He also edited the ' Journal 
of a Soldier of the 71st Regiment, 18Q6- 
1815,' and the 'Life of John Nichol, the 
Mariner,' and wrote several of Wilson's 
1 Tales of the Borders.' 

[Scotsman, 6 April 1863; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. ii. 491, iii. 19, 78, 379, 4th ser. ii. 393, 
500.] W. A. J. A. 

HOWELL, LAURENCE (1664 P-1720), 
nonjuring divine, born about 1664, received 
his education at Jesus College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1684 and M.A. 
in 1688. He was a zealous member of the 
nonjuring party, and probably left the uni- 
versity in 1688. In 1708 the lord mayor 
ordered that the Oath of Abjuration should 
be tendered to him. On 2 Oct. 1712 he was 
ordained priest by George Hickes [q. v.], 
bishop-suffragan of Thetford, in his oratory at 
St. Andrew's, Holborn. In the list of non- 
jurors at the end of Kettlewell's < Life ' it is 
stated that Howell was at the Revolution 
master of the school at Epping, and curate of 
Estwich, Suffolk, but there is no such parish 
in that county, and Eastwick, Hertfordshire, 
maybe meant (MARTIN, Hist, of Thetford, ed. 

Gough, p. 39). He composed the speech which 
William Paul, a nonjuring clergyman, who 
was convicted of taking part in the rebellion, 
delivered at his execution on 13 July 1716 
(DISNEY, Memoirs of Dr. Sykes, pp. 33, 34). 
He also wrote a pamphlet for private circu- 
lation entitled The Case of Schism in the 
Church of England truly stated.' In this 
seditious work George I was denounced as 
a usurper, and all that had been done in the 
church, subsequently to Archbishop Sancroft's 
deprivation, was condemned as illegal and 
uncanonical. Howell was arrested at his 
house in Bull Head Court, Jewin Street, and 
about a thousand copies of the pamphlet were 
seized there. A prosecution was first insti- 
tuted against Redmayne, the printer, who 
was sentenced to pay a fine of 500/., to be 
imprisoned for five years, and to find security 
for his good behaviour for life. Howell was 
tried at the Old Bailey on 28 Feb. 1716-17 
before the lord mayor and Justices Powys 
and Dormer. The jury found him guilty, 
and two days afterwards he was sentenced 
to pay a fine of 500/., to be imprisoned for 
three years without bail, to find four sureties 
of 500. each, and himself to be bound in 
1,000/. for his good behaviour during life, and 
to be twice whipped. On his hotly protesting 
against the last indignity on the ground that 
he was a clergyman, the court answered that 
he was a disgrace to his cloth, and that his 
ordination by the so-called bishop of Thetford 
was illegal. By the court's direction the 
common executioner there and then roughly 

Eulled his gown off his back. A few days 
iter, on his humble petition to the king, the 
corporal punishment was remitted. He died 
in Newgate on 19 July 1720. 

There is an engraving which professes to 
be a portrait of him, but Noble says the plate 
was altered from a portrait of Robert Newton, 
D.D. (Continuation of Granger, iii. 152). 

Howell was a man of learning and pub- 
lished: 1. 'Synopsis Canonum SS. Apostolo- 
rum, et Conciliorum fEcumenicorum et Pro- 
vincialium, ab Ecclesia Grseca receptorum ; 
necnon Conciliorum CEcumenicorum et Pro- 
vincialium ab Ecclesia Grseca receptorum ; 
necnon Conciliorum, Decretorum, et Legum 
Ecclesiae Britannicae et Anglo-Saxonicse ; 
una cum Constitutionibus tarn Provincialibus 
(sc. a Stephano Langton ad Henricuni Chich- 
leum) quam Legatinis &c. in Compendium 
redactis,' Lond. 1708, fol. Hearne disliked 
Howell's Latin, and said that a dedication to 
the Earl of Salisbury was prepared, but not 
accepted on the ground that the ' patronising 
a nonjuror would be taken ill by the govern- 
ment.' 2. * Synopsis Canonum Ecclesise La- 
tinse, et Decreta : qua Canones spurii, Epistolse 





adulterine, et Decreta supposititia istius Ec- 
clesiae Conciliorum in lucem proferuntur, et a 
veris ac genuinis dignoscuntur,' Lond. 1710, 
fol. In 1715 the third and last volume of 
the ' Synopsis Canonum ' was announced ' as 
once more finished ' by Howell, the first manu- 
script having been burnt in the fire which 
destroyed Bowyer's printing-house, 30 Jan. 
1712 (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. i. 57). 3. ' The 
Orthodox Communicant, by way of Medita- 
tion on the Order for the Administration of 
the Lord's Supper,' with vignettes from Scrip- 
ture subjects by J. Sturt, Lond. 1712, 1714, 
1721, 1781, 8vo. 4. < A View of the Pontifi- 
cate : From its supposed Beginning to the 
End of the Council of Trent, A.B. 1563. In 
which the Corruptions of the Scriptures and 
Sacred Antiquity, Forgeries in the Councils, 
and Incroachments of the Court of Rome on 
the Church and State, to support their In- 
fallibility, Supremacy, and other Modern 
Doctrines, are set in a true Light,' Lond. 
1712, 8vo. The second edition, 1716, is en- 
titled 'The History of the Pontificate.' 
5. ' Desiderius, or the Original Pilgrim : A 
Divine Dialogue. Shewing the most com- 
pendious Way to arrive at the Love of God. 
Render'd into English and explain'd with 
Notes,' Lond. 1717. 6. ' A Compleat History 
of the Holy Bible, in which are inserted oc- 
currences that happen'd during the space of 
about four hundred years from the days of 
theProphet Malachi to the birth of our Blessed 
Saviour,' 3 vols. Lond. 1718, 8vo, with 150 
cuts by J. Sturt ; again 1725 ; fifth edit. 1729 ; 
and with additions and improvements by G. 
Burder, 3 vols. Lond. 1806-7. 7. A Memoir 
of Dr. Walter Raleigh, dean of Wells, pre- 
fixed to Raleigh's treatise entitled ' Certain 
Queries proposed by Roman Catholicks,' 
Lond. 1719. His miscellaneous collections 
for a history of the university of Cambridge 
are in the Bodleian Library (Rawl. B. 281). 
The ' Medulla Historise Anglicanse,' some- 
times attributed to Howell, is by Dr. William 
Howell (1638 P-1683) [q. v.] 

[Addit. MS. 5871, f. 66 b; Memoirs of the Life 
of Kettlewell, p. 391, App. pp. xxiii, xxvi; His- 
torical Kegister for 1717, p. 1 19, and Chron. Reg. 
pp. 12, 13 for 1720 (Chron. Diary), p. 29 ; Lath- 
bury's Nonjurors, p. 367 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. 
(Bohn), p. 1128 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 31, 32, 
57, 87, 105, 106, 107, 124, 702; Hearne's Collec- 
tions, ed. Doble (Oxf. Hist. Soc.), ii. 35, 38, 103, 
125; Political State of Europe, xii. 259, 263, 281, 
xiii. 354, 356 ; information from C. E. Doble, 
esq.] T. C. 

HOWELL, THOMAS (/. 1568), verse- 
writer, probably a native of Dunster in Somer- 
set, published in 1568 ' The Arbor of Amitie, 
wherein is comprised pleasant Poems and 

pretie Poesies, set foorth by Thomas Howell, 
Gentleman,' 8vo, 51 leaves (Bodleian Li- 
brary), with a dedicatory epistle to Lady Ann 
Talbot. Howell appears to have been em- 
ployed at this time in the household of the 
Earl of Shrewsbury. ' Newe Sonets and pretie 
Pamphlets . . . Newly augmented, corrected, 
and amended,' 4to,was licensed for publication 
in 1567-8. An imperfect, undated copy, sup- 
posed to be unique, is preserved in the Capell 
collection (Trinity College, Cambridge) ; it is 
dedicated ' To his approved Freinde, Maister 
Henry Lassels, Gentilman.' Severalpoemsare 
addressed to John Keeper (a Somerset man), 
and some of Keeper's poems are included 
among ' Newe Sonets.' Howell's latest work 
was ' H. His Deuises, for his owne exercise, 
and his Friends pleasure. Vincit qui patitur,' 
1581, 4to, 51 leaves, preserved among Malone's 
books in the Bodleian Library. It appears 
from the dedicatory epistle that he was now 
in the service of the Countess of Pembroke, 
and that the poems were written at Wilton 
House ( at ydle times ... to auoyde greater 
ydlenesse or worse businesse.' Howell's 
works have been reprinted in Dr. Grosart's 
1 Occasional Issues.' He was an uncouth 
writer, and his poems have little merit or 
interest. The best is a rustic wooing-song 
in l The Arbor of Amitie.' 

[Grosart's Occasional Issues, vol. viii. ; Haz- 
litt's Handbook.] A. H. B. 

HOWELL, THOMAS, D.D. (1588-1646), 
bishop of Bristol, son of Thomas Howell by 
a daughter of James David Powell, was born 
at Bryn, in the parish of Llangammarch in 
Brecknockshire, in 1588. His father was 
vicar of Llangammarch, and also of Abernant 
in Carmarthenshire. James Howell [q. v.] 
was a younger brother, and some of the ' Epi- 
stolae Ho-elianse ' profess to be addressed to the 
bishop.' At the age of sixteen he was ad- 
mitted a scholar of Jesus College, Oxford, of 
which he subsequently became fellow. He 
graduated B.A. 20 Feb. 1608-9, M. A. 9 July 
1612, B.D. and D.D. 8 July 1630. On taking 
holy orders he gained speedy celebrity as a 
preacher, and was appointed by Charles I one 
of his chaplains . He also received the rectory 
of West Horsley in Surrey, and that of St. 
Stephen's, Walbrook, London, on 13 April 
1635. The latter he resigned in 1641. He 
was appointed by the king to a canonry of 
Windsor on 16 Nov. 1636, and on the pro- 
motion of Dr. Henry King [q. v.] to the see 
of Chichester, received from the crown the 
sinecure rectory of Fulham on 25 March 1642. 
Though regarded 'by many as a puritan 
preacher' (Wooo, Athencs, iv. 804), he was 
early marked out for attack by the parlia- 




mentary party, was driven from his London 
rectory, was subsequently sequestered for 
non-residence, and was expelled from West 
Horsley. He took refuge at Oxford, and on 
the death of Thomas Westfield [q. v.], bishop 
of Bristol, was selected by Charles I to succeed 
him in that important stronghold, just re- 
covered to the royal cause, the king, we are 
told, ' promising himself good effects from his 
great candour, solid judgment, sweet temper, 
and the good repute in which he was held ' 
(ib.) He was consecrated by Ussher in Au- 
gust 1644, and was the last bishop consecrated 
in England for sixteen years. Ho well's epi- 
scopate was short and disastrous. Bristol 
was surrendered to Fairfax by Prince Rupert 
on 10 Sept. 1645, and all the royalist clergy 
were violently ejected. The bishop was among 
the chief sufferers. His palace was pillaged. 
The lead was stripped off the roof under which 
his wife lay in childbed, and the exposure 
caused her death. The bishop himself was 
so roughly handled that he died in the fol- 
lowing year, being buried in his cathedral, 
one word alone marking the spot, ' Exper- 
giscar.' The citizens of Bristol undertook 
the education of his children, ' in grateful 
memory of their most worthy father ' (BAE- 
KETT, History of Bristol, p. 330 ; WOOD, 
Athence^. 805). Wood records, with evident 
exaggeration, that while on entering on his 
episcopate he found but few well affected to 
the church, he left on his death few ill affected 
to it (ib.) He is described by Lloyd (Me- 
moirs, p. 522) as ' a person of great clearness, 
candour, solidness, sweetness, and eloquenqe, 
with an insight into state affairs, as well as 
those of his own office.' Of his preaching 
Fuller writes : ' His sermons, like the waters 
of Siloah, softly gliding on with a smooth 
stream, his matter, with a lawful and laud- 
able felony, did steal secretly the hearts of 
the hearers.' 

By his wife, Honor Bromfield of Chalcroft, 
Hampshire, he had two daughters and six 
sons, including John, a London merchant ; 
Thomas, fellow of New College, Oxford; 
George, B.D., rector of Buckland, Surrey; 
and Arthur, a London merchant, at one time 
imprisoned as a slave in Turkey. 

[Wood's Athenae, iii. 842, iv. 804; Epistolse 
Ho-elianse ; Fuller's Worthies, ii. 575 ; Walker's 
Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 3 ; Le Neve, i. 216, 
iii. 401; Newcourt's Kepertorium, i. 540, 608; 
Harl. MS. 4181, p. 258 (pedigree of the Howell 
family).] E. V. 

1815), editor of the ' State Trials,' born in 
1768, was son of John Howell of Jamaica. 
On 23 Jan. 1782 he was admitted of Lincoln's 

Inn, and was called to the bar in 1790 (Re- 
gister). He matriculated at Oxford from 
Christ Church on 27 March 1784, but did not 
graduate (FOSTER, Alurrni Oxon. 1715-86, 
ii. 701). When William Cobbett projected a 
new edition of the ' State Trials,' he secured 
Howell as the editor. Howell carried the 
work from the first volume (1809) to the 
twenty-first (1815), the remaining twelve 
volumes being edited by his son, Thomas 
Jones Howell. The notes and illustrations 
accompanying each trial are excellent. He 
was F.R.S. (8 March 1804) and F.S.A. He 
died at Prinknash Park, near Gloucester, on 
13 April 1815 (Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxxv. pt. i. 
p. 472). 

Howell was author of ' Observations on 
Dr. Sturges's Pamphlet respecting Non-re- 
sidence of the Clergy . . . in a Letter ... to 
Mr. Baron Maseres. The second edition/ 8vo, 
London, 1803. 

His son, THOMAS JONES HOWELL (d. 1858), 
who edited the ' State Trials ' (vols. xxii. 
1815-xxxiii. 1826), was admitted of Lincoln's 
Inn on 9 Nov. 1814 (Register). He sold 
Prinknash after 1842. He died at Eaton 
Place West, London, on 4 June 1858 ( Gent. 
Mag. 1858, ii. 93). He was twice married 
(in 1817 and 1851). 

[Wallace's Reporters, p. 58.] G. G. 

HOWELL, WILLIAM (1638 ?-1683)>* Fo 
historian, born about 1638, was educated at Aew's 
Magdalene College, Cambridge (B.A. 1651, $<>* 
M.A. 1655), of which he became a fellow. a 
On 25 Nov. 1664 he was created doctor of /? , 
civil law, and was incorporated at Oxford * 
on 6 July 1676. He was tutor to John, earl 
of Mulgrave. On 4 Feb. 1678 he was ad- 
mitted a civilian (CooTE, English Civilians, 
pp. 99-100), and became chancellor of the 
diocese of Lincoln. He died in the begin- 
ning of 1683. By license dated 3 Aug. 1678 
he married Miss Mary Ashfield of St. Giles- 
in-the-Fields, London (CHESTEE, London 
Marriage Licences, ed. Foster, col. 718). He 
wrote ' An Institution of General History 
. . . from the beginning of the World till 
the Monarchy of Constantine the Great,' fol., 
London, 1661 (another edition 1662), which 
he translated into Latin in 1671 as 'Ele- 
menta Historic,' 12mo, London, for the use 
of Lord Mulgrave. The history was after- 
wards brought down ' to the fall of Augus- 
tulus,' and published in 1685, with a dedica- 
catory letter to James II by the author's 
widow. Mary Howell, and a preface by Comp- 
ton, bishop of London, and others. What 
is styled the l second edition ' was issued in 
three parts, fol., London, 1680-5. The com- 
pilation was praised by Gibbon (Autobio- 




graphy, ed. 1827, i. 33). Howell was also 
author of ' Medulla Historiae Anglicanae. 
Being a comprehensive History of the Lives 
and Reigns of the Monarchs of England/ 
which passed through several editions, though 
without his name. The earliest edition men- 
tioned by Wood is dated 1679 ; a twelfth 
edition, brought down to 1760, appeared in 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 355.] G. G. 

HOWELL, WILLIAM (1656-1714), di- 
vine, was the son of G. Howell of Oxford, 
who is termed ' pauper* in the Wadham 
' Register.' Wood says that the father was 
a tailor. William Howell matriculated as 
a servitor from Wadham College, Oxford, 
in 1670, but shortly afterwards removed to 
New Inn Hall. Here he graduated B.A. in 
1673, and proceeded M.A. in 1676. He took 
orders, and became schoolmaster and curate 
of Ewelme in Oxfordshire ; he was certainly 
the latter in 1688, and here his wife died in 
1700. Howell died in 1714, and was buried 
at Ewelme on 23 Jan. 1713-14 ; there is a 
tablet to his memory in the church. 

Howell wrote: 1. 'The Common-prayer- 
book the best Companion, &c.,' Oxford, 1686, 
8vo; republished with additions at Oxford 
in 1687. 2. < The Word of God the best 
Guide to all Persons at all Times and in all 
Places, &c.,' Oxford, 1689, 8vo. 3. ' Prayers 
in the Closet : for the Use of all devout Chris- 
tians, to be said both Morning and Night/ 
Oxford, 1689, 8vo, one sheet ; also two ser- 
mons published at Oxford in 1711 and 1712 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 787; 
Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 334, 354 ; E. B. 
G-ardiner's Reg. of Wadham College, Oxford, 
p. 286 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; information from the 
rector of Ewelme.] W. A. J. A. 

HOWELLS, WILLIAM (1778-1832), 
minister at Long Acre Chapel, London, eldest 
of the twelve children of Samuel Howell s, 
was born in September 1778 at Llwynhelyg, 
a farmhouse near Cowbridge in Glamorgan. 
After some years' study under the Rev. John 
Walton of Cowbridge, and Dr. Williams, 
the master of Cowbridge school, he went in 
April 1800 to Wadham College, Oxford, and 
left in 1 803 without a degree. An elegy by him 
on his tutor Walton in 1797, published in the 
' Gloucester Journal/ introduced him to the 
notice of Robert Raikes [q. v.], who offered 
him journalistic work. At Oxford he was 
under baptist influences, but he was ordained 
by Dr. Watson, bishop of Llandaff, in June 
1804, to the curacy of Llangan, Glamorgan. 
Both he and his vicar occasioned some com- 

plaint by preaching at methodist chapels. In 
1812 Howells became curate to the united 
parishes of St. Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe and 
St. Anne, Blackfriars, in London, and in 1817 
lessee of the episcopal chapel in Long Acre, 
where he gradually gathered together an ap- 
preciative audience. His strongly evangelical 
sermons were widely popular, and his self- 
denying life, despite his eccentricities, gave no 
handle to his enemies. He died on 18 Nov. 
1832 (Gent. Mag. 1832, ii. 653), and was 
buried in a vault under Holy Trinity Church, 
Cloudesley Square, Islington. In the church 
itself a tablet was placed to his memory. 

The following collections of Howell's ser- 
mons and prayers appeared after his death : 
1 . ' Remains/ edited by Moore, Dublin, 1833, 
12mo ; newed., London, 1852, 8vo. 2. ' Twelve 
Sermons/ London, 1835, 8vo. 3. l Sermons, 
with a Memoir by Charles Bowdler/ London, 

1835, 2 vols. 8vo. 4. 'Twenty Sermons/ 
London, 1835, 12mo. 5. 'Fifty-two Ser- 
mons from Notes/ by H. H. White, London, 

1836, 8vo. 6. ' Prayers before and after the 
Sermon/ London, 32mo. 7. ' Choice Sen- 
tences/ edited by the Rev. W. Bruce, Lon- 
don, 1850, 18mo. 

[Memoirs by the Rev. E. Morgan and Charles 
Bowdler ; funeral sermon by the Rev.Henry Mel- 
vill ; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. i. 905.] 

W. A. J. A. 

HOWES, EDMUND (Jl. 1607-1631), 
chronicler, lived in London, and designated 
himself ' gentleman.' Undeterred by Stow's 
neglect, and despite the ridicule of his ac- 
quaintances, he applied himself on Stow's 
death in 1605 to continuations of Stow's 
'Abridgement' and of his 'Annales.' The 
former he undertook, after discovering (he 
tells us) that no one else was likely to per- 
form it. Howes's first edition of Stow's 
'Abridgement, or Summarie of the English 
Chronicle/ appeared in 1607. A dedication 
to Sir Henry Rowe, the lord mayor, a* few 
notices of ' sundry memorable antiquities/ 
and a continuation of ' maters forrein and do- 
mesticalT between 1603 and 1607, consti- 
tute Howes's contributions. In 1611 Howes 
issued another edition of the same work, with 
a further continuation to the end of 1610, 
arid a new dedication addressed to Sir Wil- 
liam Craven, lord mayor. 

Howes issued in 1615 an expanded version 
of Stow's well-known ' Annales or Chronicle/ 
with ' an historicall preface/ and a continua- 
tion from 1600, the date of the last edition, 
to 1615. According to Howes's own account 
Archbishop Whitgift had suggested this task 
to him, and he received little encouragement 
while engaged on it (STOW, Annales, 1631, 



ded.) In 1631 he published his final edition of 
the 'Annales,' with a dedication to Charles I, 
and a concluding address to the lord mayor 
and aldermen of London. Howes lays much 
stress on his love of truth, and the difficulties 
caused him in his labours by ' venomous 
tongues.' In a letter to Nicholas, dated 
23 Dec. 1630, he refers to the passage of his 
work through the press, and mentions Sir 
Robert Pye as a friend (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1629-31, p. 416). The 1631 edition 
of the ' Annales ' is the most valuable of all, 
and Howes's additions are not the least in- 
teresting part of it. 

[Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vi. 199 ; Howes's 
prefaces and dedications.] S. L. 

HOWES, EDWARD (/. 1650), mathe- 
matician, was studying law in 1632 at the 
Inner Temple, and appears afterwards to have 
-entered holy orders. In 1644 he was a master 
in the ' Ratcliffe Ffree School,' London, and 
in 1659 is ' called rector of Goldancher [i.e. 
Goldanger] in Essex.' Howes was the inti- 
mate friend and frequent correspondent of 
John Winthrop [q. v.], governor of Massa- 
chusetts. In 1632, writing from the Inner 
Temple, he sent Winthrop a tract which he 
had printed to show that the north-west pas- 
sage to the Pacific was probably ' not in the 
60 8 or 70 of N. latitude, but 'rather about 
40th.' ' I am verilie perswaded of that, there 
is either a strait as our narrow seas, or a 
Mediterranean sea west from you.' The tract 
is called ' Of the Circumference of the Earth, 
or a Treatise of the North Weast Passage,' 
London, 1623. 

On 25 Aug. 1635 Howes wrote to Win- 
throp, * I think I shall help you to one of the 
magneticall engines which you and I have 
discoursed of that will sympathize at a dis- 
tance,' a possible foreshadowing of the modern 
telegraph; and in 1640, < as for the mag- 
neticall instrument it is alsoe sympatheticall.' 
In 1644 Howes speaks of possibly establish- 
ing a school in Boston, and in various letters 
refers to the wish of many religious people 
to go to the plantations. 

In 1659 Howes published l A Short Arith- 
metick, or the Old and Tedious way of Num- 
bers reduced to a New and Briefe Method, 
whereby a mean Capacity may easily attain 
competent Skill and Facility.' It is well 
arranged for practical instruction. At the 
end of his address to the reader Howes speaks 
of ' having also the theoreticall part finished 
and ready to be published, if desired.' No 
other part seems to have been issued. 

[Massachusetts Hist. Soc. Collections, 3rd 
ser. vol. ix. 4th ser. vi. 467, &c. ; Life and Letters 
of John Winthrop, p. 20.] B. E. A. 

HOWES, FRANCIS (1776-1844), trans- 
lator, fourth son of the Rev. Thomas Howes 
of Morningthorpe, Norfolk, by Susan, daugh- 
ter of Francis Linge of Spinworth in the 
same county, was born in 1776, and was edu- 
cated at the Norwich grammar school. He 
entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1794, 
graduated B. A. in 1798 as eleventh wrangler, 
and proceeded M.A. in 1804. In 1799 he ob- 
tained the members' prize. His chief college 
friend was John (afterwards Sir John) Wil- 
liams [q. v.], the judge, who subsequently 
allowed him 100/. a year. He held various 
curacies, and in 1815 became a minor canon 
of Norwich Cathedral, afterwards holding the 
rectories successively of Alderford (from 1826) 
and of Framingham Pigot (from 1829). He 
died at Norwich in 1844, and was buried in 
the west cloister of the cathedral . He married 
early Susan Smithson, and left issue ; one 
of his sisters, Margaret, married Edward 
Hawkins, and was the mother of Edward 
Hawkins [q. v.], provost of Oriel. 

Howes published the following translations 
into English verse : 1 . ' Miscellaneous Poetical 
Translations,' London, 1806, 8vo. 2. ' The 
Satires of Persius, with Notes,' London, 1809, 
8vo. 3. 'The Epodes and Secular Ode of 
Horace,' Norwich, 1841, 8vo, privately 
printed. 4. < The First Book of Horace's Sa- 
tires,' privately printed, Norwich, 1842, 8vo. 
After his death his son, C. Howes, published 
a collection of his translations, London, 1845, 
8vo. The merit of his translations was recog- 
nised by Conington in the preface to his ver- 
sion of the satires and epistles of Horace. 
Howes composed epitaphs for various monu- 
ments in Norwich Cathedral. 

THOMAS HOWES (1729-1814) was the only 
son of Thomas Howes of Morningthorpe (a 
first cousin of Francis Howes's father), by 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Colman of Hind- 
ringham, Norfolk. He entered at Clare Hall, 
Cambridge, in 1743, and graduated B.A. in 
1746. For a time he was in the army, but 
quitted it to take holy orders. After serving 
curacies in London he held the crown rectory 
of Morningthorpe, Norfolk, from 1756 until 
the death of his father in 1771, when he was 
instituted to the family living of Thorndon, 
Suffolk. He died at Norwich, unmarried, on 
29 Sept. 1814. He was a friend of Dr. Parr. 
Howes began to publish in 1776 his ' Critical 
Observations on Books, Ancient and Modern,' 
four volumes of which appeared before his 
death. This is now a very rare work. In vol. 
iii. he printed a sermon preached by him in 
1784 against Priestley and Gibbon, to which 
Priestley replied in an appendix to his ' Let- 
ters to Dr. Horsley,' pt. iii. Howes answered 
the reply in his fourth volume. 




[Information kindly supplied by Miss Louisa 
Howes ; Burke' s Hist, of the Commoners, i. 412 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1844, pt. i. 660; Gent. Mag. 1814, 
ii. 404 ; Hawkins's ed. of Milton's Works ; Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MSS. 19167, f. 77 ; Brit, Mus. 
Cat.] W. A. J. A. 

HOWES, JOHN (/. 1772-1793), minia- 
ture and enamel painter, is principally known 
as an exhibitor of portraits and other subjects 
in enamel at the Royal Academy from 1772 
to 1793. He occasionally exhibited minia- 
tures, and latterly a few historical pictures. 
In 1777 he painted and exhibited a medal- 
lion portrait of David Garrick, from a draw- 
ing by Cipriani, which was presented to the 
actor by the Incorporated Society of Actors 
of Drury Lane Theatre ; this miniature was 
lent by the Rev. J. T. C. Fawcett to the Ex- 
hibition of Miniatures at South Kensington 
in 1862 (see Catalogue). 

[Eedgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Eoyal Academy 
Catalogues.] L. C. 

HOWES, THOMAS (1729-1814), divine. 
[See under HOWES, 

HOWGILL, FRANCIS (1618-1669), 
quaker, was born at Todthorne, near Gray- 
rigg, Westmoreland, in 1618. His father ap- 
pears to have been a yeoman. Backhouse 
(Life of Francis Howgill) states he received 
a university education, and was for a short 
time a minister of the established church. 
After ' having seen the superstitions ' thereof 
he joined first the independents and subse- 
quently the anabaptists. He at one time 
preached at Colton, Lancashire, and about 
1652 was minister of a congregation at or 
near Sedbergh in Yorkshire, where he tried 
to protect George Fox, who was preaching in 
the churchyard. On the next ' first-day/ 
Fox (Journal, 1765, p. 68) says, Howgill 
preached with John Audland in Firbank 
Chapel, Westmoreland. He appears to have 
formally joined the quakers early in the same 
year (1652), and was soon afterwards de- 
tained in Appleby prison on account of his 
religious opinions. Howgill became an ac- 
tive minister among the Friends, especially 
in the north of England. In 1653 he la- 
boured in Cumberland, but visited London 
to intercede with the Protector, whom he 
tried unsuccessfully to persuade to become a 
quaker. With Anthony Pearson he com- 
menced the first quaker meetings held in 
London, at a house in Watling Street. Dur- 
ing 1654 Howgill was largely occupied in 
answering pamphlets against quakerism, but 
found time to visit Bristol, where the Friends 
were suffering persecution. The magistrates 
ordered him to leave ; on his declining to 
comply, the quakers were attacked by the 

populace, and a warrant was issued tor his 
arrest, but he managed to avoid it. He also 
attended the general meeting at Swanning- 
ton in Leicestershire the same year. In 1655 
he went with Borough to Ireland, where 
they preached in Dublin for three months 
unmolested ; they then removed to Cork, 
when Henry Cromwell, lord deputy of Ire- 
land, banished them from Ireland. Howgill's 
amiability enabled him, as a rule, to avoid 
persecution, and till 1663 he pursued arduous 
ministerial work, for the most part unhin- 
dered. But his strength failed, and in 1663 
at Kendal he was summoned by the high 
constable for preaching, and on refusing to 
take the oath of allegiance was committed 
to Appleby gaol. At the ensuing assizes he- 
was indicted for not taking the oath, and was 
allowed till the next assizes to answer the 
charge. As he declined to give a bond for 
good behaviour, he lay in prison till the assizes. 
In August 1664 he was convicted, was out- 
lawed, and sentenced to the loss of his goods 
and perpetual imprisonment. He died on 
20 Jan. 1668-9, after an imprisonment of 
about five years. 

Howgill was married and had several chil- 
dren. The Mary Howgill who was imprisoned 
at various times in Lancashire in 1654-6 and 
in Devonshire in 1655 appears to have been 
his wife. 

Howgill was a voluminous writer, and dur- 
ing the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
his works were much valued by the quakers. 
The chief are: 1. 'The Standard of the 
Lord lifted up against the Kingdom of Satan/ 
1653 (with Christopher Atkinson and others), 
2. ' The Fiery darts of the Divel quenched ; 
or something in answer to a Book called 
"A Second Beacon Fired," '&c., 1654. 3. 'The 
Inheritance of Jacob discovered after his Re- 
turn out of JEgypt,' 1655 (published in Dutch 
in 1660). 4. ' A Lamentation for the Scat- 
tered Tribes,' &c., 1656. 5. < Some of the Mis- 
teries of God's Kingdome declared,' &c., 

1658. 6. < The Papists' strength, Principles,, 
and Doctrines, answered and confuted,' &c., 
1658 (with George Fox) ; published in Latin 

1659. 7. 'The Invisible Things of God 
brought to Light by the Revelation of the 
Eternal Spirit,' &c., 1659. 8. ' The Popish 
Inquisition newly erected in New-England/ 
&c., 1659. 9. < The Heart of New-England 
Hardned through Wickedness,' &c., 1659. 

10. l The Deceiver of the Nations discovered 
and his Cruelty made manifest,' 1660. 

11. ' Some Openings of the Womb of the 
Morning,' &c., 1661 ; republished in Dutch 
at Amsterdam in the same year. 12. ' The 
Glory of the True Church discovered, as it 
was in its Purity in the Primitive Time,'&c. ? 





1661 ; reprinted in 1661, 1662, and 1663, and 
published in Dutch in 1670. 13. ' The Rock 
of Ages exalted above Rome's imagined Rock,' 
&c., 1662. 14. -The Great Case of Tythes and 
forced Maintenance once more Revived,' &c., 
1665. 16. ' The True Rule, Judge, and Guide 
of the True Church of God discovered,' &c., 
1665. 16. i Oaths no Gospel Ordinance but 
prohibited by Christ,' &c., 1666. 

[John Bolton's Short Account of Francis How- 
ill ; James Backhouse's Memoirs of Francis 
owgill ; Giles's Some Account ... of Francis 
Howgill ; Sewel's Hist, of the Rise, &c. Quakers, 
ed. 1834, i. 69, 106, ii. 13, 41, 73, 89; Besses 
Sufferings of the Quakers, i. 39, ii. 11, 21, 457 ; 
George Fox's Journal, ed. 1765, pp. 67, 68, 76, 
110, 120, 301; Bickley's George Fox; Gough's 
Hist, of the Quakers ; Joseph Smith's Catalogue 
of Friends' Books ; Swarthmore 'MSS.'J 

A. C. B. 

organist and composer, was organist at White- 
haven in 1794, and some years later, probably 
in 1810, removed to London. 

He published: 1. 'Four Voluntaries, part 
of the 3rd Chapter of the Wisdom of Solomon 
for three Voices, and six favourite Psalm 
Tunes, with an Accompaniment for the 
Organ,' London [1825 ?]. 2. ' Two Volun- 
taries for the Organ, with a Miserere and 
Gloria Tibi, Domine.' 3. ' An Anthem and 
two Preludes for the Organ.' 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 754; Fetis's Biog. 
Univ. des Musiciens, iii. 375.] R. F. S.. 

HOWICK, VISCOUNT, afterwards second 


HOWIE, JOHN (1735-1793), author of 
' Scots Worthies,' was born on 14 Nov. 1735 
at Lochgoin, about two miles from Kilmar- 
nock, Ayrshire. Tradition derives him from 
one of three brothers Huet, who came from 
France as persecuted Albigenses in the twelfth 
century, and settled respectively in the 
parishes of Mearns and Craigie, and at Loch- 
goin. Several generations of Howies farmed 
Lochgoin, and staunch devotion to religious 
freedom was a family characteristic. Owing 
to his father's death Howie lived from child- 
hood to early manhood with his maternal 
grandparents on the farm of Blackshill, Kil- 
marnock, and attended two country schools. 

About 1760 Howie married and became 
farmer of Lochgoin. The soil of Lochgoin 
did not demand incessant work, and Howie 
devoted his leisure to literary pursuits, gra- 
dually forming a small library, and collecting 
antiquarian relics chiefly connected with the 
covenanters. His miscellaneous collection 

included specimens of typographical work 
by Barker, the early newspaper printer, and 
Captain Paton's sword and bible, besides a 
flag and a drum, and various manuscripts 
connected with the covenanting cause. His 
health had never been robust, and he died 
on 5 Jan. 1793, and was buried in Fenwick 
churchyard. His first wife, Jean Lindsay, 
having borne him a son, died of consumption, 
and he married again in 1766 his cousin, 
Janet Howie, by whom he had five sons and 
three daughters. 

Howie's ' Scots Worthies,' first published 
in 1774, contains short, pithy biographies of 
Scottish reformers and martyrs from the Re- 
formation to the English Revolution. Though 
somewhat intolerant, he is throughout se- 
verely earnest and candid. He revised and 
enlarged the work, 1781-5, and this edition 
was reissued, with notes by W. McGavin, in 
1827. In 1870 the Rev. W. H. Carslaw re- 
vised Howie's text and published it, with 
illustrations and notes, and a short biogra- 
phical introduction ; and in 1876 a further 
illustrated edition appeared, with biographi- 
cal notice compiled from statements made 
by Howie's relatives, and an introductory 
essay by Dr. R. Buchanan. <A Collection 
of Lectures and Sermons by Covenanting 
Clergymen' was issued by Howie in 1779, 
with a quaint introduction by himself. He 
edited in 1780 Michael Shields's 'Faithful 
Contendings Display'd,' an account of the 
church of Scotland between 1681 and 1691 ; 
wrote on the Lord's Supper, patronage, &c., 
and prefaced and annotated various religious 
works of ephemeral interest. 

[Biographies prefixed to editions of Scots 
Worthies mentioned in the text ; Irving's Emi- 
nent Scotsmen.] T. B. 

LIAM (1798-1850), line engraver, was born 
at Edinburgh in 1798. He was educated at 
George Heriot's Hospital, and on leaving that 
institution was apprenticed to an engraver 
named Wilson. He never received any in- 
struction in drawing beyond what he acquired 
during his apprenticeship, and for some time ' 
he worked in comparative obscurity, being 
chiefly employed upon small plates. Some of 
these were after David O. Hill, R.S.A., and by 
Hill's introduction Howison's work attracted 
the attention of Sir George Harvey, who was 
the first to appreciate his talents, and to afford 
scope for their display by giving him a com- 
mission to engrave his picture of ' The Curlers/ 
The merits of this engraving led to his elec- 
tion in 1838 as an associate of the Royal 
Scottish Academy, the only instance of such 
an honour having been conferred on an en- 




graver. He afterwards engraved ' The Polish 
Exiles/ after Sir William Allan, P.R.S.A., 
and * The Covenanters' Communion/ and ' A 
Schule Skailin/ after Sir George Harvey, 
P.R.S.A., and at the time of his death was 
engaged upon 'The First Letter from the 
Emigrants/ after Thomas Faed, R. A., for the 
Association for the Promotion of the Fine 
Arts in Scotland. He died at 8 Frederick 
Street, Edinburgh, on 20 Dec. 1850, and was 
buried in the Greyfriars churchyard. 

William Howison the engraver must be 
distinguished from WILLIAM HOWISON (fl. 
1823) poet and philosopher, who also lived in 
Edinburgh, was a friend of Sir Walter Scott 
(LOCKHAET, Life of Sir W. Scott, pp. 230, 
505-6), and was author of: 1. 'Polydore' (a 
ballad by which he introduced himself to 
Scott, who inserted it in the ' Edinburgh 
Annual Review ' for 1810). 2. t Fragments 
and Fictions ' (published under the assumed 
name of M. de Pendemots). 3. ( An Essay 
on the Sentiments of Attraction, Adaptation, 
and Vanity.' 4. ' A Key to the Mythology of 
the Ancients.' 5. ' Europe's Likeness to the 
Human Spirit/ Edinburgh, 1821, 12mo. 6. ; A 
Grammar of Infinite Forms, or the Mathe- 
matical Elements of Ancient Philosophy and 
Mythology/ Edinburgh, 1823, 12mo. 7. ' The 
Conquest of the Twelve Tribes.' 

[Scotsman, 28 Dec. 1850 ; Edinburgh Evening 
Courant, 28 Dec. 1850 ; Art Journal, 1851, p. 44, 
reprinted in Gent. Mag. 1851, i. 321 ; Anderson's 
Scottish Nation, ii. 500; Bryan's Diet, of Painters 
and Engravers, ed. Graves, 1886-9, i. 684; Notes 
and Queries, 6th ser. v. 253.] E. E. G. 

HOWITT, MARY (1799-1888), miscel- 
laneous writer, was born on 12 March 1799 
at Coleford, Gloucestershire, the temporary 
residence of her parents, while her father, 
Samuel Botham(<2. 1823), a prosperous quaker 
of Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, was looking after 
some mining property. Her mother was Anne 
Wood, a descendant of Andrew Wood the 

Ktentee, attacked by Swift in the l Drapier 
tiers.' Mary Botham was educated at 
home, soon read widely for herself in many 
branches, and commenced writing verses at a 
very early age. On 16 April 1821 she mar- 
ried at Uttoxeter William Howitt [q. v.], and 
began a career of joint authorship with her 
husband. Their literary productions at first 
consisted chiefly of poetical and other contri- 
butions to annuals and periodicals, of which a 
selection was published in 1827 under the title 
of ' The Desolation of Eyam and other Poems.' 
The life of Mary Howitt was completely 
bound up with that of her husband ; she Was 
separated only from him during the period of 
his Australian journey (1851-4). On re- 

moving to Esher in 1837 she commenced 
writing her well-known tales for children, a 
long series of books which met with signal 
success. While residing at Heidelberg in 
1840 her attention was directed to Scandi- 
navian literature, and in company with her 
friend Madame Schoultz she set herself to 
learn Swedish and Danish. She afterwards 
translated Fredrika Bremer's novels (1842- 
1863, 18 vols.), works which she was the 
first to make known to English readers. She 
also translated many of Hans Andersen's 
tales, such as ' Only a Fiddler/ 1845, l The 
Improvisators/ 1845, 1847, ' Wonderful 
Stories for Children/ 1846, ' The True Story 
of every Life/ 1847. Among her original 
works were ' The Heir of West Way Ian/ 
1847. She edited for three years the * Draw- 
ing-room Scrap Book/ writing for it among 
other articles ' Biographical Sketches of the 
Queens of England.' She edited the 'Pic- 
torial Calendar of the Seasons/ translated 
Ennemoser's 'History of Magic/ and took the 
chief share in t The Literature and Romance 
of Northern Europe/ 1852. She also produced 
a ' Popular History of the United States ' 
(2 vols. 1859), and a three-volume novel 
called ' The Cost of Caergwyn ' (1864). Her 
name was attached as author, translator, or 
editor to upwards of 110 works. From the 
Literary Academy of Stockholm she received 
a silver medal. On 21 April 1879 she was 
awarded a civil list pension of 100J. a year. 
In the decline of her life she joined the church 
of Rome, and was one of the English deputa- 
tion who were received by the pope on 10 Jan. 
1888. Her interesting ' Reminiscences of my 
Later Life ' were printed in ' Good Words ' in 
1 886. The death of her husband in 1879, and 
of her eldest child, Mrs. A. A. Watts, in 1884, 
caused her intense grief. The ' Times ' says, 
speaking of the Howitts : ' Their friends used 
jokingly to call them William and Mary, and 
to maintain that they had been crowned to- 
gether like their royal prototypes. Nothing 
that either of them wrote will live, but 
they were so industrious, so disinterested, so 
amiable, so devoted to the work of spreading 
good and innocent literature, that their names 
ought not to disappear unmourned.' Mary 
Howitt, having removed from her usual resi- 
dence at Meran in the Tyrol to spend the 
winter in Rome, died there of bronchitis 
on 30 Jan. 1888. A portrait is prefixed to 
Margaret Hewitt's ' Life of Mary Howitt/ 

Among the works written, like those 
already mentioned, independently of her hus- 
band, were : 1. * Sketches of Natural His- 
tory/ 1834. 2. ( Wood Leighton, or a Year 
in the Country/ 1836. 3. ' Birds and Flowers 




and other Country Things/ 1838. 4. ' Hymns 
and Fireside Verses/ 1839. 5. ' Hope on, 
Hope ever, a Tale/ 1840. 6. ' Strive and 
Thrive/ 1840. 7. ' Sowing and Reaping, or 
What will come of it/ 1841. 8. ' Work and 
Wages, or Life in Service/ 1842. 9. 'Which 
is the Wiser? or People Abroad/ 1842. 
10. ' Little Coin, Much Care/ 1842. 11. ' No 
Sense like Common Sense/ 1843. 12. ' Love 
and Money/ 1843. 13. < My Uncle the Clock- 
maker/ 1844. 14. ' The Two Apprentices/ 

1844. 15. ' My own Story, or the Autobio- 
graphy of a Child/ 1845. 16. ' Fireside Verses/ 

1845. 17. ' Ballads and other Poems/ 1847. 
18. 'The Children's Year/ 1847. 19. ' The 
Childhood of Mary Leeson/ 1848. 20. ' Our 
Cousins in Ohio/ 1849. 21. ' The Heir of 
Wast-Waylan/ 1851 . 22. ' The Dial of Love/ 
1853. 23. < Birds and Flowers and other 
Country Things/ 1855. 24. 'The Picture 
Book for the Young/ 1855. 25. ' M. Howitt's 
Illustrated Library for the Young/ 1856; 
two series. 26. ' Lillieslea, or Lost and 
Found/ 1861. 27. 'Little Arthur's Letters 
to his Sister Mary/ 1861. 28. ' The Poet's 
Children/ 1863. 29. < The Story of Little 
Cristal/ 1863. 30. ' Mr. Rudd's Grandchil- 
dren/ 1864. 31. ' Tales in Prose for Young 
People/ 1864. 32. 'M. Howitt's Sketches 
of Natural History, 1864. 33. 'Tales in 
Verse for Young People/ 1865. 34. ' Our 
Four-footed Friends/ 1867. 35. ' John Oriel's 
Start in Life/ 1868. 36. ' Pictures from 
Nature/ 1869. 37. ' Vignettes of American 
History/ 1869. 38. 'A Pleasant Life/ 1871. 
39. ' Birds and their Nests/ 1872. 40. ' Na- 
tural History Stories/ 1875. 41. ' Tales for 
all Seasons/ 1881. 42. 'Tales of English 
Life, including Middleton and the Middle- 
tons/ 1881. 

[Margaret Howitt's Life of Mary Howitt, 
1889, with two portraits; Good Words, 1886, pp. 
52, 172, 330, 394, 592 ; Bale's Woman's Eecord, 
1855, pp. 699-702, -with portrait; Athenaeum, 
4 Feb. 1888, p. 148, and 11 Feb. p. 181 ; Times, 
3 Feb. 1888, p. 7, and 7 Feb. p. 8 ; Graphic, 
18 Feb. 1888, p. 168, with portrait; Alaric 
Watts'sLife, 1884,ii. 1-15; Godey's Lady's Book, 
1852, xlv. 320-2; information from Mrs. John 
Macdonell ; and the authorities mentioned under 

HOWITT, RICHARD (1799-1869), poet, 
born at Heanor in Derbyshire in 1799, was 
the son of Thomas Howitt and Phoebe Tantum. 
William Howitt [q. v.] was his brother. He 
spent his earlier years as a druggist in Not- 
tingham, at first in partnership with his 
brother William, but finally on his own ac- 
count. He was an ardent lover of literature, 
and published in 1830 a volume of poems 
entitled ' Antediluvian Sketches.' This was 

highly praised by competent judges, and was 
followed in 1840 by the ' Gipsy King ' and 
other poems. Many of Howitt's poems ap- 
peared first in ' Tait's Magazine ' and W. 
Dearden's ' Miscellany.' Towards the end of 
1839 Richard, in company with his brother, 
Dr. Godfrey Howitt, emigrated to Australia, 
but returned in 1844, and published his ex- 
periences in ' Impressions of Australia Felix 
during Four Years' Residence in that Colony, 
Notes of a Voyage round the World, Austra- 
lian Poems/ &c., 1845. This miscellany of 
prose and verse was described by Leigh Hunt 
as 'full of genuine pictures of nature, animate 
and inanimate.' After a stay in Nottingham 
Howitt retired to Edingley, Nottinghamshire, 
and published in 1868 a last volume of verse, 
' Wasp's Honey, or Poetic Gold and Gems of 
Poetic Thought.' He died at Edingley on 
5 Feb. 1869, and was buried in the Friends' 
cemetery at Mansfield. Christopher North 
says of him, in the 'Noctes Ambrosianae/ 
' Richard has true poetic feeling, and no 
small poetic power.' 

[The Reliquary, x. and xi.; Mary Howitt: an" 
Autobiography, edited by her daughter, Margaret 
Howitt, 1889, i. 117, 181, 222, ii. 169; Notting- 
ham Daily Express, February 1869 ; Nottingham 
Daily Guardian, February 1 869 ; Smith's Friends' 
Books.] E. B. 

HOWITT, SAMUEL (1765 P-1822), 
painter and etcher, a member of an old Not- 
tinghamshire quaker family, was born about 
1765. In early life he was in an independent 
position, and, "residing at Chigwell, Epping 
Forest, devoted himself to field sports. Finan- 
cial difficulties compelled him to turn to art 
as a profession. Coming to London, he was 
for a time a drawing master, and attended 
Dr. Goodenough's academy at Baling. In 
1783 he exhibited with the Society of British 
Artists three l stained drawings ' of hunting 
subjects, and in 1785 first appeared at the 
Royal Academy, contributing two landscapes ; 
in 1793 he sent ' Jaques and the Deer' and 
'A Fox Hunt.' He worked both in oils and 
water-colours, confining himself to sporting 
subjects and illustrations of natural history, 
which are carefully drawn, very spirited and 
truthful. Howitt was closely associated in 
his art with Rowlandson, whose sister he 
married, and his works frequently pass for 
those of his brother-in-law; but, unlike Row- 
landson, he was a practical sportsman, and 
his incidents are more accurately delineated. 
He was a clever and industrious etcher, and 
published a great number of plates similar 
in character to his drawings, and delicately 
executed with a fine needle. He also pro- 
duced a number of caricatures in the manner 




of Rowlandson. It has been stated that 
Howitt visited India, hut this is an error ; 
his only eastern subjects were the drawings 
for Captain T. Williamson's ' Oriental Field 
Sports,' 1807, and these were worked up in 
England from sketches by Williamson. Other 
of his works are : ' Miscellaneous Etchings 
of Animals,' 50 plates, 1803; 'British Field 
Sports,' 20 coloured plates, 1807; 'The Angler's 
Manual/ with 12 plates, 1808 ; 'A New Work 
of Animals, principally designed from the 
Fables of ^Esop, Gay, and Phsedrus/ 56 plates, 
1811; 'Groups of Animals,' 24 plates, 1811; 
'The British Sportsman,' 70 plates, 1812; 
and many of the drawings for ' Foreign Field 
Sports,' 1814. After 1794 Howitt reappeared 
at the Royal Academy only in 1814 and 1815. 
He died in Somers Town in 1822. His great- 
granddaughter, Mrs. Samuel Hastings, pos- 
sesses a large number of his works, and ex- 
amples are in the print room of the British 
Museum and the South Kensington Museum. 

[Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1880; Universal Cat. of Books 
on Art; Eeminiscences of Henry Angelo, 1830; 
Grego's Eowlandson ; information from Eev. S. 
Hastings.] F. M. O'D. 

HOWITT, WILLIAM (1792-1879), mis- 
cellaneous writer, was born at Heanor, Derby- 
shire, 18 Dec. 1792. His father, Thomas 
Howitt, who farmed a few acres of land at 
Heanor, joined the Society of Friends on his 
marriage with Phoebe Tantum, a member of 
the same society, with whom he acquired a 
considerable fortune. William was a pre- 
cocious child, who at the age of thirteen 
wrote ' An Address to Spring,' which was 
inserted in the ' Monthly Magazine.' From 
1802 to 1806 he was at the Friends' public 
school at Ackworth, Yorkshire (NODAL, Bib- 
liography of Ackworth School, 1889, pp. 17- 
20, with portrait ; H. THOMPSON, History of 
Ackworth School, 1879, pp. 328-34), and after- 
wards went to school at Tamworth, where 
he studied chemistry and natural philosophy. 
He owed his real education, however, to pri- 
vate reading and his natural aptitude for 
acquiring foreign languages. From his youth 
he was fond of open-air sports. In 1821 he 
married Mary Botham [see HOWITT, MARY]. 
The first year of their married life was passed 
in Staffordshire, where they conjointly wrote, 
the first of many like productions, a poetical 
volume entitled ' The Forest Minstrel.' In 
1823 they made a pedestrian tour through 
Scotland, at that date an unheard-of achieve- 
ment. On their return Howitt took up his 
residence in the Market Place, Nottingham, 
as a chemist and druggist. Business did not 
interrupt his literary work, and in 1831 he 

produced the ' Book o the Seasons, or Ca- 
lendar of Nature,' in 1833 his ' Popular His- 
tory of Priestcraft in all Ages and Nations/ 
and in 1835 his ' Pantika, or Traditions of 
the most Ancient Times,' 2 vols. The 'Book 
of the Seasons ' was refused by four of the 
principal publishing houses, yet when taken 
up by Col burn & Bentley rapidly ran to 
seven large editions. His ' History of Priest- 
craft ' led to his election as alderman of 
Nottingham, and to association with the ac- 
tive liberals of the day. Finding that public 
life deprived him of leisure for writing, he 
in 1836 removed to West End Cottage, Esher, 
where he resided during the next three years. 
Here he wrote ' Rural Life of England/ 
2 vols., 1838, 'The Boys' Country Book/ 
1839, and the first series of ' Visits to Re- 
markable Places/ 1840. In 1840 he took up 
his residence at Heidelberg for the benefit of 
his children's education, and in 1842, besides 
publishing the second series of 'Visits to 
Remarkable Places/ brought out ' Rural and 
Domestic Life of Germany/ a work which, 
according to the ' Allgemeine Zeitung/ con- 
tained the most accurate account of that 
country written by a foreigner. While in 
Germany Howitt not only improved his 
knowledge of German literature, but also 
made a complete study of Swedish and 
Danish. Returning to England in 1843 he 
settled at The Elms, Clapton, London, where 
he studied mesmerism. In April 1846 he be- 
came connected with the ' People's Journal/ 
first as a contributor, and afterwards as part 
proprietor. A quarrel ensuing Howitt with- 
drew, and in January 1847 set up a rival perio- 
dical called' Hewitt's Journal/ of which three 
volumes appeared, but it was not a pecuniary 
success. Among other works from his pen 
were ' Homes and Haunts of the most eminent 
British Poets,' 1847, ' The Year-Book of the 
Country/ 1850, and 'Madame Dorrington of 
the Dene/ a novel, 1851. From 1848 to 1852 
he lived at Upper Avenue Road, St. John's . 
Wood. In June 1852, accompanied by his 
sons Alfred William and Charlton, he set sail 
for Australia on a visit to his brother Dr. 
Godfrey Howitt. During the two following 
years he travelled through Victoria, New 
South Wales, and Tasmania, and had prac- 
tical experience of working in a gold-field. 
Coming back to England in 1854, his family 
in the meantime having removed to the 
Hermitage, Highgate, he wrote several works 
on Australia (' A Boy's Adventures in the 
Wilds of Australia/ 1854, 'Land, Labour, 
and Gold, or Two Years in Victoria/ 1855, 
2 vols., ' Tallangetta, the Squatter's Home/ 
1857, 3 vols., ' The History of Discovery in 
Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand/ 1865, 


I2 5 


2 vols.), but his opinions on colonial matters 
were severely criticised. About this period 
Howitt and his wife became believers in 
spiritualism, but, as in the case of their friends 
Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall, their regard for 
the Christian religion did not diminish (see 
The Pyschological Review, 1882 v. 36, 293, 
410, 510, 1883 vi. 13, 88 ; A. M. H. WATTS, 
Pioneers of the Spiritual Reformation, 1883, 
pp. 157-325). Settling at West Hill Lodge, 
Highgate, in 1857, Howitt continued his in- 
defatigable literary labours, and occupied 
much of his leisure in arranging seances with 
D. D. Home [q. v.] (Spiritual Mag. February 
1860 and October 1861 ; HOME, Incidents in 
my Life, 1863, p. 189). He contributed to the 
' Spiritual Magazine' upwards of a hundred 
articles describing his personal experiences. 
On 19 June 1865 he received a pension 
from the civil list of 140/. a year. Between 
1856 and 1862 he wrote five large volumes 
of a ' Popular History of England ' (from 
the reign of Edward II) for Messrs. Cas- 
sell, Fetter, & Galpin, which passed through 
seven editions. It was sold originally in 
weekly numbers, and reached a circulation 
of a hundred thousand. Lord Brougham and 
Dr. Robert Chambers highly commended it. 
From 1866 to 1870 he lived at The Orchard, 
near Esher. In 1870 he settled at Rome, 
where on 16 April 1871 he celebrated his 
golden wedding. During the summer he lived 
at Dietenheim in the Tyrol, returning to Rome 
for the winter and spring. At Rome he in- 
terested himself in the formation of a Society 
for the Protection of Animals, and in a pro- 
ject for planting the Campagna with the 
Eucalyptus globulus, well known for its power 
of destroying malaria. He died of bronchitis 
and hemorrhage at 55 Via Sistina, Rome, 
3 March 1879, and was buried in the pro- 
testant cemetery on 5 March. 

Among his children were Alfred William 
Howitt, Australian traveller, and the dis- 
coverer of the remains of the explorers 
Burke and Wills, which he brought to Mel- 
bourne for burial ; Herbert Charlton Howitt, 
who was drowned while engineering a road 
in New Zealand ; Anna Mary Howitt, wife 
of Alfred Alaric Watts, the biographer of 
her father, and author of ' Art Work in 
Munich,' who died at Dietenheim 23 July 
1884 ; and Margaret Howitt, the writer of 
the ' Life of Fredrika Bremer/ and of the 
memoir of her own mother. 

In conjunction with his wife he wrote or 
edited besides the works mentioned above : 
1. ' The Desolation of Eyam, and other Poems/ 
1827. 2. l The Literature and Romances of 
Northern Europe,' 1852. 3. ' Stories of Eng- 
lish and Foreign Life,' 1853. 4. 'Howitt's 

Journal of Literature and Popular Progress,' 
1847-9. 5. 'The People's and Hewitt's 
Journal/ 1849. 6. ' Ruined Abbeys and 
Castles of Great Britain/ 1862, 1864, two 

His principal works, in addition to those al- 
ready mentioned, were: 1. 'Colonisation and 
Christianity : a History of the treatment of 
Natives by Europeans/ 1838. 2. ' The Student 
Life of Germany/ by Dr. Cornelius, i.e. W. 
Howitt, 1841. 3. Peter Schlemihl's 'Wun- 
dersame Geschichte/ a translation, 1843. 

4. ' Wanderings of a Journeyman Tailor/ 
by P. D. Holthaus, a translation, 1844. 

5. ' The Life and Adventures of Jack of the 
Mill/ 1844. 6. ' German Experiences/ 1844. 
7. ' Life in Dalecarlia/ by F. Bremer, a 
translation, 1845. 8. 'The Hall and the 
Hamlet, or Scenes of Country Life/ 1848, 
2 vols. 9. ' The History of Magic/ by J. En- 
nemoser, a translation, 1854, 2 vols. 10. ' The 
Man of the People/ 1860, 3 vols. 11. ' The 
History of the Supernatural in all Ages and 
Nations/ 1863, 2 vols. 12. 'Woodburn 
Grange ; a Story of English Country Life/ 
1867, 3 vols. 13. ' The Northern Heights 
of London, or Historical Associations of 
Hampstead, Highgate, Muswell Hill, Horn- 
sey, and Islington/ 1869, 8vo. 14. 'The 
Mad War-Planet, and other Poems/ 1871. 
15. 'The Religion of Rome/ 1873. 

[A. M. H. Watts's Pioneers of the Spiritual 
Reformation, 1883, pp. 157-325 ; The Natura- 
list, April 1839, pp. 366-73, with portrait; Cor- 
nelius Brown's Nottinghamshire Worthies, 1883, 
pp. 355-60 ; Home's New Spirit of the Age, 
1844, i. 177-98; Wilson's Noctes Ambrosianse, 
No. xxxix. November 1828, No. Ivi. April 1831 ; 
S. C. Hall's Retrospect of a Long Life, 1883, ii. 
126-31 ; Times, 4 March 1879, p. 10, 6 March, 
p. 5 ; Allibone's Diet, of English Literature, i. 
905-8; Spencer T. Hall's Remarkable People 
whom I have known, 1873, pp. 311-15; Illus- 
trated London News, 29 March 1879, pp. 297, 
{ 298, with portrait.] Gr. C. B. 


j 1600), bishop of Peterborough, the son and 
I heir of John Howland, gentleman, of the city 
! of London, and Anne Greenway of Cley, 
! Norfolk, was born at Newport Pond, near 
Saffron Walden, Essex, and baptised 26 Sept. 
1540. He was admitted pensioner at Christ's 
College, Cambridge, 18 March 1557 -8, whence 
he migrated to St. John's College, where he 
I graduated B.A. 1560-1. He was elected a 
j fellow of Peterhouse 11 Nov. 1562, and pro- 
ceeded M. A. in 1564. His subsequent degrees 
i were B.D. 1570, D.D. 1578. He was incor- 
porated M.A. of Oxford 9 July 1567. In 1569 
he became rector of Stathern, Leicestershire, 
on the presentation of the master and fellows 




of Peterhouse. In his earlier years Howland 
was an adherent of Thomas Cartwright (1535- 
1603) [q. v.], and signed the unsuccessful 
petition to Burghley in 1571 imploring that 
Cartwright might be allowed to return to 
Cambridge (STEYPE, Annals, I. ii. 376, n. 
i. 2, 415). He. subsequently changed his 
opinions, and on a violent sermon being 
preached in St. Mary's by one Milayn, a 
fellow of Christ's, in favour of ' the antidis- 
ciplinary faction,' on a Sunday morning in 
October 1573, he ably and successfully con- 
troverted its teaching on the same day in the 
same place in the afternoon (STEYPE, Whit- 
gift, i. 98). Howland gained the confidence 
of Burghley, then chancellor of the university, 
who made him his chaplain. By Burghley 's 
influence he was appointed to the mastership 
of Magdalene College, then almost in a state 
of bankruptcy, in 1575-6. When Whit- 
gift resigned the mastership of Trinity in 
June 1577, on his election to the see of 
Worcester, he strongly recommended How- 
land, who was his personal friend, to Burgh- 
ley, as his successor. The queen, however, 
had already selected Dr. Still, the master 
of St. John's, and it was arranged that How- 
land should be transferred from Magdalene 
to St. John's as Still's successor, being ' a 
man of gravity and moderation, and of 
neither party or faction.' He was admitted 
master 20 July 1577, the whole society of St. 
John's sending a letter of thanks to Burgh- 
ley for 'the great moderation of the most 
worthy master set over them ' (ib. i. 153, 156). 
The college had been for some years dis- 
tracted by dissensions between the puritan 
and anglican factions, to heal which a new 
body of statutes had been given enlarging 
the power of the master and defining his 
authority. Howland successfully gave effect 
to the new statutes (ib. I.e. ; BAKEE, Hist, of 
St. John's Coll. ed. Mayor, pp. 173 sq.) In 
1578 he served the office of vice-chancellor, 
in which capacity he, at the head of the uni- 
versity, waited on the queen on her visit to 
AudleyEnd, 27 July 1578, and presented her 
with a Greek Testament and a pair of gloves, 
making a suitable oration (STEYPE, Annals, 
II. ii. 203). In 1583 he was again vice-chan- 
cellor. The following year Whitgift, by this 
time archbishop, recommended his old friend 
for either of the vacant sees of Bath and 
Wells or of Chichester, or, failing these, for 
the deanery of Peterborough (STEYPE, Whit- 
gift, i. 337). When Burghley advised Eliza- 
beth to confer the deanery on him, she replied 
that he was ' worthy of a better place,' and 
in 1584 nominated him to the see of Peter- 
borough on the translation of Bishop Scam- 
bier to Norwich. He was consecrated by 

Whitgift at Lambeth, 7 Feb. 1584-5 (STEYPE, 
Annals, in. i. 336). The fellows lamented 
Howland's departure from St. John's, al- 
though his frequent absence from Cambridge 
had caused some dissatisfaction (cf. ib. bk. ii. 
pp. 166-71). The choice of a successor threat- 
ened to involve the college in a fierce internal 
struggle ; to avert strife it was arranged that 
Howland should continue to hold the master- 
ship with his poorly endowed bishopric. But 
in February 1585-6 the strain of the double 
responsibility determined him to resign the 
mastership ' (z'6. pp.642-4). On finally quitting 
Cambridge Howland obtained Burghley's per- 
mission to take some young members of his 
college of good birth with him to Peterborough 
for health and recreation in the summer. 
Among these were the Earl of Southampton, 
Burghley's grandson, and the grandson of 
Sir Anthony Denny (ib. p. 645). 

Howland pleaded the cause of his diocese 
against the excessive tax for furnishing light 
horse. As bishop he took the first place at 
the funeral of Mary Queen of Scots in Peter- 
borough Cathedral, February 1587. The 
funeral cortege met at his palace, and after a 
great supper in his hall proceeded to the 
cathedral. On the death of Archbishop Piers 
in 1594, Howland was earnestly recom- 
mended for the see of York by the lord pre- 
sident (Earl of Huntingdon), though person- 
ally a stranger to him, and the council of the 
north, on the ground of Archbishop Whit- 
gift's high opinion of him. He wrote to 
Burghley begging ' a removal to a better sup- 
port,' but Burghley declined his assistance 
and Matthew Hutton was appointed (ib. 
Whitgift, ii. 213 ; Lansdowne MSS. Ixxxvi. 
87, 89). The deprivation of Cawdry, vicar 
of South LufFenham, Rutland, for ' depraving 
the Book of Common Prayer,' by Howland 
led to a long dispute with that ' impracticable 
person ' (ib. Aylmer, p. 92). Howland wtiile 
bishop held the living of Sibson, Leicester- 
shire, in commendam, and laboured under 
imputations of having impoverished his bi- 
shopric to gratify his patron Burghley (LAUD, 
Works, A.-C. T., vi. ii. 357, 374). He was 
also the object of the scurrilous attacks of 
Martin Mar-Prelate (Epistle, v. 21). He 
died unmarried at Castor, near Peterborough, 
23 June 1600, and was obscurely buried in 
his cathedral, without any memorial or epi- 
taph. He is said to have been ' a very learned 
and worthy man ' ( STEYPE, Life of Whitgift, 
ii. 213). 

[Strype's Annals, Whitgift, Aylmer, 11. cc. ; 
Wood's Athense, ii. 802 ; Brydges's Eestituta, ii. 
243 ; Lansd. MSS. xlii. 56, 58, 1. 38, Hi. 68, 
Ixxii. 77, Ixxvi. 87, 88, cxv. 36; Cooper's 
Athense Cantabr.] E. V. 




HOWLET, JOHN (1548-1589), Jesuit, 
was born in the county of Rutland in 1548. 
He entered at Exeter College, Oxford, in 
1564, and graduated B. A. in 1566, becoming 
a fellow. He went abroad in 1570 with the 
permission of his college, intending to travel 
to Rome, but, entering the college of Douay 
in the same year, he was in 1571 received 
into the order of Jesus at Louvain. At 
Douay he was a contemporary of Campion, 
and studied theology. He afterwards taught 
many different subjects, chiefly at Douay. 
In 1587 he proceeded to Poland to assist in 
the Transylvanian mission, and died at Wilna 
on 17 Dec. 1589. 

Howlet's name was well known in Eng- 
land because it was appended to the dedica- 
tion to the queen prefaced to the tract by 
Parsons entitled, 'A Brief Discours contayn- 
ing certayne reasons why Catholiques refuse 
to go to Church. Written by a learned and 
vertuous man to a frend of his in England, 
and Dedicated by J. H. to the Queenes most 
excellent Maiestie/ Douay (really printed at 
London), 1580. 

[Boase's Reg. of Exeter, pp. 45, 181, 207 ; 
Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 184 ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 67; Hearne's Coll., 
Oxf. Hist. Soc., 4 Sept. 1705 ; Reg. Univ. Oxon., 
(Oxf.Hist. Soc.), vol. ii. pt. ii.p.20; Henr.Morus, 
Hist. Provincise AnglicanseSocietatis Jesu, i. xv; 
Oliver's Biog. of the Members of the Soc. of 
Jesus, p. 119 ; Southwell's Bibl. Script. Soc. Jesu, 
ed. Rome, 1676, p. 461 ; Foley's Records of the 
Engl. Province, i. 376 ; Knox's Douay Diaries, 
pp. 4, 24 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] W. A. J. A. 

1827), draughtsman and engraver, born in 
Louth in Lincolnshire in 1767, was son, by 
his first marriage, of Bartholomew Hewlett, 
a native of Norfolk, who was settled at Louth. 
Hewlett came to London and served as ap- 
prentice to James Heath [q. v.] the engraver. 
He was mainly employed on topographical 
and antiquarian works. In 1801 he engraved 
and published ' A Selection of Views in the 
County of Lincoln,' with seventy-five plates 
from drawings by Girtin, Nash, and others, 
of which a later edition appeared in 1805. 
He also executed plates for Wilkinson's 
' Londina Illustrata,' Bentham's ' History of 
Ely/ Frost's ' Notices of Hull,' Anderson's 
' Plan and Views of the Abbey Royal of 
St. Denys/ the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' and 
similar works. In 1817 he made a number 
of drawings for a projected ' History of Clap- 
ham,' of which one number only was pub- 
lished. When the Royal Hospital of St. Ka- 
therine, near the Tower, was pulled down in 
1826, Hewlett made a number of drawings, 
with a view to a publication, which never 

appeared. For John Caley [q. v.] Hewlett 
made drawings of about a thousand seals of 
English monastic and religious houses. Sub- 
sequently he fell into pecuniary difficulties, 
and died at Newington, 18 Dec. 1827, aged 

[New Monthly Magazine, June 1828; Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. i. 321, vii. 69, 5th ser. ix. 
488 ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] L. C. 

HOWLETT, JOHN (1731-1804), poli- 
tical economist, was doubtless son of John 
Hewlett of Bedworth, Warwickshire. He 
matriculated from St.Edmund's Hall, Oxford, 
on 10 Nov. 1749, aged 18, and graduated 
B.A. from St. John's College in 1755, M.A. 
in 1795, and B.D. in 1796. He was pre- 
sented to the living of Great Dunmow, Essex, 
in 1771, and was also vicar of Great Badow. 
He died at Bath on 29 Feb. 1804. 

Hewlett wrote much on the statistics and 
condition of the people, and severely criticised 
the theories and writings of Dr. Price. In 
contradiction to Price he maintained that 
enclosures resulted from the increase in popu- 
lation. As an economist he is wanting in 
originality. His merits as a statistician con- 
sist chiefly in the miscellaneous information 
which he brought together. 

His works, apart from separately published 
sermons, are: 1. 'An Examination of Dr. 
Price's Essay on the Population of England 
and Wales/ 1781. 2. ' An Enquiry into the 
Influence which Enclosures have had upon 
the Population of England,' 1786. 3. ' An 
Essay on the Population of Ireland,' 1786. 

4. ' Enclosures a cause of Improved Agricul- 
ture,' 1787. This is a rejoinder to the re- 
views of his previous work on enclosures. 

5. ' The Insufficiency of the causes to which 
the Increase of our Poor and the Poor's Rates 
have been generally ascribed,' 1788. 6. ' At 
end of Wood's Account of Shrewsbury House 
of Industry a Correspondence with Hewlett,' 

1795. 7. 'An Examination of Mr. Pitt's 
Speech in the House of Commons on 12 Feb. 

1796, relative to the condition of the Poor,' 
1796. 8. * Dispersion of the present gloomy 
apprehensions of late repeatedly suggested 
by the Decline of our Corn Trade, and con- 
clusions of a directly opposite tendency esta- 
blished upon well-authenticated facts. To 
which are added Observations upon the first 
Report of the Committee on Waste Lands,' 
1798. 9. < The Monthly Reviewers reviewed 
in a Letter to those Gentlemen, pointing out 
their Misrepresentations and fallacious Rea- 
sonings in the Account of the Pamphlet/ &c., 
1798. 10, ' An Inquiry concerning the In- 
fluence of Tithes upon Agriculture/ &c. (with 
remarks on Arthur Young), 1801. 




[Gent. Mag. 1804, pt. i. p. 282; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; McCulloch's Lit. of Political 
Economy; Works.] E. C. K. GK 

1874), surveyor and inventor, only son of 
Samuel Hewlett of Gracechurch Street, 
London, and grandson of John Hewlett of 
the Hall, Pulham St. Mary the Virgin, Nor- 
folk, was born on 10 July 1794. He entered 
the corps of Royal Military Surveyors and 
Draughtsmen as cadet on 20 Aug. 1808, and 
became a favourite pupil of John Bonnycastle, 
the mathematician [q. v.] Hewlett at the 
age of fourteen drew the diagrams for the 
fourth edition of Bonnycastle's Euclid. On 
becoming a commissioned officer he surveyed 
single-handed parts of Berkshire and Wilt- 
shire for the ordnance survey. The corps being 
reduced in 1817, after the peace, he was on 
half-pay until 1824, when he was appointed 
assistant, and in 1830 chief military sur- 
veyor and draughtsman to the board of ord- 
nance. In 1826 he was an exhibitor at the 
Royal Academy, and in 1828 he published 
an ingenious treatise on perspective. As in- 
spector of scientific instruments for the war 
department he was led to make improve- 
ments in the mountain barometer and in the 
stadiometer then used at the School of Mus- 
ketry. He also invented an anemometer, and 
a method of construction, now widely adopted, 
for large drawing-boards, with compensations 
for moisture and temperature. Several papers 
written by him on these inventions and on 
cognate subjects were published in the ' Pro- 
fessional Papers of the Royal Engineers.' 

From early manhood he spent much time 
in promoting church schools and in charitable 
work among the poor. He retired at the age 
of seventy-one, and died at Bromley in Kent 
on 24 Jan. 1874. 

His elder son, the Rev. Samuel Hewlett, 
B.A. Cambr. (d. 1861), was mathematical 
lecturer at the Royal Military College, Sand- 
hurst. His younger son, Richard Hewlett, 
F.S.A., is one of the editors of the Rolls 
series of Chronicles. 

[Private information.] W. R. 

HOWLEY, HENRY (1775 P-1803), Irish 
insurgent, was a protestant, and worked as 
a carpenter in his native place, Roscrea, 
co. Tipperary. He took part in the rebellion 
of 1798 and in Robert Emmet's insurrec- 
tion. While engaged in the latter plot he 
was the ostensible proprietor of the store in 
Thomas Street, and to him was assigned 
the task of bringing up the coaches by means 
of which Emmet designed to effect his en- 
trance into Dublin Castle. While engaged, 
however, in carrying out this part of the 

programme, and as he was passing along 
Bridgefoot Street, Howley stopped to inter- 
fere in a common street brawl, which unfor- 
tunately ended by his shooting Colonel Lyde 
Brown. Compelled thereupon to consult his 
own safety, Howley left the coaches to their 
fate and fled. To this untoward accident 
Emmet chiefly ascribed the failure of his plot. 
Howley's hiding-place was subsequently be- 
trayed by a fellow-workman, Anthony Fin- 
nerty, to Major Sirr. In the scuffle to arrest 
him Howley shot one of the major's men, 
and escaped into a hayloft in Pool Street, 
but was soon captured. He was condemned 
to death by special commission on 27 Sept. 
1803, confessed to having killed Colonel 
Brown, and met his fate with fortitude. 

[Madden's United Irishmen, 3rd ser. iii. 141 ; 
Saunders's News-Letter, 28 Sept. 1803.] E. D. 

HOWLEY, WILLIAM (1766-1848), 
archbishop of Canterbury, the only son of 
William Howley, vicar of Bishops Sutton 
and Ropley, Hampshire, was born at Ropley 
on 12 Feb. 1766. He was educated at Win- 
chester, where he gained the prize for English 
verse in 1782 and 1783. On 11 Sept. 1783 
he matriculated at Oxford as a scholar of New 
College (of which he afterwards became a 
fellow and tutor), and graduated B.A. 1787, 
M.A. 1791, B.D. and D.D. 1805. Howley 
was appointed tutor to the Prince of Orange, 
afterwards William II of Holland, during 
his residence at Oxford. In 1794 he was 
elected a fellow of Winchester College, and 
on 2 May 1804 was installed a canon of Christ 
Church, Oxford. In 1809 Howley was made 
regius professor of divinity at Oxford, an ap- 
pointment which he resigned upon his eleva- 
tion to the episcopal bench. He was insti- 
tuted to the vicarage of Bishops Sutton on 
8 Dec. 1796, to the vicarage of Andover on 
22 Jan. 1802, and to the rectory of Bradford 
Peverell on 23 May 1811. He was admitted 
to the privy council on 5 Oct. 1813, and on 
the 10th of the same month was consecrated 
bishop of London at Lambeth Palace, in the 
presence of Queen Charlotte and two of the 
princesses. He took his seat in the House of 
Lords at the opening of parliament on 4 Nov. 
1813 (Journals of the House of Lords, xlix. 
666). In 1820 he supported the bill of pains 
and penalties against Queen Caroline from ' a 
moral, constitutional, and religious point of 
view' (Parliamentary Debates, new ser. iii. 
1711), and is asserted to have laid it down 
with much emphasis ' that the king could do 
no wrong either morally or physically ' ( Times 
for 12 Feb. 1848). On the death of Charles 
Manners Sutton in July 1828 Howley was 
translated to the see of Canterbury, and on 




2 April 1829 led the opposition to the second 
reading of the Roman Catholic Relief Bill 
(Parliamentary Debates, new ser. xxi. 58-67), 
but his amendment that the bill should be 
read a second time that day six months was 
defeated, after a debate of three nights, by 
a majority of 105. In October 1831 Howley 
opposed the second reading of the Reform 
Bill, ( because he thought that it was mischiev- 
ous in its tendency, and would be extremely 
dangerous to the fabric of the constitution ' 
(ib. 3rd ser. viii. 302-4); in the following 
spring, however, after much hesitation, he 
offered no further opposition to the measure. 
In 1833 he strongly opposed the Irish Church 
Temporalities Bill (ib. 3rd ser. xix. 940-8), 
and in the same year successfully moved the 
rejection of the Jewish Civil Disabilities Re- 
peal Bill (ib. 3rd ser. xx. 222-6). In July 
1839 Howley moved a series of six resolutions 
denouncing Lord John Russell's education 
scheme (ib. xlviii. 1234-55), the first of which 
was carried by a majority of 111, and the 
others were agreed to. Howley died at Lam- 
beth Palace on 11 Feb. 1848, in the eighty- 
first year of his age, and was buried on the 
19th of the same month at Addington, near 

Howley was 'a very ordinary man' in 
Greville's opinion (Memoirs, 1st ser. 1874, ii. 
263). He is said to have been remarkable for 
the equanimity of his temper, and for his cold 
and unimpressive character. He was neither 
an eloquent preacher nor an effective speaker. 
He took part in a great number of royal cere- 
monials, and lived *in considerable state at 
Lambeth Palace. Accompanied by the lord 
chamberlain, he carried the news of Wil- 
liam IV's death to Kensington Palace, where 
they had an interview with the young queen 
at five in the morning. 

A portrait of him by C. R. Leslie, which 
was engraved by H. Cousins, and his bust 
by Chantrey are in the possession of Mr. 
William Howley Kingsmill of Sydmonton 
Court. Reference is made to a number of 
engraved portraits of Howley in Evans's 
' Catalogues,' and an engraving by W. Holl, 
after the portrait by W. Owen, appears in 
the second volume of Jerdan's ' National 
Portrait Gallery.' 

Howley married, on 29 Aug. 1805, Mary- 
Frances, eldest daughter of John Belli, 
E.I.C.S., of Southampton, by whom he had 
two sons and three daughters. His elder 
son, William, was born on 11 Oct. 1810. He 
matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, on 
17 Dec. 1828, graduated B. A. 1832, and died 
at Lambeth Palace on 16 Jan. 1833. George 
Gordon, his younger son, died on 3 Sept. 1820, 
aged 6. Mary Anne, his eldest daughter, 


married, on 16 June 1825, George Howland 
Willoughby Beaumont of Buckland, Surrey, 
afterwards a baronet. Anne Jane, the second 
daughter, became the w ife of William Kings- 
mill of Sydmonton Court, near Newbury, 
on 16 March 1837. Harriet Elizabeth, the 
youngest daughter, married, on 12 Oct. 1832, 
John Adolphus Wright, rector of Merstham, 
Surrey. Mrs. Howley survived her husband 
several years, and died on 13 Aug. 1860, 
aged 77. 

Howley published several charges and oc- 
casional sermons. He also published ' A 
Letter addressed to the Clergy and Laity of 
his Province,' London, 1845, 8vo, and is said 
to have edited ' Sonnets and Miscellaneous 
Poems by the late Thomas Russell, Fellow of 
New College,' Oxford, 1789, 4to. His corre- 
spondence with Dr. Renn Dickson Hampden 
[q. v.], relative to the appointment of the 
latter to the regius professorship of divinity 
in the university of Oxford, passed through 
several editions. Howley bequeathed his 
library to his domestic chaplain, Benjamin 
Harrison [q. v.], and it now forms part of the 
Howley-Harrison library at Canterbury. 

[The Remembrance of a departed Guide and 
Euler in the Church of G-od, a Charge by Benja- 
min Harrison, archdeacon of Maidstone, 1848 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1848 new ser. xxix. 426-8, I860 
new ser. ix. 330 ; The Georgian Era, 1832, i. 
523; Annual Register, 1848, App. to Chron. 
pp. 214-15; Times, 12 and 21 Feb. 1848; Il- 
lustrated London News, 19 Feb. 1848, with 
portrait; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Anglic. 1854, 
i. 31, ii. 306, 526, 530, iii. 511 ; Kirby's Win- 
chester Scholars, 1888, pp. 16, 272; Alumni 
Oxon. pt. ii. p. 702; Notes and Queries, 7th 
ser. ix. 207, 317, xi. 147, 236-7 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] G. F. E. B. 

HOWMAN, JOHN (1618P-1685), abbot 
of Westminster. [See FECKENHAM, JOHN 

HOWSON, JOHN (1557 P-1632), bishop 
of Durham, born in the parish of St. Bride, 
London, about 1557, was educated at St. 
Paul's School, whence he proceeded to Christ 
Church, Oxford, and was elected a student 
in 1577. He was admitted B.A. on 12 Nov. 
1578, and M. A. on 3 March 1581-2, accumu- 
lating his degrees in divinity on 17 Dec. 1601 
(Reg. of Univ. o/Or/.,Oxf. Hist. Soc., vol. ii. 
pt. iii. p. 76). On 15 July 1587 he was in- 
stalled prebendary of Hereford Cathedral, a 
preferment which he ceded in 1603 (LE NEVE, 
Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 534) ; became preben- 
dary of Exeter on 29 May 1592 (ib. i. 421) ; 
was instituted one of the vicars of Bampton, 
Oxfordshire, on 7 July 1598 ; and was made 
chaplain to the queen. On 1 April 1601 he 




obtained the vicarage of Great Milton, Ox- 
fordshire, was admitted on the following 
15 May to the second prebendal stall at 
Christ Church (ib. ii. 520), and received during 
the same year the rectory of Britwell Salome, 
Oxfordshire. In 1602 he was elected vice- 
chancellor of the university (ib. iii. 476). 
During his term of office he strove to put 
down puritanism with a high hand (WooD, 
Antiquities of Oxford, ed. Gutch, vol. ii. 
pt. i. pp. 271-5). On Accession day, 17 Nov. 
1602, he preached a sermon at St. Mary's, 
Oxford, in defence of the festivities of the 
church of England, which he printed at the 
end of the month (reprinted in 1603, and 
imperfectly in vol. i. of both editions of Lord 
Somers's 'Tracts '). From the dedication to 
Thomas, lord Buckhurst, it appears that the 
sermon gave dire offence to the puritans, who 
accused Howson of preaching false doctrine 
(cf. also CaL State Papers, Dom. 1601-3, p. 
290). Howson was nominated an original 
fellow of Chelsea College on 8 May 1610. 
In 1612 he was again censured for having 
expressed disapproval of the Genevan anno- 
tations in another university sermon (WooD, 
Antiquities of Oxford, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 312). 
The king, whose chaplain he was, sympa- 
thised with him, and marked him out for 
high preferment. He was especially pleased 
by the robust way in which Howson at- 
tacked popery, and by his declaration that 
he would loosen the pope from his chair 
' though he were fastened thereto with a ten- 
penny nail.' On 9 May 1619 Howson was 
consecrated bishop of Oxford (LE NEVE, ii. 
505), from which see he was translated to 
that of Durham in September 1628 (ib. iii. 
295-6). His attempts to enforce Laud's 
decrees involved him in much unseemly 
wrangling with his clergy. He died on 6 Feb. 
1631-2, aged 75, and was buried in St. 
Paul's Cathedral. On 10 Aug. 1601 he mar- 
ried, at Blackbourton, Oxfordshire, Eliza- 
beth Floyd of Bampton (GILES, Bampton, 
2nd ed., p. 36) ; his daughter Anne was mar- 
ried to Thomas Farnaby [q. v.], by whom she 
had several children, and afterwards to a 
Mr. Cole of Suffolk. His portrait is at Christ 
Church ; it was engraved by Droeshout. 

Howson was also author of: 1. 'A Ser- 
mon [on Matth. xxi. 12, 13] preached at 
Paules Crosse the 4 of December 1597. 
Wherein is discoursed that all buying and 
selling of spirituall promotion is unlawfull,' 
4to, London, 1597 ; another edition the same 
year. 2. *A Second Sermon preached at 
Paules Crosse the 21 of May 1598, upon the 
21 of Math, the 12 and 13 verses : conclud- 
ing a former sermon,' 4to, London, 1598. 
3. * Uxore dimissa propter fornicationem 

aliam non licet superinducere, Tertia Thesis 
J. Howsoni,' 8vo, Oxford, 1602 ; another edi- 
tion, ' accessit ejusdem theseos defensio con- 
tra reprehensiones T. Pyi,' 2 pts., 4to, Oxford, 
1606, with a letter in English on the subject 
of the controversy by J. Rainolds,and another 
in Latin by A. Gentilis. 4. ' Articles to be 
enquired of within the dioces of Oxford in 
the first visitation of ... John, Bishop of 
Oxford,' 4to, Oxford, 1619. 5. ' A Circular ' 
to the clergy of his diocese appended to Arch- 
bishop Abbot's ' Coppie of a letter shewing 
the . . . reasons which induced the King's 
Majestie to prescribe those former directions 
for preachers,' 4to, Oxford, 1622. 6. < Cer- 
taine Sermons [on Luke xii. 41, 42, &c.l 
made in Oxford A.D. 1616, wherein is proved 
that St. Peter had no Monarchicall Power 
over the rest of the Apostles, against Bellar- 
mine, Sanders, Stapleton, and the rest of 
that companie,' 4to, London, 1622, published 
by command of James I. The sermon on 
Luke xii. 41, 42, was reprinted in 1661, 4to. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 517-19 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1598-1632; Fuller's 
Worthies, i. 270.] G. a. 

1885), dean of Chester, born 5 May 1816 at' 
Giggleswick-in-Craven, Yorkshire, was son of 
the Rev. John Howson, who for more than 
forty years had been connected with Giggles- 
wick grammar school, and was long its head- 
master. John Saul became a pupil in his 
father's school, reading during later vacations 
with Mr. Slee, a mathematician of some emi- 
nence, living near Ulls water. At the early 
age of seventeen he entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge. There he made lifelong friend- 
ships with contemporaries of the highest 
stamp, such as George Edward Lynch Cotton 
[q. v.], the future bishop of Calcutta, William 
John Conybeare [q. v.], and Thomas Whyte- 
head of St. John s [q. v.], his most intimate 
friend, who accompanied Bishop Selwyn to 
New Zealand, and died there in 1843. Howson 
graduated B. A. in 1837, obtaining a wrangler- 
ship and a place in the first class of the 
classical tripos, and proceeded M.A. in 1841 
and D.D. in 1861. He gained the members' 
Latin essay prize two years in succession 
(1837 and 1838), and was Norrisian prizeman 
in 1841. On leaving the university he became 
private tutor to the Marquis of Sligo, and 
subsequently to the Marquis of Lome, the 
present duke of Argyll. In 1845 he joined 
his friend Conybeare, who had just been ap- 
pointed principal of the Liverpool Collegiate 
Institution, as senior classical master. He 
was ordained deacon in 1845, and priest in 
1846. He left Liverpool for a short time to 



become tutor to the present Duke of Suther- j 
land, but returned again in 1849 to undertake j 
the principalship of the Institution, which j 
he retained till 1865. His management was I 
remarkably successful, and he was also the 
means of establishing a college for girls at I 
Liverpool on the same principles. In 1862 j 
he delivered the Hulsean lectures at Cam- ! 
bridge. In 1866 Bishop Harold Browne of j 
Ely, who had recently appointed him his j 
examining chaplain, presented him to the 
vicarage of Wisbech. Howson thereupon 
resigned the principalship of the Liverpool 
college. He left Wisbech in 1867 on being 
nominated dean of Chester. 

During the eighteen years he held the 
deanery Howson devoted his whole powers 
to the benefit of the cathedral and city of 
Chester. He found his cathedral externally 
crumbling to decay and in some parts in 
danger of absolute downfall, and its interior 
generally squalid and dreary. Howson at 
once commenced the Sunday-evening services 
in the long-disused nave. The work of resto- 
ration of the fabric, which had been already 
begun, he took up and carried through with 
never-relaxing vigour. The cathedral was re- 
opened on 25 Jan. 1872, after the expenditure 
of nearly 100,0007., chiefly raised by his per- 
sonal exertions. Other works succeeded for 
the adornment and completion of the fabric. 
In behalf of the city of Chester Howson was 
the chief instrument in the building and en- 
dowing of the King's School, and in its re- 
organisation on a broader basis, open to all 
creeds and ranks, and of the Queen's School, 
for the higher education of girls. He con- 
tributed largely to the building and organ- 
ising of the new museum, and took a keen in- 
terest in the school of art, of which for many 
years he was president. He tried to repress 
the evils accompanying the l race week ' at 
Chester (cf. KISTGSLEY'S Life and Letters, ii. 
360), and started a series of short papers on 
the subject, to which, at his request, Charles 
Kingsley [q. v.], who in 1870 had become a 
canon of Chester, contributed his well-known 
letter on ; Betting.' Despite Howson's pre- 
judice against broad churchmen, he and 
Kingsley were on very cordial terms during 
Kingsley's three years' stay at Chester. In 
the convocation of York Howson took an 
active part, especially opposing the retention 
of the Athanasian Creed in the public services 
of the church. He was a frequent preacher 
in the university pulpits of Cambridge and 
Oxford, and at St. Paul's and Westminster 
Abbey ; and actively assisted at the meetings 
of the church congress. He contributed an 
article in the ' Quarterly Review,' 1861, on 
' Deaconesses in the Church of England,' pub- 

lished separately as 'The Official Help of 
Women in Parochial Work and in Charitable 
Institutions' (1862), and this publication, 
with his speech at the church congress at 
York in 1866, gave an impulse to the revival 
of a systematised ministry of women in the 
church. Howson died at Bournemouth, in 
the seventieth year of his age, 15 Dec. 1885. 
He was buried 19 Dec. in the cloister garth 
of the cathedral. While in Liverpool he mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of John Cropper of Dingle 
Bank ; she only survived him a few days, and 
was buried in the same grave. He left three 
sons and two daughters. 

Howson's character was one of unaffected 
simplicity and transparent truthfulness. His 
sympathies were more with evangelicals than 
with high churchmen; but he was widely 
tolerant in his church views. He travelled 
much abroad, and twice visited America 
(1871 and 1880). 

Howson's scholarship was sound, and his 
reading extensive. As a preacher, if not elo- 
quent, he was always interesting. His most 
important work, prepared while he was at 
Liverpool, is ' The Life and Epistles of St. 
Paul,' of which he was the joint author with 
his friend, the Rev. W. J. Conybeare. The 
major portion, including the descriptive, geo- 
graphical, and historical portions, to which 
its popularity is chiefly due, was written by 
Howson. The work was published in parts, 
the complete edition being issued in 1852. 
It has gone through many editions, and is 
still a standard work of reference. Howson 
pursued the subject of the life of the great 
apostle in the Hulsean lectures delivered in 
1862. on ' The Character of St. Paul,' which 
reached a fourth edition in 1884 ; in ' Scenes 
from the Life of St. Paul,' 1866; in the 
' Metaphors of St. Paul,' 1868 ; and in < The 
Companions of St. Paul,' 1874. His Horas 
Petrinae, or Studies in the Life of St. Peter,' 
1883, is a slighter work. The Bohlen lectures 
The Evidential Value of the Acts of the 


Apostles,' delivered at Philadelphia (1880), 
traverse similar ground. Of his numerous 
contributions to periodical literature, which 
somewhat suffered from hasty composition, the 
most important were his ' Quarterly Review ' 
articles on ' Greece,' * French Algeria,' ' The 
Geography and Biography of the Old Testa- 
ment,' &c., and his contributions to Smith's 
* Dictionary of the Bible.' For the exegesis 
of the New Testament he wrote commentaries 
on the 'Epistle to the Galatians' in the 
' Speaker's Commentary,' 1881 ; on that to 
Titus in the ' Pulpit Commentary,' 1884 ; and 
on the Acts of the Apostles in Dr. SchafFs 
' Popular Commentary,' 1880. In controver- 
sial literature, he was the author of ' Before 





the Table,' and the ' Position t)f the Celebrant 
during Consecration/ opposing the ' eastward 
position/ the introduction of which into his 
cathedral he strongly deprecated. He was the 
author of several topographical and archaeo- 
logical works, such as the * Ecclesiastical An- 
tiquities of Argyllshire ' in the ' Transactions ' 
of the Cambridge Camden Society ; * Chester 
as it was/ 1872; ' The River Dee : its Aspect 
and History/ 1875; and an historical and 
architectural guide to his own cathedral 
church. Howson also published some devo- 
tional books and many separate sermons. 

[Personal knowledge ; private information ; 
obituary notices.] E. V. 


HOY, THOMAS (1659-1718), physician 
and poet, born on 12 Dec. 1659 (School Reg.\ 
was son of Clement Hoy of London. He was 
admitted into Merchant Taylors' School in 
1672, and was elected a probationary fellow 
of St. John's College, Oxford, in 1675. He 
graduated B.A. 1680, M.A. 1684, M.B. 1686, 
and M.D. 1689. He was appointed regius 
professor of physic at Oxford in 1698. Hearne, 
whose opinion of ' a ranck low church whigg' 
is not likely to be impartial, says that he 
owed his appointment to the influence of Dr. 
Gibbons with Lord Somers, and that he 
scandalously neglected the duties of his office. 
According to Wood he practised as a phy- 
sician ' in and near the antient Borough of 
Warwick/ but in 1698 Evelyn, writing from 
Wotton, speaks of Dr. Hoy as ' a very learned, 
curious, and ingenious person, and our neigh- 
bour in Surrey.' He died, it is said, in Ja- 
maica in or about 1718. Besides contributing 
to the translations of Plutarch's 'Morals/ 
1684, of Cornelius Nepos, 1684, and of Sue- 
tonius's 'Life of Tiberius/ 1689, he pub- 
lished : 1. Two essays, the former ' Ovid de 
arte Amandi, or the Art of Love/ book i. ; 
the latter ' Hero and Leander of Musaeus from 
the Greek/ London, 1682. 2. ' Agathocles, 
the Sicilian Usurper ;' a poem, London, 1683, 

[Kawlinson MS. 533; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 
i. 459 ; Wood's Athene Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 712 ; 
Hearne's Collections, i. 230, 322, &c. ; Evelyn's 
Diary; Eobinson's Eeg. of Merchant Taylors' 
School, i. 277.] C. J. E. 

HOYLAND, FRANCIS (fl. 1763), poet, 
the son of James Hoyland of Castle Howard 
in the county of York, was born in 1727. 
He was educated in a school at Halifax, and 
on 18 June 1744 matriculated at Magda- 
lene College, Cambridge, where he graduated 

B.A. in 1748. Soon afterwards he seems to- 
have made a voyage to the West Indies to 
recruit his health (cf. his Ode to Sleep}. 
He took holy orders, was the friend of Wil- 
liam Mason [q.v.], and was introduced, pro- 
bably by Mason, to Horace Walpole, who 
exerted himself on his behalf, and printed his 
poems at the Strawberry Hill press in 1769. 
From Hoyland's works it may be gathered 
that he was married and poor. The date of 
his death is uncertain. In 1769 he was 
very ill, and his illness prevented him from 
accepting an offer of a living in South Caro- 
lina. He wrote : 1. ' Poems and Translations/ 
London, 1763, 4to, containing three metrical 
versions of psalms by J. Caley. 2. ' Poems/ 
another edition, slightly altered, Strawberry 
Hill, 1769, 8vo. Two impressions with dif- 
ferent title-pages appeared the same year. 
3. ' Odes/ Edinburgh, 1783. His poems were 
reprinted in vol. xli. of the ' British Poets ' 
(ed. Thomas Park), 1808, 8vo, and in the 

< British Poets/ 1822, vol. Ixxiii. 8vo. 

[Hoy land's Works ; "Walpole's Letters, ed. Cun- 
ningham, v. 154, 165; information from F. Pat- 
trick, esq.] W. A. J. A. 

HOYLAND, JOHN (1783-1827), organ- 
ist and composer, the son of a Sheffield cutler, 
was born in 1783. From his childhood he 
evinced an aptitude for music, which he 
studied, for purposes of recreation, under 
William Mather, organist to St. James's, Shef- 
field. Owing to pecuniary losses, Hoyland 
turned to his art for a livelihood, and devoted 
himself to teaching music, with great success. 
In 1808 he succeeded Mather as organist of 
St. James's, and eleven years later removed 
to Louth, Lincolnshire, where he was before 
long appointed organist of the parish church. 
He died on 18 Jan. 1827. His son William 
was organist of St. James's from 1829 to 

Hoyland composed several anthems and 
sacred pieces, also pianoforte studies and 
songs. He is chiefly remembered by his 
setting of the 150th Psalm and a version of 

< The Land o' the Leal.' 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 755 ; Brown's Biog. 
Diet, of Music, p. 334 ; information from Mrs. 
Oakes, Hoyland's daughter.] E. F. S. 

HOYLAND, JOHN (1750-1831), writer 
on the Gipsies, is variously designated as ' of 
Sheffield, Yorkshire/ and as 'formerly of 
York.' It was, however, in the counties of 
Northampton, Bedford, and Hertford that he 
' frequently had opportunity of observing the 
very destitute and abject condition of the 
Gipsy race/ whom he began to study in the 
summer of 1814. He belonged to the quaker 




body, and although ' at some time disunited 
from the society was afterwards reinstated 
into membership.' His separation may have 
been due to his falling in l love with a black- 
eyed gipsy girl ' (Notes and Qu&ries, 2nd ser. 
v. 386) ; but there is nothing to warrant Mr. 
Simson's conclusion 'that the quaker married 
the gipsy girl ' (SiMSON, Hist, of the Gipsies, 
1865, p. 380 n.} He died at Northampton 
30 Aug. 1831. His < Epitome of the History 
of the World from the Creation to the Ad- 
vent of the Messiah,' first published anony- 
mously (London, 12mo, 1812), reached a third 
edition under the title of ' The Fulfilment of 
Scripture Prophecy' (8vo, 1823). It is a 
euhemeristic work, where Elijah is the pro- 
totype of Phaeton, Jephtha's daughter of 
Iphigenia. ' A Historical Survey of the Cus- 
toms, Habits, and Present State of the Gyp- 
sies ' (York, 8vo, 1816), has still some value, 
though it is mainly based on Raper's trans- 
lation of Grellmann's ' Zigeuner.' 

[Joseph Smith's Descriptive Catalogue of 
Friends' Books, 1867; Annual Eegister, 1831, 
p. 257.] F. H. GK 

HOYLE, EDMOND (1672-1769), writer 
on whist, was born in 1672. The statements 
that Yorkshire was the county of his birth 
(Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. vii. 270), that 
he was registrar of the prerogative court of 
Dublin in 1742, and that he held property 
inDublin (Gent. Mag. December 1742, p. 659 ; 
Notes and Queries, 4th ser. v. 259), apply to 
another person. Hoyle is said to have been 
called to the bar. In 1741 he was living in 
Queen Square, London, and gave lessons on 
whist-playing. He also circulated a manu- 
script handbook, which developed into his 
famous ' Short Treatise on the Game of Whist,' 
first printed in 1742. In the early editions 
the author offers for a guinea to disclose the 
secret of his ' artificial memory which does 
not take off your Attention from your Game.' 
The success of his first book encouraged Hoyle 
to bring out similar manuals on ' Backgam- 
mon,' ' Piquet,' ' Quadrille,' and l Brag.' An 
amusingskit, 'The Humours of Whist ' (1743), 
satirised the teacher and his pupils, and al- 
luded to the dismay of sharpers who found 
their secrets made known (CAVENDISH [i. e. 
H. JONES], Laws and Principles of Whist, 
18th edit. 1889, p. 45-8). A lady, unfortunate 
at brag, wrote to the ' Rambler' on 8 May 
1750, that * Mr. Hoyle, when he had not given 
me above forty lessons, said I was one of his 
best scholars.' Hoyle and his teaching are 
spoken of in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 
February 1755, p. 75, in Fielding's ' Tom 
Jones' (bk. xiii. c. 5), in Alexander Thom- 
son's poem on ' Whist' (1792), and in Byron's 

'Don Juan' (canto iii. v. xc.), which first 
appeared in 1821. 

Hoyle died 29 Aug. 1769 at Welbeck 
Street, Cavendish Square, aged 97 (Gent. 
Mag. 1769, p. 463 ; CHAMBERS, Book of Days, 
ii. 282), and was buried in Marylebone church- 
yard. His will, dated 26 Sept. 1761, was 
proved in London on 6 Sept. 1769 ; the exe- 
cutors were his sister Eleanor, a spinster, 
and Robert Crispin (Notes and Queries, 7th 
ser. vii. 481-2). No authentic portrait is 
known ; the picture by Hogarth, exhibited 
at the Crystal Palace in 1870, represents a 
Yorkshire Hoyle. 

Hoyle was the first to write scientifically 
on whist, or indeed any card game. His 
( Short Treatise ' soon became popular. He 
was a careless editor, but possessed a vigorous 
style of writing and much originality. He 
seems to have profited by the experience of 
the best players of the day, and introduced 
many improvements in his successive edi- 
tions. The ' Short Treatise' was entered at 
Stationers' Hall on 17 Nov. 1742 by the 
author, as sole proprietor of the copyright. 
Its full title is < A Short Treatise on the 
Game of Whist, containing the Laws of the 
Game : And also some Rules whereby a Be- 
ginner may, with due attention to them, 
attain to the Playing it well. Calculations 
for those who will Bet the Odds on any 
Point of the Score of the Game then playing 
and depending. Cases stated, to shew what 
may be effected by a very good Player in 
Critical Parts of the Game. References to 
Cases, viz. at the End of the Rule you are 
directed how to find them. Calculations, di- 
recting with moral Certainty, how to play 
well any Hand or Game, by shewing the 
Chances of your Partner's having 1, 2, or 3 
certain Cards. With Variety of Cases added 
in the Appendix,' London, printed by John 
Watts for the Author, 1742, 12mo. The 
copy in the Bodleian Library is the only one 
known of this first edition; several of the 
other early editions are only preserved in 
single copies. The price, one guinea, gave 
rise to piracies, of which the first appeared 
in 1743. Hoyle's own second edition (1743), 
with additions, was sold at 2s. ' in a neat 
pocket size.' The third and fourth editions 
were published in 1743 ; in the fourth edi- 
tion the laws were reduced to twenty-four, 
and so remained until the twelfth edition, 
when the laws of 1760 were given. Fifth 
edition (1744), sixth (1746), seventh (no 
copy known). In the eighth edition (1748) 
thirteen new cases are added, together with 
the treatises on quadrille, piquet, and back- 
gammon. The ninth edition (1748) appeared 
as ' The Accurate Gamester's Companion.' 




The tenth edition (1750 and 1755) hears the 
same title as the eighth, with which it is 
identical. The eleventh edition is undated : 
' Mr. Hoyle's Games of Whist, Quadrille, 
Piquet, Chess, and Backgammon, Complete.' 
The twelfth edition is also undated (1761), 
with the same title ; also reissued * with 
two new cases' at Edinburgh, 1761. The 
thirteenth edition is undated (1763), as well 
as the fourteenth and the fifteenth (1770). 
For many years every genuine copy bore the 
signature of Hoyle. In the fifteenth edition 
it is reproduced from a wood block. Hoyle's 
laws of 1760, revised by members of White's 
and Saunders's, ruled whist until 1864, when 
they were superseded by the code drawn up 
by the Arlington (now Turf) and Portland 
clubs (CAVENDISH, p. 51). After Hoyle's 
death C. Jones revised many editions. The 
book has been frequently reprinted down to 
recent times. The word ' Hoyle' came to 
be used as representative of any book on 
games. An i American Hoyle ' was pub- 
lished about 1860. ' A Handbook of Whist 
on the Text of Hoyle ' was published by G. F. 
Pardon in 1861, and ' Hoyle's Games Mo- 
dernized/ by the same editor, in 1863, 1870, 
and 1872. ' The Standard Hoyle, a complete 
Guide upon all Games of Chance,' appeared 
at New York, 1887. A French translation, 
' TraitS abrege de Jeu de Whist,' was issued 
in 1764, 1765, and 1776, 12mo, as well as in 
the ' Acad6mie Universelle des Jeux,' 1786, 
12mo. A German translation, l Anweisung 
zum Whistspiel,' was printed at Gotha, 1768, 
12mo. 'Calculations, Cautions, and Obser- 
vations relating to the various Games played 
with Cards ' (1761), by Edmond Hoyle, jun., 
is a pamphlet against card-playing ; the name 
was apparently adopted as a pseudonym. 

Hoyle's other works are : 1. < Short Treatise 
on the Game of Backgammon,' London, 1743, 
12mo (1st edit, no title ; 2nd edit. 1745 ; 3rd 
edit. 1748, in 8th edit, of ' Whist '). 2. ' Short 
Treatise on the Game of Piquet, to which are 
added some Rules and Observations for play- 
ing well at Chess,' London, 1744, 12mo 
(2nd edit, 1746 ; 3rd edit. 1748, in 8th edit. 
of ' Whist '). 3. l Short Treatise on the Game 
of Quadrille, to which is added the Laws of 
the Game,' London, 1745, 12mo (2nd edit. 
1748, in 8th edit, of 'Whist ;' 'A brief and 
necessary Supplement to all former Treatises 
on Quadrille,' 1764, is from another hand). 
4. ' Short Treatise of the Game of Brag, con- 
taining the Laws of the Game ; also Cal- 
culations, shewing the Odds of winning or 
losing certain Hands dealt,' London, 1751, 
12mo. 5. ' An Essay Towards making the 
Doctrine of Chances Easy to those who under- 
stand Vulgar Arithmetick only, To which is 

added, Some Useful Tables on Annuities for 
Lives,' London, 1754, 12mo, new edit. 1764. 
The book was announced in the ' Public Ad- 
vertiser,' 23 and 31 Jan. 1754, to be published 
at half a guinea. It appeared about the middle 
of the year. ' When the immortal Edmond 
Hoyle consolidated the game,' says Dr. Pole 
(Philosophy of Whist, 1886, p. 95), < he paid 
particular attention ' to the calculus of pro- 
babilities. The book explains the modes of 
calculation of various problems referring to 
piquet, allfours, whist, dice, lotteries, and an- 
nuities. 6. l An Essay Towards making the 
Game of Chess Easily learned By those who 
know the Moves only, without the Assist- 
ance of a Master,' London, 1761, 12mo (see 
also No. 2. Italian translations appeared in 
1760 and 1803 ; in 1808 was published < Mr. 
Hoyle's Game of Chess, including his Chess 

[All the known facts relating to Hoyle have 
been collected by Mr. Henry Jones, ' Cavendish,' 
see Encyclopsedia Britannica, 9th edit. xxiv. art. 
Whist, andCavendish's Laws and Principles of 
"Whist, 18th edit. 1889, and in greater detail by 
Mr. Julian Marshall, with an interesting biblio- 
graphical account of the early editions, in Notes 
and Queries, 7th ser. vii. 481-2, viii. 3, 42, 83, 
144, 201, 262, 343, 404, 482, ix. 24, 142, A. 
van der Linde's G-eschichte des Schachspiels, ii. 
61-5.] H. E. T. 

HOYLE, JOHN (d. 1797 ?), was author 
of a dictionary of musical terms entitled 
* Dictionarium Musica [sic] ; being a com- 
plete Dictionary or Treasury of Music,' Lon- 
don, 1770; republished, with a new title, in 
1790 and 1791. The work was pronounced 
' short and incomplete ' by the ' Critical Re- 
view ' for February 1791. Hoyle is said to 
have died in 1797. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 755.] E. F. S. 

HOYLE, JOSHUA, D.D. (d. 1654), puri- 
tan divine, was born at Sowerby, near Hali- 
fax, Yorkshire, and educated at Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford. Being invited to Dublin, 
probably by relatives (Catalogue of Graduates 
in University of Dublin, p. 284), he became 
fellow of Trinity College, apparently in 1609, 
received his doctor's degree, and was made 
professor of divinity in the university. Wood 
describes the learning of his lectures and 
his sermons. In 1641, on the breaking out 
of the rebellion, he took refuge in London, 
where he was made vicar of Stepney. His 
preaching was found 'too scholastical' for 
his London congregation. In 1643 he be- 
came a member of the Westminster Assembly 
of Divines, and regularly attended its meet- 
ings. He was presented to the living of 
Sturminster Marshall, Dorsetshire, by the 





House of Commons in February 1642-3 
(Journals of the House of Commons, ii. 973). 
He gave evidence against Laud as to his 
policy when chancellor of Dublin University 
(cf. LAUD, Works, iv. 297 ; PRYNNE, Can- 
terburies Doome, &c., pp. 178, 359). In 
1648, having been for some time employed 
by the committee of parliament for the re- 
formation of the university of Oxford, he 
was appointed master of University College 
and regius professor of divinity. A canonry 
of Christ Church,which had been appropriated 
for the support of the professorship, was as- 
signed to another before Hoyle's appoint- 
ment, and, since the income of the master of 
University College was very small, Hoyle 
complained with reason of straitened means. 
He died on 6 Dec. 1654, and was buried in 
the old chapel of University College. 

Hoyle's learning was esteemed by Arch- 
bishop Ussher, in whose vindication he wrote 
' A Kejoynder to Master Malone's Reply con- 
cerning Reall Presence/ Dublin, 1641, 4to. 
A sermon preached by J. H., printed in 1645 
with the title 'Jehojades Justice against 
Mattan, Baal's Priest/ &c., is attributed to 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 382, 507, 
1146, iv. 398; Brook's Puritans, iii. 226 ; Neal's 
Hist, of the Puritans, iii. 393 ; Eegister of the 
Visitors of the Univ. of Oxford, 1647-58, ed. 
Professor Burrows (Camden Soc.)] E. B. 

HOYLE, WILLIAM (1831-1886), tem- 
perance reformer, fourth child of poor parents, 
was born in the valley of Rossendale, Lanca- 
shire, in 1831. By constant and severe labour 
he succeeded in 1851 in starting a business 
as a cotton-spinner in partnership with his 
father at Brooksbottom, near Bury, Lanca- 
shire. In 1859 he married, and removed to 
Tottington, where a large mill was built. He 
died on 26 Feb. 1886. 

On reaching an independent position Hoyle 
threw himself with great energy into the tem- 
perance movement. In 1869 he published a 
pamphlet by ' A Cotton Manufacturer/ en- 
titled ' An Inquiry into the long-continued 
Depression in the Cotton Trade/ which, re- 
vised and enlarged into a book, was published j 
in 1871 as * Our National Resources, and how j 
they are wasted/ 8vo. This volume made 
Hoyle at once a recognised authority on the 
statistics of the drink question. He followed 
it up by many short publications, and by an 
annual letter to the * Times ' on the ' drink 
bill' of successive years. In 1876 appeared 
* Crime in England and Wales in the Nine- 
teenth Century.' Hoyle was an ardent sup- 
porter of the policy and proceedings of the 
United Kingdom Alliance, and interested 

himself also in the introduction into England 
of Good Templarism. In connection with 
these organisations he wrote many pamphlets 
and letters. His ' Hymns and Songs for 
Temperance Societies and Bands of Hope ' 
have had a large circulation. 

[Manchester Guardian, 1 March 1886, p. 8; 
Ch. of Engl. Temperance Chron. 6 March 1886 ; 
Temperance Kecord, 4 March 1886.] E. B. 


first LOKD ADDLN-GTON (1805-1889), born 21 
March 1805, was eldest son of John Hubbard 
(d. 1847), Russia merchant, of Stratford 
Grove, Essex, by Marian (d. 1851), daughter 
of John Morgan of Bramfield Place, Hert- 
fordshire. He was educated privately, and, 
his health being delicate, he was sent in 1816 
to a school at Bordeaux, where he remained 
for four years. In 1821 he entered his father's 
counting-house, and was soon connected with 
many important commercial undertakings. 
He was in 1838 elected a director of the Bank 
of England. From 1853 until his death he 
was chairman of the public works loan com- 
mission. Hubbard entered the House of Com- 
mons in 1859 in the conservative interest, as 
member for Buckingham. He was not re- 
elected in 1868, but sat for the city of London 
from 1874 until 22 July 1887, when he was 
raised to the peerage as Baron Addington of 
Addington in the county of Surrey. On 
6 Aug. 1 874 he was sworn of the privy council. 
In the House of Commons Hubbard was a re- 
cognised authority on financial questions. The 
income tax was his special study. He wrote on 
it several pamphlets, including ' How should 
an Income Tax be levied ? ' (1852). In 1861, 
in spite of the opposition of Mr. Gladstone, 
then chancellor of the exchequer, he carried a 
motion for a select committee to inquire into 
the assessment of the tax. Hubbard's schemes 
involved the application to imperial taxation 
of the principle now governing local rating, 
and they were afterwards largely adopted. 
Hubbard also spoke and wrote on the coinage, 
ecclesiastical difficulties, and education. He 
built and endowed St. Alban's Church, Hoi- 
born, which was consecrated 26 Feb. 1863, 
but afterwards (1868), in a letter to the Bishop 
of London, protested as churchwarden against 
certain ritualistic practices of which, though 
a high churchman, he did not approve [see 
Addington spoke for the last time in the 
House of Lords on the third reading of the 
Customs and Inland Revenue Bill, 28 May 
1889, and died at Addington Manor 28 Aug. 
1889. He was buried in the parish church- 
yard. He married, 19 May 1837, Maria 
Margaret, eldest daughter of William John, 




eighth lord Napier, and by her had five sons 
and four daughters. He was succeeded by 
his eldest son, Egerton, the present Lord 

[Information from the Hon. A. E. Hubbard ; 
Men of the Time, ed. 1887; Times, 20 July 1868 
and 29 and 31 Aug. 1889 ; Church Times, 6 Sept. 
1889 ; Hansard's Parl. Debates ; A. H. Macko- 
nochie, edit. 1890 ; Eeturn of Memb. of Parl.] 

W. A. J. A. 

HUBBARD, WILLIAM (1621 P-1704), 
historian of New England, born in 1621 or 
1622, was the eldest son of William Hub- 
bard, husbandman, of Tendring, Essex, by his 
wife, Judith, daughter of John and Martha 
(Blosse) Knapp of Ipswich, Suffolk ( Visita- 
tion of Suffolk, ed. Metcalf, 1882, p. 149). 
He accompanied his father to New England 
in July 1635, and graduated at Harvard in 
1642 (SAVAGE, Genealogical Diet. ii. 486-7). 
On 17 Nov. 1658 he was ordained, and be- 
came first assistant, and subsequently pastor, 
of the congregational church in Ipswich, 
Massachusetts, which post he held until 
6 May 1703. During the absence of Increase 
Mather in England in 1688 he was appointed 
by Sir Edmund Andros to act as president 
of Harvard. He died at Ipswich, Massa- 
chusetts, on T Sept. 1704, aged 83. He 
married first Mary (not Margaret), only 
daughter of the Rev. Nathaniel Rogers of 
Ipswich, Massachusetts, by whom he had two 
sons and a daughter. His second marriage, 
in 1694, to Mary, widow of Samuel Pearce, 
who survived him without issue, gave offence 
to his congregation on account of her sup- 
posed social inferiority. During John Dun- 
ton's stay in Ipswich he was entertained by 
Hubbard, of whose learning and virtues he 
has left an eccentric account (Life and 
Errors, ii. 134). A manuscript copy of his 
* History of New England,' for which the 
state of Massachusetts promised, but pro- 
bably did not pay him, 50/., is believed to 
have been rescued from the flames by Dr. 
Andrew Eliot in the attack on Governor 
Thomas Hutchinson's house by the mob in 
August 1765, and presented by Eliot's son 
John to the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, by whom it was wretchedly printed in 
1815. Another edition appeared in 1848, 
forming vols. v-vi. of the second series of the 
society's f Historical Collections ; ' a few 
copies were also struck off separately. 

Hubbard was also author of: 1. 'The 
Happiness of a People in the wisdome of 
their rulers directing, and in the obedience 
of their brethren attending, unto what Israel 
ought to do : recommended in a Sermon [on 
1 Cor. xii. 32] . . . preached at Boston,' 4to, 
Boston, 1676. 2. ' A Narrative of the Troubles 

with the Indians in New England, from . . . 
1607 to ... 1677. ... To which is added 
a Discourse about the Warre with the Pequods 
in ... 1637. (A Postscript, &c.) [With a 
Map of New-England, being the first that 
ever was here cut],' 2 pts.,4to, Boston, 1677 ; 
another edition, under the title of ' The Pre- 
sent State of New England,' &c., 2 pts., 4to, 
London, 1677. The American editions in 
8vo and 12mo are worthless. A beautifully 
printed edition, with a life of the author and 
notes by Samuel G. Drake, was issued as 
Nos. iii. and iv. of W. E. Woodward's < His- 
torical Series,' 4to, Roxbury, Mass., 1865. 
During 1682 Hubbard delivered a < Fast Ser- 
mon ' and a < Funeral Discourse ' on the death 
of General Daniel Denison. These, it is said, 
were also printed. 

[H. F. Waters's Genealogical Gleanings in 
England, vol. i. pt. ii. p. 228 ; Sibley's Harvard 
Graduates, i. 54-62 ; Drake's life referred to.] 


1662), quaker writer, only son of John Hub- 
berthorn, a yeoman, was born at Yealand- 
Redmayne, in the parish of Warton, near 
Carnforth, Lancashire, and baptised at War- 
ton on 8 June 1628. He was brought up in 
puritan principles, became an officer in the 
parliamentary army, and preached to his troop. 
He left the army on becoming a quaker to- 
wards the end of 1648. In 1652 he devoted 
himself to the work of the quaker ministry, 
being one of the earliest of George Fox's tra- 
velling preachers. He accompanied Fox in 
his Lancashire journeys, and had a hand 
(1653) in one of his publications. In 1654 
he went with George Whitehead on a mis- 
sion to Norwich ; next year he travelled 
with Fox in the eastern counties. It ap- 
pears from his report to Margaret Fell 
[q. v.] that he was sometimes permitted to 
speak ' in the steeple-house.' Norwich was 
still his headquarters in 1659. He came 
with Fox to London in 1660, and had an 
audience of Charles II soon after his restora- 
tion. A minute account of the interview 
was published, and is given in Sewel. 
Charles promised that quakers ( should not 
suffer for their opinion or religion.' In ] 662, 
during renewed persecution, Fox and Hub- 
berthorn drew up a spirited letter to Charles. 
Hubberthorn was arrested at Bull and Mouth 
meeting in June 1662, and committed to 
Newgate by Alderman Richard Brown. He 
j died in Newgate of gaol fever on 17 Aug. 

Adam Martindale describes him as l the 

most rational, calm-spirited man of his judg- 

| ment that I was ever publicly engaged 

! against.' He is an excellent sample of the 




arly quaker, of the type anterior to Barclay 
and Penn, without the emotional genius, at 
the same time without the overbalanced 
mysticism of James Nayler [q. v.], in con- 
junction with whom he wrote two tracts. 
His writings are almost all controversial, 
and their tone is more moderate than that 
of some of his contemporaries. His works 
are contained in ' A Collection of the seve- 
ral Books and Writings of ... Richard 
Hubberthorn,' 1663, 4to. Smith enumerates 
thirty-seven separately published pamphlets ; 
the most important are : 1. ' Truth's Defence,' 
&e.; 1653, 4to (partly by Fox). 2. ' The Im- 
mediate Call,' &c., 1654, 4to (part by James 
Parnel). 3. 'The Real Cause of the Nation's 
Bondage,' &c., 1659, 4to. 4. ' The Light of 
Christ Within,' &c., 1660, 4to. 5. 'An Ac- 
count from the Children of Light,' &c., 1660, 
4tp (part by Nayler). 6. ' Liberty of Con- 
science asserted,' &c., 1661, 4to (parts by 
Crook, Fisher, and Howgil). 

[Fox's Journal, 1694, pp. 84-250; Sewel's 
Hist, of Quakers, 1725, pp. 87 sq., 246 sq., 
363 ; Life of Adam Martindale (Chetham Soc.), 
1845, p. 115; Webb's Fells of Swarthmoor, 
1867, pp. 133 sq.; Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books, 
1867, i. 1010 sq.; Barclay's Inner Life, 1876, 
p. 286; extract from baptismal register of War- 
ton, per Eev. T. H. Pain.] A. Gr. 

HUBBOCK, WILLIAM (fi. 1605), di- 
vine, born in 1560 in the county of Durham; 
matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, on 
15 April 1580, aged 19 ; proceeded B.A. from 
Magdalen College early in 1581; and was 
in 1585 admitted M.A. from Corpus Christi 
College, where he was elected a probationer- 
fellow (cf. Oxf. Univ. Reg., Oxf. Hist. Soc.,n. 
ii. 191, iii. 95). He was incorporated in the 
degree of M.A. at Cambridge in 1586. His 
opinions were puritanical, and he was cited 
before the Archbishop of Canterbury for a 
sermon preached about 1590 (cf. Lansdowne 
MS. Ixviii. 77 ; STKYPE, Whitgift, ii. 32-4). 
He became chaplain at the Tower of London, 
and on 12 July 1594 wrote to Burghley com- 
plaining that his lodging at the Tower was 
defective ; he was ill at the time, and stated 
that his salary was but twenty nobles (ib. 
Ixxvii. 48). In 1595 he published a sermon 
entitled l An Apologie of Infants,' a work in- 
tended to prove 'that children prevented 
by death of their Baptisme by God's elec- 
tion may be saved.' On 6 Feb. 1596-7 
he was appointed lecturer at St. Botolph's 
Without, Aldgate, and preached twice on 
Sundays. When James I visited the Tower 
in 'March 1604 on his way to his coronation, 
Hubbock composed and delivered to the king 
a congratulatory address which, although in 
Latin, was published with an English title, 

'An Oration gratulatory,' &c., at Oxford, 'by 
his highnesse special command.' It was re- 
printed, with translation, in Nichols's ' Pro- 
gresses of James I,' i. 325*. 

^ About 1609 he claimed in a petition to the 
king the constable's lodgings in the Tower as 
a residence ; the petition was forwarded to 
Sir William Waad, lieutenant of the Tower, 
who reported adversely. The mint (accord- 
ing to Waad) was the usual residence of the 
chaplain when he had not ' a wife and family 
as this man hath.' Waad also states that 
when he came to the Tower Hubbock was 
resident at a benefice in Leicestershire, and 
provided ' lewd substitutes ' at the Tower. In 
an undated letter to Burghley Hubbock urged 
him to provide learned ministers, and de- 
scribed himself as ' a poore exile.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 752-3 ; 
Cooper's Athenge Cantabr. ii. 528-9 ; Bodl. Libr., 
MS. Bawl. D. 796.] W. J. H-Y. 

HUBERT, SIR FRANCIS (d. 1629), poet, 
was probably son of Edward Hubert, one of 
the six clerks in chancery. Hubert, who 
appears to have been a member of the Middle 
Temple, was appointed clerk in chancery 
9 March 1601 (HAKDY, Catalogue of Chan- 
cellors, &c., p. 109). He was buried at St. 
Andrew's, Holborn, on 13 Dec. 1629. A poem 
by Hubert entitled 'The Historie of Edward 
the Second, surnamed Carnarvon, one of our 
English Kings : together with the fatall 
Downfall of his two Vnfortunate Favorites, 
Gaveston and Spencer,' was completed in the 
reign of Elizabeth, but owing to the freedom 
with which it treated kings, favourites, and 
affairs of state, a license for its publication 
was refused. A surreptitious and incorrect 
edition appeared in 1628, and in the follow- 
ing year Hubert issued the first authentic 
edition, 8vo, London, 1629 (other editions, 
1631 and 1721), with portrait of the author. 
Manuscript copies are in the Harleian MSS., 
Nos. 558 and 2393, the former in the hand- 
writing of Ralph Starkie. Hubert also pub- 
lished ' Egypt's Favorite. The Historie of 
Joseph, divided into foure parts . . . Together 
with Old Israels progresse into the land of 
Goshen,' 8vo, London, 1631. 

[Addit. MS. 24490, ff. 270-1 ; Gent. Mag. 
vol. xciv. pt. ii. pp. 21-2 ; Brydges's Eestituta, 
i. 93; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), ii. 1133; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. G. 

HUBERT WALTER (d. 1205), arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, was a son of Hervey 
Walter and Matilda de Valognes, whose 
sister Bertha was married to Ranulf de Glan- 
ville [q. v.] (Monast, Angl vi. 380, 1128). 
The 'Hubert Walter' mentioned in the 
' Pipe Roll ' of 1158, p. 30, was probably his 




uncle or his grandfather. His surname is 
usually given by Latin writers as l Walteri ; ' 
but in some contemporary documents it is 
found agreeing in case with the Christian 
name (' de Huberto Waltero,' Pipe Roll, 1. c.) ; 
and we have no clue to its origin. Hubert's 
family lived in Suffolk or Norfolk. He is 
said to have been born at West Dereham 
(TANNER, Not. Monast., Norfolk, xxi.) He 
and his brothers (one of whom became an- 
cestor of the Butlers of Ormonde [see BUT- 
LER, THEOBALD]) seem to have been brought 
jjp in Glanville's household (Mon. Angl. vi. 
899) ; he became one of Glanville's chap- 
lains or clerks, and was so much in his con- 
fidence that he was afterwards said to have 
' shared with him in the government of Eng- 
land' (GEEV. CANT. ii. 406). In 1184 and 
1185 he appears as a baron of the exchequer. 

Winchester, 17 April 1194 ; and in May the 
king's departure over sea left him virtual 
ruler of England. 

To keep the country in obedience and to 
supply Richard's ceaseless demands for money 
was Hubert's task during the next four years, 
and the credit of the constitutional and ad- 
ministrative progress made in those years is 
wholly due to him. His policy was based 
on the principles which he had seen put in 
action by Glanville under the inspiration of 
Henry II. Since April 1193 he had been 
engaged, conjointly with the other justiciars 
and the queen-mother, in raising the 100,000/ % 
required for Richard's ransom. For the mea- 
sures taken on this occasion he only shared 
the responsibility with his colleagues and with 
the king himself; but they were probably 
due to his initiative. The demands made 

(MADOX, Hist. Exch. c. vi. sec. iii. ; Form, upon the country were 1 a scutage from the 

Angl. p. 217) ; and in 1185 he was one of six tenants-in-chivalry*a tax of two shillings per 

envoys employed by Henry II to negotiate carucate from the socage tenants,^ a fourth 

with the monks of Canterbury about the elec- of personal property from every free man, 

tion of a primate. Next year he was made frthe year's woolxfrom the Cistercians and 

dean of York, and in September was one of Gilbertines, and 'the treasures of the great 

five persons nominated by the York chapter churches. The first was matter of course ; 

for the vacant see ; the king, however, re- 
jected all five. In April 1189 Hubert ap- 
pears as a justice of the curia regis at West- 
minster (Fines, ed. Hunter, i. pref. xxiii) ; 
a little later he seems to have been acting as 
protonotary, or vice-chancellor, to Henry in - 
Maine ; in September the new king, Richard, 

^ appointed him'bishop of Salisbury; and Arch- 
bishop Baldwin consecrated him on 22 Oct. 
In February 1190 Richard summoned him 
to Normandy, and he accompanied king 
and primate to the Holy Land. There he 
won universal esteem by his zeal and energy 
in relieving the wants of the poorer crusaders. 
After Baldwin's death he became the chief 
spiritual authority in the host; and he was 
also Richard's chief agent in negotiati 
with Saladin. As Richard's represent 
he headed the first body of pilgrims who 
the Turks admitted to the sepulchre, and 
after Richard's departure he led back the 
English host from Palestine to Sicily. There 
he heard of the king's captivity ; he at once 

_went to visit him, and came back to England 
in April 1193 charged to act as one of the 
commissioners for the collection of the ran- 
som, and closely followed by a royal man- 
date for his election to the see of Canterbury. 
Elected by the chapter 29 May, by the bishops 
next day, he was enthroned and received his 
pall 7 Nov. At the close of the year Richard 
appointed him justiciar ; in this capacity he 
took a leading part in the suppression of 
John's attempt at revolt ; as archbishop he 
officiated at Richard's second crowning at 

chiet wh( 
; was pan 
atifln-W c 

i TT i 

the last was wholly exceptional, excused by 
exceptional need ; the second was in effect a 
revival of the Danegeld under the less offen- 
sive name of ' hidagium ' or f auxilium caru- 
catarum ' (MADOX, Hist. Exch. c. xv. sec. 
iv.) ; the third marked an important advance 
in the direct taxation of personal property as 
introduced by Henry II; and the fourth, 
commuted for a money-payment, was 'an 
important precedent for the raising of revenue 
on and through the staple article of English 
production.' To these taxes was added a 
tallage on the towns and royal demesnes, 
assessed as usual by the justices itinerant 
whom Hubert sent out, after Richard's de- 
parture, on their annual visitation tour, with 
commission which by its extension and 
finition of the pleas of the crown, its ap- 
intment of elective officers (whQ_grew_intP 
^ modern coroners) to keep those pleas in I 
every shire, ancTTls elaborate regulations for! 
the election of the juries of presentment,! 
forms a landmark in the development of] 
TTanryTT'g pinna of ^far^ Next year (1195)' 
Hubert issued an edict requiring every man 
above the age of fifteen years to take an oath 
for , the maintenance of public peace, before 
knights appointed for the purpose in every 
shire ; from this sprang the office first of con- 
servators, and later, of justices of the peace., 
At the close of the year he negotiated with 
William, king of Scots, a treaty of marriage 
between William's eldest daughter, and 
Richard's nephew Otto, which was never car- 
ried out, but served the good purpose of 




keeping peace between England and Scotland 
for many years. 

In 1196 Hubert's troubles began. At Mid- 
Lent the London craftsmen, dissatisfied with 
-the mode in which the local taxation was 
assessed by the civic rulers, were on the 
verge of a rising, which the justiciar strove 
to prevent by the arrest of their leader, Wil- 
liam FitzOsbert [q. v.] William took sanc- 
tuary in the church of St. Mary-at-Bow; 
Hubert caused the church to be fired, and 
William, thus driven out, was seized, tried, 
condemned, and hanged with some of his 
followers. The rest submitted at once ; but 
the common people persisted in honouring 
William as a martyr ; the clergy were horri- 
fied at the firing of a church by an arch- 
bishop ; and Hubert's own chapter, with 
whom he had long been at feud, were doubly 
furious, because the church belonged to them, 
and gloated over the sacrilege as a crowning 
charge in the indictment which they were 
preparing to bring against him at Rome. At 
the same moment Richard insulted his jus- 
ticiar by sending over the abbot of Caen with 
authority to examine the accounts of all the 
royal officers in England. Though the abbot's 
death put an end to this project, and was 
followed by a half-apology from the king, 
Hubert threw up the justiciarship in disgust ; 
he was, however, easily induced to withdraw 
his resignation. In 1197 he issued an assize 
of measures, which seems never to have been 
enforced, and was afterwards (1203) set aside 
by the justices. In June he went to Nor- 
mandy ; there he negotiated for Richard a 
pacification of his quarrel with the Arch- 
bishop of Rouen, a treaty of alliance with 
Flanders, and a truce with Philip of France. 
Shortly after his return (November) Richard 
sent over a demand for either three hundred 
knights to serve for twelve months against 
Philip, or money enough to hire three h 
dred mercenaries for the same period. Huj 
called the bishops and barons to a counci 
Oxford, 7 Dec., and there proposed that they 
should furnish among themselves the required 
knights ; the bishops of Lincoln and Salis- 
bury opposed the scheme on constitutional 
grounds, and their opposition brought it to 
nought (Magna Vita S. Hugonis, pp. 249-50 ; 
GEEV. CANT. i. 549 ; Roe. HOVEDEBT, iv. 40). 
The justiciar was next called away to the 
Welsh marches, where he settled a dispute 
about the succession in South Wales, and 
fortified the border castles for the king. In 
'the spring (1198) he ventured upon another 
great administrative experiment. He levied 
a tax of five shillings per carucate on all the 
arable land, save that held by serjeanty, or 
belonging to the parish churches ; he decreed 

that the carucate, hitherto a variable quantity, 
should henceforth consist of one hundred 
acres, and to ascertain the number of these 
new carucates he ordered a survey to be made 
by means of an inquest taken by two royal 
commissioners in conjunction with the sheriff 
of each county, and certain chosen knights, 
on the sworn presentment of the local land- 
owners or their stewards, and of duly elected 
representatives, free and villein, of every 
township and hundred in the shire. Tim 
application of the principle of representation 
to the assessment of taxation on real property 
was a marked step in the direction of con- 
stitutional self-government. But while the 
commission was in progress its originator was 
tottering to his fall. Innocent III was no 
sooner pope (January 1198) than he renewed 
the old decrees against the tenure of secular 
office by priests, and especially urged the dis- 
missal of the Archbishop of Canterbury from 
the justiciarship, which Hubert thereupon re- 
signed ; in September he joined the king in 
Normandy; there he apparently remained 
till after Richard's death (April 1199), when 
John sent him home to form with William 
Marshal and the new justiciar, Geoffrey Fitz- 
Peter, a council of regency, whose energetic 
action kept England at peace till John's own 
arrival. On 27 May Hubert crowned the] 
new king, after making the famous speech in 
which the old English theory of election to 
the crown was publicly enunciated for the 
last time (M. PAEIS, Chron. Maj. ii. 454-5). 
Next day he set papal prohibitions, constitu- 
tional precedents, and the warnings of an old 
colleague all alike at defiance by undertaking 
the office of chancellor ; unquestionably for 
the country's good, as he was the only person 
who could act as a check upon John. He 
crowned the king and queen together at 
Westminster, 8 Oct. 1200 ; he was present 
the Scottish king's homage to John at 
""\Ln, 22 Nov., and at the Hburial of St. 
two days later : he crowned John and 
Isabel again at Canterbury on Easter day 
1201. In December John summoned him to 
Normandy, and thence sent him to France 
on a diplomatic mission, which failed, but 
through no fault of Hubert's ; and next year 
the archbishop returned home, * that, as 
matters beyond sea were now almost despe- 
rate, he might at least keep England in peace,' 
in which he succeeded well enough while 
John was out of the way. In the spring of 
1203 he went with some other prelates on 
another hopeless mission to Philip ; at Christ- 
mas he entertained John at Canterbury. It 
may have been in the following year, when 
king and minister were brought into closer 
and more frequent contact than usual by the 




former's residence in England, that a quarrel 
took place which provoked John for a mo- 
ment to deprive Hubert of the seals, 'but the 
archbishop by his admirable prudence soon ' 
regained the king's favour ' (GEKV. CANT. ii. j 
410). His last political appearance was at 
Whitsuntide 1205, when he is said to have ! 
joined with William Marshal in dissuading 
the king from an expedition against France. | 
On 10 July, on his way from Canterbury to 
Boxley to compose a quarrel between the ' 
Rochester monks and their bishop, he was j 
attacked by a fever and a carbuncle ; he 
turned aside to Tenham, and there, three days 
later, he died. In March 1890 a tomb at- 
tached to the south wall of Canterbury cathe- 
dral, close to its eastern end, was opened 
and found to contain remains which have 
since been identified as those of Hubert 
Walter (Antiquary, June 1890, 126-150). 

' Now, for the first time,' said John, when 
he heard the tidings, ' am I truly king of 
England ' (M. PAKIS, Hist. Angl. ii. 104). 
Coming from John, the words form the highest 
possible tribute to Hubert's character as a 
statesman. To his character as statesman, 
indeed, Hubert in his own day 'was accused 
of sacrificing his character as archbishop. 
But the charge is not altogether just. During 
the first five years of his pontificate he was 
hampered by a quarrel with his own chapter 
about a college for secular priests which his 
friend Archbishop Baldwin [q.v.] had founded 
at Lambeth out of the superfluous wealth of 
the metropolitan see, and which Hubert was 
most anxious to maintain, but which the 
monks strongly opposed ; they carried the day, 
and in 11 98 a papal brief forced Hubert to pull 
down the college. Appointed legate in March 
1195, he had in that year made a visitation 
of the northern province, and held a church 
council at York ; in September 1200 he held 
another council in London, in the teeth of a 
prohibition from the justiciar; at both coun- 
cils some useful canons were passed. He was 
careful of the temporal interests of his see ; 
he recovered for it the manors of Hythe and 
Saltwood, and the castles of Rochester and 
Tunbridge, which it had lost under Henry II ; 
he kept the buildings at Christ Church and 
on the archiepiscopal manors in good repair ; 
he obtained from Richard a renewal, after- 
wards confirmed by John, of the long-lost 
privilege of the archbishops to coin money at 
Canterbury (RTJDING, Ann. of Coinage^ 1840, 
ii. 181) ; he exercised a splendid hospitality 
during his life, and he bequeathed a mass of 
treasures to his cathedral church at his death, 
as well as the benefice of Halstow, whose re- 
venues he directed to be appropriated to the 
precentor ' for the repair of the books,' i. e. 

the service-books used in the choir. When 
dean of York he had founded a Premonstra- 
tensian priory at West Dereham (TANNEE, 
Not. Monast., Norfolk, xxi. ; DTJGDALE, Mon. 
Angl. vi. 899); as chaplain-general of the 
Crusade, he seems to have originated or 
organised the house of canons regular at- 
tached to the chapel and cemetery for pilgrims 
at Acre, founded by a clerk named William 
in 1190 (R. DICETO, ii. 81 ; Ann. Dunst. a. 
1231) ; and about 1204 he began transform- 
ing into a Cistercian monastery a secular 
college at Wolverhampton which had been 
surrendered to him for that purpose ; this 
project, however, expired with him (TANNEK, 
Not. Monast., Staffordshire, xxxi. ; Mon. 
Angl. vi. 1443 ; ' Pipe Roll ' Staffordshire, 
6 Job., in Salt Archceol. Coll. i. 119, 125). 

Gerald of Wales mocks at Hubert's imper- 
fect scholarship (GiB. CAMBE. Opera, ii. 344- 
345) ; that he had, however, some scholarly 
sympathies is shown by his zeal for the 
Lambeth college, planned avowedly for the 
encouragement of learning. When once their 
great quarrel was ended, he and his monks 
were the best of friends ; a week before his 
death he was at Canterbury, expressing the 
warmest interest in their welfare, and pro- 
mising soon to return and f stay with them 
longer than usual,' a promise fulfilled by his 
burial in their midst. One of them describes 
him as 'tall of stature, wary of counsel, subtle 
of wit, though not eloquent of speech,' and 
says that he chiefly erred in lending too ready 
an ear to detractors. It may have been this 
failing which led him to use his ecclesiastical 
influence and strain his temporal authority 
to the uttermost in order to drive out and 
keep out of the realm a man of whom he was 
somewhat unreasonably jealous, his fellow- 
primate of York [see GEOFFEEY, archbishop 
of York]. This, however, is the only in- 
stance in which his political action appears 
to have been influenced by personal motives. 
In his struggle with Gerald [see GIEALDUS 
CAMBEENSIS] he was unquestionably fighting 
Canterbury's and England's battles, rather 
than his own. Gerald was the only person 
who ever brought any serious charge against 
the archbishop's honour, and those charges he 
afterwards retracted (Opera, i. 426). 

[Gesta Henrici et Ricardi ; Roger of Hove- 
den, vols. iii. and iv. ; Gervase of Canterbury ; 
Ralph de Diceto, vol. ii. ; William of Newburgh 
and Richard of Devizes (Chronicles of Stephen 
and Henry II, vols. i-iii.) ; Epistolse Cantuari- 
enses ; Roger of Wendover, vol. i. ; Ralph of 
Coggeshall, all in Rolls Ser. ; Stubbs's Consti- 
tutional History, vol. i., and prefaces to Roger of 
Hoveden, vol. iv., and Epp. Cantuar. ; Foss's 
Judges ; Hook's Archbishops, ii.] K. N. 




HUCK, RICHARD (1720-1785), doctor 
of medicine. [See SATJKDEKS, RICHARD 

HUCKELL, JOHN (1729-1771), poet, 
son of Thomas Huckell, burgess of Stratford- 
upon-Avon, was baptised there 29 Dec. 1729. 
He studied at the grammar school of Strat- 
ford, matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 
on 8 April 1747, proceeded B.A. 11 March 
1751, and 'was presented to the curacy of 
Hounslowin Middlesex, and the chapel stand- 
ing on the confines of two parishes, Heston 
and Isleworth.' He resided in the latter 
(preface to Avon}, and on his death was 

buried there, 20 Sept. 1771. Huckell wrote : 

1. l Avon ; a Poem, in three parts.' The 
first edition was published in 1758, ' being 
printed in quarto at Birmingham in an 
elegant manner by the celebrated Basker- 
ville' (preface to Avon}. A new edition was 
published at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1811. 

2. ' An Epistle to David Garrick, Esq., on 
his being presented with the Freedom of 
Stratford-upon-Avon ; and on the Jubilee 
held there to the Memory of Shakespeare in 
September 1769 ' (Gent. Mag. April 1813, p. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ii. 703 ; preface to 
'Avon,' 1811 edition; Gent. Mag. 1758 p. 282, 
1813 pt. i. p. 212; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
vii. 92.] F. W-T. 

HUDDART, JOSEPH (1741-1816), hy- 
drographer and manufacturer, was born on 
11 Jan. 1740-1 at Allonby in Cumberland, 
where his father was a shoemaker and farmer. 
He was educated at a school kept by the 
clergyman of the parish, and is said to have 
shown aptitude for mathematics and me- 
chanics, to have constructed the model of a 
mill, and to have built a miniature 74-gun 
ship from the description in a work on naval 
architecture. On leaving school Huddart 
was sent to sea in the interests of a fish-curing 
business in which his father had engaged. On 
the death of his father in 1762 he succeeded 
to a share in the business, and took command 
of a small brig belonging to it, trading princi.- 
pally to Ireland. In 1768 he built another brig, 
mainly with his own hands, and while com- 
manding these devoted much of his leisure to 
the study of navigation and to the survey of 
the ports he visited. In 1771 he went to 
London on a visit to a brother of his father, 
described as a wealthy tradesman in West- 
minster, whose daughters had married Sir 
Richard Hotham and Mr. Dingwall, both ship- 
owners and holders of East India stock. On 
the introduction of these persons he entered 
the service of the East India Company, and in 
1778 was appointed commander of the ship 

Royal Admiral, in which he made four voy- 
ages to the East. Meanwhile he occupied 
himself with the survey of the coasts and 
ports that came under his notice, and con- 
structed charts of Sumatra and the coast of 
India from Bombay to the mouth of the God- 
avery, as well as at home of St. George's 
Channel. In 1788 he retired from the com- 
pany's service, and seems to have been em- 
ployed for the next three years in surveying 
among the Hebrides. In 1791 he was elected 
an elder brother of the Trinity House, and 
also a F.R.S. Several years before, the ac- 
cident of a cable parting had turned his atten- 
tion to the faulty manufacture of rope, and he 
invented a method ' for the equal distribution 
of the strains upon the yarns.' He now 
entered into business for the manufacture of 
cordage on this principle, in which he realised 
a handsome fortune. He died in London on 
19 Aug. 1816, and was buried in a vault 
under the church of St.Martin's-in-the-Fields. 
He married in 1762 and had issue five sons, 
of whom one only survived him. His por- 
trait, by Hoppner, is in the Institution of 
Civil Engineers. 

[Memoirs of the late Captain Joseph Huddart, 
F.R.S., by his son Joseph Huddart (for private 
circulation, 1821, 4to) ; A Brief Memoir of the 
late Captain Joseph Huddart, and an Account of 
his Inventions in the Manufacture of Cordage 
(with portrait after Hoppner), by W. Colton ; 
Remarks on Patent Registered Cordage, 1800,4to; 
Reports of Warm Registered Cordage manufac- 
tured by Huddart & Co., 1815.] J. K. L. 


1809), satirical poet, was baptised at St. 
Mary Magdalen, Oxford, on 7 Dec. 1749, 
being the youngest son of George Huddes- 
ford, D.D., president of Trinity College, Ox- 
ford. William Huddesford [q. v.] was an 
elder brother. He was elected scholar of 
Winchester College in 1764, and matricu- 
lated at Trinity College, Oxford, on 15 Jan. 
1768. He soon migrated to New College. 
On 8 May 1769 he was elected one of its 
scholars and became a fellow on 8 May 1771. 
He graduated B.A. in 1779 and M.A. in 
1780. He vacated his fellowship by marriage 
in August 1772, and a note against his name 
in a list of the members of the college adds : 
' Amatricem Londini juvenili amore correp- 
tus praepropere duxit.' In early life Huddes- 
ford dabbled in painting, and was a pupil of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. By 1775 he had ex- 
hibited three pictures at the Academy exhi- 
bition, and in the Bodleian Picture Gallery is 
a painting by him in 1777 of the Earl of 
Lichfield, chancellor of the university. Rey- 
nolds painted in 1778-9 a portrait, now at 
the National Gallery, of Huddesford and 




J. C. Bampfylde [q. v.], when the former 
was twenty-eight. An engraving appeared 
in the ' English Illustrated Magazine/ viii. 72. 
The price of the picture was 105/. Reynolds 
also painted a likeness of Mrs. Huddesford, 
and its half-payment is entered in the artist's 
books as 171. 7s. With many and influen- 
tial connections in the church Huddesford 
took holy orders. He was presented by the 
lord chancellor to the vicarage of Loxley 
in Warwickshire on 21 Oct. 1803, and was 
incumbent of Sir George Wheler's Chapel, 
Spital Square, London. He died in London 
at the end of 1809. 

Huddesford's first production was : 1 .' War- 
ley, a Satire' (anon.), part i., October 1778; 
part ii., November 1778, which ridiculed the 
military reviews at Warley in Essex. As 
it was dedicated to Reynolds, it soon came 
under the notice of his friends, and Fanny 
Burney was much distressed at the mention 
of her name as ' dear little Burney ' (Diaries, 
i. 177-9; Early Diary, ii. 269-70). He 

the ' Wiccamical Chaplet.' He is also credited 
with the authorship of 'Bonaparte : an Heroic 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Gent. Mag. 1809, 
pt. ii. p. 1238 ; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. 
xi. 198; Kirby's Winchester Scholars, p. 259; 
Wood's Oxford City, ed. Peshall, p. 228; Cook's 
National Gallery, p. 423 ; Taylor's Sir J. Key- 
nolds, ii. 126, 224, 228.] W. P. C. 

1772), antiquary, was baptised on 15 Aug. 
1732 at St. Mary Magdalen, Oxford, and 
was son of George Huddesford, president of 
Trinity College, Oxford. George Huddes- 
ford [q. v.] was his youngest brother. He 
matriculated at Trinity College on 20 Oct. 
1749, was elected scholar in 1750 and fellow 
in 1757. He graduated B.A. in 1753, M.A. 
in 1756, and B.D. in 1767, and he was proc- 
tor of the university in 1765. In 1758 he 
was ordained, and held from 1755 until his 
death the keepership of the Ashmolean Mu- 

edited, and was the principal contributor ' seum at Oxford. He was appointed in 1761 
to : 2. ' Salmagundi : a Miscellaneous Com- vicar of Bishop's Tachbrook, Warwickshire, 
bination of Original Poetry ' (anon.), 1791 ; Huddesford died unexpectedly at Oxford on 
new edition, 1793 ; which was dedicated 
to Richard Wyatt of Milton Place, Surrey, 
and mainly consisted of odes and elegies 
with some humorous verses. After this he 
attacked France and its leading men in : 
3. ' Topsy Turvy ; with Anecdotes and Ob- 
servations illustrative of the Present Go- 
vernment of France ' (anon.), 1793 ; two 
editions. 4. ' Bubble and Squeak : a Galli- 
maufry of British Beef with the Chopp'd 
Cabbage of Gallic Philosophy and Radical 
Reform' (anon.), 1799. 5. 'Crambe Repe- 
tita, a Second Course of Bubble and Squeak ' 

6 Oct. 1772. 

During his short life he worked vigorously. 
He published : 1. ' Edvardi Luidii . . . litho- 
phylacii Britannici ichnographia,' Oxford, 
1760, a new edition of the treatise of Ed- 
ward Lhuyd [q.v.], whose fossils were under 
his charge at the Ashmolean. It contained 
some new plates and the author's discourse 
on the sea-shells of the British ocean. 2. l Mar- 
tini Lister, M.D., Historiae, sive Synopsis 
Methodicse Conchyliorum et Tabularum 
Anatomicarum editio altera,' Oxford, 1760. 
The plates in this edition were especially 
fine. Two indices are added, one for the 
shells in Lister's arrangement, the other for 
that of Linnaeus. The latter is in both Latin 

(anon.), 1799. 6. * Les Champignons du 
Diable, or Imperial Mushrooms,' 1805. A 
collected edition of his works, including 
1 Salmagundi,' ' Topsy Turvy,' ' Bubble and and English. 3. ' Catalogus librorum Manu- 
Squeak,' and 'Crambe Repetita,' appeared in scriptorum Antonii a Wood,' 1761, a new 
two volumes in 1801 with a dedication to j edition of which was struck off by Sir Thomas 
Lord Loughborough, ' in gratitude for fa- | Phillipps at the Middlehill press in 1824. 
vours spontaneously conferred.' In this issue j 4. ' An Address to the Freemen and other 
the contributions of other writers to ' Salma- i Inhabitants of the City of Oxford,' 1764, an 
gundi ' were marked by asterisks. Huddes- anonymous address playfully described as 
ford subsequently published two satires on printed at 'Lucern for Abraham Lightholder.' 

the Middlesex election in 1802 and the Duke 
of Northumberland's neutrality, viz.: 8. 'The 
Scum Uppermost when the Middlesex Por- 
ridge-pot Boils Over : an Heroic Election 
Ballad,' 1802 ; two editions. 9. ' Wood and 
Stone, or a Dialogue between a Wooden 
Duke [of Northumberland] and Stone Lion 
[over his house at Charing Cross, London],' books of Hearne, and he had collected mate- 
n. p. or d. [1802]. In 1804 he edited a volume rials for the lives of two Welsh antiquaries, 
of poems written by boys who were his con- i Humphry and Edward Lhuyd. His descrip- 
temporaries at Winchester, which he called ! tion of Osney Abbey is in the ' Gentleman's 

In 1772 Joseph Pote, bookseller at Eton, 
published in two volumes the lives of Leland, 
Hearne, and Anthony a Wood, and in the 
last two memoirs obtained some aid from 
Huddesford. At the time of his death Hud- 
desford had many works in view, including 
a collection of curiosities from the 160 pocket- 



Magazine/ 1771, pp. 153, 204; his character 
of Wood is in Bliss's ' Athenae Oxonienses/ 
i. 135-8 (introd.) ; and his memoir of the Rev. 
Francis Wise, B.D., is inserted in Nichols's 
' Illustrations of Literature/ iv. 479-80. A 
parody on Cato's soliloquy in ' Granger's 
Letters/ App. pp. 11-12, is tentatively as- 
cribed to Huddesford, and in the same work 
(pp. 136-51) are numerous letters by him. 
Many letters to and from him are printed in 
Nichols's ' Illustrations of Literature/ iv. 
456-80, v. 586, and a volume of his corre- 
spondence is among the Ashmole MSS. in 
the Bodleian Library. His library was sold 
by James Fletcher & Son at Oxford in 1771. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon.; G-ent. Mag. 1761 p. 
431, 1772 p. 495; Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, 
iii. 677,683-4, v. 291, viii. 600; Nichols's Illustr. 
of Lit. iii. 667, vi. 473-5 ; Wood's Oxford City, 
ed. Peshall, p. 227.] W. P. C. 

JOHN (1608-1698), Benedictine monk, born 
at Farington Hall, near Preston, Lancashire, 
in 1608, was the second son of Joseph Hudles- 
ton, esq., of Farington Hall and Hutton John, 
Cumberland, by Eleanor, second daughter of 
Cuthbert Sisson, esq., of Kirkbarrow, West- 
moreland (GiLLOW, Diet, of English Catholics, 
iii. 463) . He served in the royal army, studied 
at the English College at Douay, and after 
being ordained priest was sent back to the 
English mission. There is a tradition that at 
one period he was chaplain at Grove House, 
Wensleydale, Yorkshire (BARKER, The Three 
Days of Wensleydale, p. 96). In 1651 he was 
residing in the family of Thomas Whitgrave, 
esq., at Moseley, Staffordshire, and had under 
his tuition three young gentlemen Sir John 
Preston, Francis Reynolds, and Thomas Palin, 
the two latter being Whitgrave's nephews. 
Charles II, after his defeat at the battle of 
Worcester, 3 Sept. 1651, was conducted by 
Colonel Charles GyffordtoWhiteladies, and, 
disguised as a peasant and attended by John 
Penderell, he removed to Moseley on 7 Sept. 
In order to guard against a surprise, Hudle- 
ston was in constant attendance on the king ; 
Whitgrave occasionally left the house to 
observe what passed outside, and the three 
pupils were stationed as sentinels at the gar- 
ret windows. On one occasion, as Whitgrave 
and Hudleston were standing near a win- 
dow, they were alarmed by a cry of ' Soldiers ! ' 
The king was hurriedly shut up in the priest's 
hiding-place, and Whitgrave, descending, 
went to meet the troops, who seized him as 
a fugitive cavalier from Worcester, but he 
convinced them that for several weeks he 
had not quitted Moseley, and persuaded them 
to depart without searching the mansion. 

That night the king proceeded to Bentley, 
after promising to befriend Hudleston. 

Some time after this Hudleston joined 
the Benedictines of the Spanish congrega- 
tion, and was professed while on the mission. 
At the Restoration Charles II fulfilled his 
promise by inviting him to take up his resi- 
dence in Somerset House, where, under the 
protection of the queen-dowager, he could 
live without disturbance on account of his 
sacerdotal character. At the thirteenth chap- 
ter of the English Benedictines, held at 
Douay in 1661, he was elected to the titu- 
lar dignity of cathedral prior of Worcester 
(WELDOisr, Chronicle, p. 198). He acted as 
secretary of the next chapter, held at Douay 
in 1666. Shortly after the death of Henrietta 
Maria in 1669 he was appointed chaplain to 
Queen Catherine of Braganza with a salary of 
100Z., besides a pension of a similar amount. 
In 1671 he and Vincent Sadler, another 
Benedictine monk, visited Oxford to see the 
solemnity of the * act/ and on that occasion 
Anthony a Wood made their acquaintance. 
During the excitement produced by Titus 
Oates's pretended revelations, the lords, by 
their vote on 7 Dec. 1678, ordered that Hudle- 
ston, Thomas Whitgrave, the brothers Pen- 
derell, and others who were instrumental in 
the preservation of his majesty's person after 
the battle of Worcester, should for their said 
service 'live as freely as any of the king's 
protestant subjects, without being liable to 
the penalties of any of the laws relating to 
popish recusants, and that a bill should be 
introduced for that purpose (Lords' Journals, 
xiii. 408 ; cf. London Gazette, 21 Nov. 1678). 
Barillon and Burnet assert that Hudleston 
was excepted out of all the acts of parlia- 
ment made against priests, but this is a mis- 
take. When Charles II lay on his deathbed 
the Duke of York brought Hudleston into 
his presence (5 Feb. 1684-5), saying, ' Sir, 
this good man once saved your life. He now 
comes to save your soul.' Hudleston then 
heard the dying king's confession, reconciled 
him to the Roman church, and administered 
the' last sacraments. Hudleston continued 
to reside with the queen-dowager at Somer- 
set House until his death in September 1698 
(MACAITLAY, Hist, of England, iii. 723). All 
writers who mention Hudleston speak of him 
with respect except Macaulay, who describes 
him as an honest but illiterate monk. 

Hudleston edited the * Short and Plain Way 
to the Faith and Church/ composed by his 
uncle, Richard Hudleston [q.v.], London, 
1688, 4to, together with ' Charles IPs Papers 
found in his Closet after his Decease ' (which 
had been already published in ' Copies of Two 
Papers/ 1686, and gave rise to much con- 




troversy), and ' a brief account of what oc- 
curred on ' Charles's deathbed. At the end 
of the work is, with separate title-page, ' A 
Summary of Occurrences relating to the 
Miraculous Preservation of ... Charles II 
after the Defeat of his Army at Worcester 
in 1651. Faithfully taken from the express 
personal testimony of those two worthy 
Roman Catholics, Thomas Whitgrave . . . 
and Mr. John Hudleston, priest.' This is 
reprinted in Foley's ' Records,' v. 439-46. 
Hudleston's brief account of Charles II's 
deathbed is reprinted in the ' State Tracts/ 
London, 1692-3. Its facts were confirmed by 
a curious broadside, entitled f A true Relation 
of the late King's Death,' one folio half-sheet, 
by ' P[ere] M[ansuete], A C[apuchin] F[riar], 
Confessor to the Duke.' 

A good picture of Hudleston was for- 
merly in the possession of Mrs. Gust at 
Carlisle (PENNANT, Tour into Scotland and 
Voyage to the Hebrides, 1774, p. 60). His 
portrait, engraved from the original in the 
possession of R. Huddleston of Sawston Hall, 
Cambridgeshire, was published in the ' Laity's 
Directory ' for 1816. An original portrait 
by Housman, 1685, ' setatis suse anno 73,' is 
at Hutton John. 

[Addit. MS. 5871, f. 27 b ; Burnet's Hist, of 
his own Time, i. 607 ; Caii Vindicise (Hearne), 
ii. 598 ; Catholic Magazine and Keview, v. 385- 
394; Clarendon's Hist, of the Rebellion (Macray), 
lib. xiii. 87, 88 ; Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 490 ; 
Echard's Hist, of England, 3rd edition, ii. 692, 
693, 1046, 1051 ; Foley's Records, v. 439, 583w., 
591 n. ; Higgons's Eemarks on Burnet's Hist, of 
his own Time, 2nd edition, p. 279 ; Lingard's Hist, 
of England, 1849, viii. 322, x. 106 ; Macaulay's 
Hist, of England, 1858, i. 437 ; Oliver's Catholic 
Religion in Cornwall, p. 518 ; "Weldon's Chro- 
nicle, pp. 188, 190, 198, 225, 238, App. p. 6; 
Wood's Autobiog. (Bliss), p. Ixix.] T. C. 

JOHN (1636-1700), Jesuit. [See DOKMEE.] 


(1815-1890), judge, eldest son of Thomas 
Huddleston, captain in the merchant service, 
by Alethea, daughter of H. Hichens of St. 
Ives, Cornwall, was born at Dublin on 8 Sept. 
1815. He was educated in Ireland, and ma- 
triculated, but took no degree, at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. After some time spent as usher 
in a school in England, he entered Gray's Inn 
on 18 April 1836, and was called to the bar 
by that society on 7 May 1839. He went the 
Oxford circuit, and attended the Worcester 
and Staffordshire sessions. He also practised 
at the Middlesex sessions, where he chiefly 
argued poor-law cases, and at the Old Bailey. 
There and on circuit he gradually acquired 

an extensive criminal practice. He defended 
Cuffy the chartist in 1848, and secured the 
acquittal of Mercy Catherine Newton, on her 
third trial for matricide, in 1859. He was 
with Cockburn in the Rugeley poisoning case, 
and was engaged in many other causes cele- 
bres, in which he distinguished himself in" 
cross-examination, and by the lucidity and 
address with which he presented his points 
to the jury. He took silk in 1857, and was 
elected a bencher of his inn, of which he was 
treasurer in 1859 and 1868. 

After unsuccessfully contesting several con- 
stituencies, he was returned to parliament for 
Canterbury, in the conservative interest, in 
1865, and in the following year carried 
through the House the Hop Trade Bill, a 
useful measure intended to prevent the em- 
ployment of fraudulent marks in that in- 
dustry. Unseated at the election of 1868, he 
contested Norwich unsuccessfully in 1870, 
and successfully in 1874. He was judge-ad- 
vocate of the Fleet from 1865 to 1875, when 
(22 Feb.) he was called to the degree of 
i serjeant-at-law, raised to the bench of the 
| common pleas, and knighted. On 12 May 
he was transferred to the exchequer. On the 
passing of the Judicature Act of 1875 the 
court of exchequer became the exchequer di- 
vision of the high court of justice, and it was 
decided that the style of baron of the ex- 
chequer should lapse on the death of the 
existing holders of the title. Huddleston's 
patent was the last issued, and he was ac- 
customed on that account to call himself ' the 
last of the barons.' On the consolidation of 
the exchequer with the queen's bench division 
in 1880, he became a judge of the latter 
division, still, however, retaining the style of 
baron. He was greater as an advocate than as 
a judge, but his charges were always models 
of lucidity. During the last ten years of his 
life he suffered from a chronic and painful 
disease, and heavy cases, like the libel action 
of Belt y. Lawes in 1882, severely tried his 
powers. He died at his town house, 43 En- 
nismore Gardens, South Kensington, on 5 Dec. 
1890, and was by his own direction cremated 
at Woking cemetery on the 12th. 

Huddleston was an accomplished man, and 
well read in French literature. He also spoke 
French with ease and grace, and in that lan- 
guage made in 1868, as the representative of 
the English bar, a speech at Paris over the 
bier of the great French advocate, Pierre 
Antoine Berryer. He was afterwards en- 
tertained by M. Grevy and members of the 
French bar at a banquet at the Grand Hotel. 
Huddleston was also a brilliant conversation- 
alist, a lover of the theatre, and an authority 
on turf matters. He married, on 18 Dec. 1872, 




Lady Diana De Vere Beauclerk, daughter of 
the ninth Duke of St. Albans, who survives 
him. His widow presented two portraits of 
him in May 1891 to the judges' common 
room at the Royal Courts of Justice. 

[Times, 6, 9, and 12 Dec. 1890; Law Times, 
20 Dec. 1890 ; Men of the Time, 10th edit. ; Inns 
of Court Cal. 1878; Ann. Reg. 1848, Chron. 
p. 121; 1850, Chron. p. 39; new ser. 1868, 
Chron. p. 1 59 ; Law Reports, 1 2, App. Cases xvii. ; 
Hansard's Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. clxxxii. 1853 ; 
Burke's Peerage, St. Albans ; Ballantine's Some 
Experiences of a Barrister's Life, ed. 1890, p. 29.] 

J. M. R. 

RICHARD (1583-1655), Benedictine monk, 
born in 1583 at Farington Hall, near Pres- 
ton, Lancashire, was the youngest son of 
Andrew Hudleston, esq., of Farington Hall, 
by Mary, third daughter of Cuthbert Hutton 
of Hutton John, Cumberland. He studied 
under Thomas Sommers, a catholic school- 
master at Grange-over-Sands, Lancashire, 
and was subsequently sent to the English 
College at Douay. Afterwards he studied 
philosophy and divinity for some years in 
the English College at Rome. Returning 
to Douay he was ordained priest in 1607, and 
in the following year was sent on the English 
mission. Again visiting Italy he was pro- 
fessed as a Benedictine monk at Monte Cas- 
sino. In 1619 he came back to the mis- 
sion, and was instrumental in converting 
many of the chief families in Lancashire and 
Yorkshire to the Roman catholic faith. He 
died at Stockeld Park, the seat of the Mid- 
dletons, on 26 Nov. 1655. 

He left several pieces in manuscript, which 
appear to have been lost, and a * Short and 
Plain Way to the Faith and Church,' pub- 
lished by his nephew, Father John Hudle- 
ston [q. v.], London, 1688, 4to ; reprinted in 
the l English Catholic Library.' vol. ii., Lon- 
don, 1844, 8vo, under the editorial care of 
the Rev. Mark Aloysius Tierney ; and again, 
London, 1850, 8vo. Charles II, while con- 
cealed at Moseley after the defeat at Wor- 
cester, perused this treatise in manuscript, 
and declared that he had seen nothing clearer 
upon the subject. [For appendices to the 
printed copy see HUDLESTON, JOHN.] ' An 
Answer to Father Huddleston's Short and 
Plain Way' was published by an anonymous 
writer; and at a later period another 'An- 
swer,' by Samuel Grascome [q. v.], appeared 
at London, 1702, 8vo; 1715, 8vo. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 141 ; Foley's Records, 
v. 445, 584 n., 587-91 ; Gillow's Bibl. Diet. ; 
Oliver's Catholic Religion in Cornwall, p. 517; 
Snow's Necrology, p. 55 ; Weldon's Chronicle, 
p. 190, App. p. 5.] T. C. 


HUDSON, GEORGE (1800-1871), the 
1 railway king,' son of a farmer and constable, 
who died in 1806, was born at Howsham, a 
village near York, in March 1800, and after 
an education at local schools was in 1815 
apprenticed to Bell & Nicholson, drapers, 
College Street, York. His apprenticeship 
over, he received a share in the business. 
Bell soon afterwards retired, and the firm be- 
came Nicholson & Hudson (Richard Nichol- 
son was found drowned in the Ouse at York 
on 8 May 1849, aged 56). At the age of 
twenty-seven Hudson, already a wealthy 
man, received from a distant relative, Mat- 
thew Bottrill, a bequest of 30,0007., which he 
invested in North Midland Railway shares. 
In 1833 he had risen to be the head of the 
conservative party in York. In 1835 he was a 
town councillor, in J anuary 1 836 an alderman, 
and in November 1837 lord mayor, He was 
the originator of the York Banking Company 
in 1833, and as manager for some time after- 
wards made it a permanent success. In 1833 
also he spoke at a meeting held to consider 
the construction of a railway from York to 
certain portions of the West Riding, and sub- 
scribed for five hundred shares. The scheme 
was not carried out till 1837, when a capital 
of 446,6667. was raised under an act of par- 
liament, and Hudson was appointed chairman 
of the company a joint association known 
as the York and North Midland. By good 
management the railway was made at a mo- 
derate cost, and was opened on 29 May 1839. 
Hudson was presented on the occasion with 
a testimonial. His next enterprise was to 
assist the Great North of England Company 
to complete their line to Newcastle. In 1841 
he vigorously supported the plan of opening 
an eastern communication with Edinburgh 
by way of Newcastle and Darlington, and he 
was elected chairman of the company formed 
to carry out this project in June 1842. He 
subscribed five times as much as any other 
director, and personally guaranteed the pay- 
ment of six per cent, dividend. To obviate 
the inconvenience of transferring passengers 
and freight from one train to another at junc- 
tions, Hudson suggested the railway clearing 
system, originally devised by Mr. Morrison in 
1841. It first came into operation on two 
roads in January 1842. Three Competing 
lines were at the time approaching Derby. 
Hudson undertook to counteract the fatal 
principle of competition by amalgamating 
the three schemes. This he successfully ac- 
complished, bringing together a capital of 
5,000,0007., and became chairman of the 
amalgamated directory of what soon became 
the Midland Railway Company. In conj unc- 
tion with George Stephenson he then planned 





extending the Midland's road to Newcastle, 
and to that town the line was opened 18 June 
1844. In the same year he actively resisted 
the scheme of bringing the railways under 
government supervision. 

The rage for railway speculation was in 
1844 approaching its zenith. 1,016 miles of 
road were at the time largely under Hudson's 
control ; all his companies were successful in 
developing traffic and in paying dividends. 
In a parliamentary return made in 1845 of 
the names of subscribers to railway schemes 
which were seeking authorisation from par- 
liament, the total amount of Hudson's sub- 
scriptions appears as 319,8357. , 200,000/. of 
which he held in shares in the Newcastle and 
Berwick Railway. His influence was un- 
paralleled, and he acquired the sobriquet of 
the 'Railway King.' He numbered the prince 
consort among his acquaintances, and the 
aristocracy of London crowded his parties at 
Albert Gate, Knightsbridge. His admirers 
presented him with 16,000/. as a testimony i 
of their respect. He purchased Londes- ! 
borough estate, Yorkshire, from the Duke of 
Devonshire to prevent it falling into the hands 
of the Manchester and Leeds Railway Com- 
pany, and he became the owner of Newby 
Hall. He was appointed a deputy-lieutenant 
of Durham and a magistrate for that county, 
and for the East and North Ridings of York- 
shire. He was elected M.P. in the conserva- 
tive interest for Sunderland on 15 Aug. 1845, 
his opponent, Colonel Perronet Thompson, 
the Anti-Cornlaw Leaguer, being defeated by 
128 votes, although Cobden and Bright both 
actively assisted him. The event was deemed 
of so much public interest that the ' Times ' 
newspaper chartered a special train to convey 
the news to London, and the 305 miles were 
covered in eight hours, part of the journey 
being performed by post horses. Hudson 
probably owed his success at the poll to his 
influence as chairman of the Sunderland Dock 
Company. In the succeeding year (1846) he 
again served as lord mayor of York. He 
continued to represent Sunderland until the 
general election of 1859, when he was defeated 
by William S. Lindsay, the shipowner. Hud- 
son, who rapidly obtained a position in the 
House of Commons, declined to follow Sir 
Robert Peel in his renunciation of protec- 

Hudson's business transactions grew very 
questionable as his operations extended. On 
the amalgamation of the Newcastle and Ber- 
wick Railway Company with the Newcastle 
and North Shields he increased the authorised 
issue of shares from forty-two thousand to 
fifty-six thousand, and made no entry of the I 
fact in the account-books. Of these shares ; 

he appropriated 9,956, on which he probably 
made about 145,000/. Similar transactions 
followed, and he not unfrequently received 
large presents of shares from the directoral 
boards of which he was member. His speeches 
at the annual meetings were always plausible, 
and he was sanguine as to future dividends. 
He enriched personal friends by early infor- 
mation and the allotment of shares. In 1845, 
as chairman of the Newcastle and Darling- 
ton Company, he purchased, by the advice 
of George Stephenson, the Great North of 
England Railway, i.e. the York and Darling- 
ton, on most ruinous terms ; but the price 
of a share at once rose from 200/. to 255/. 
About the same time the Eastern Counties 
Railway called on him to take the manage- 
ment of their affairs, which were in a deplo- 
rable condition. He accepted the call, but 
even his skill was powerless, and in desperate 
circumstances he paid a dividend out of 
capital, and thus in three years a sum of 
294,000/. was unjustly charged to capital ac- 
count. Towards the close of 1847 the value 
of railway property fell rapidly. The depre- 
ciation in the shares of the ten leading rail- 
way companies was calculated at 78,000,000/. 
In the following year stormy meetings were 
held, and between 28 Feb. and 17 May 1849 
Hudson was forced to resign his position as 
chairman of the Eastern Counties, Midland, 
York, Newcastle and Berwick, and York and 
North Midland Railway Companies. Com- 
mittees of investigation were appointed in 
each case, and they reported that he was per- 
sonally indebted in very large sums to the 
various companies. Hudson at once admitted 
these debts, and made arrangements for pay- 
ing them off by instalments. In his place in 
parliament on 17 May he tried to explain his 
position, but was heard in silence. For twenty 
years he was involved in a chancery suit with 
the North-Eastern Railway Company, who 
sought to foreclose his interest in the "W hitby 
estate and in the Sunderland Docks in satis- 
faction of their claims upon him. After 1849 
he lived much abroad, and tried to operate 
in continental finance, but without success. 
On 10 July 1865 he was committed to York 
Castle for contempt of the court of exchequer 
in not paying a large debt, but was released 
on 10 Oct. following. In 1868 some former 
friends raised by subscription 4,800/., with 
which was purchased an annuity for his bene- 
fit. In the following year he was entertained 
at a banquet in Sunderland, ' in recognition 
of his past services to the town and port.' 
Carlyle, in his ' Latter Day Pamphlets,' calls 
Hudson ' the big swollen gambler.' He died 
at his residence, 37 Churton Street, Belgrave 
Road, London, on 14 Dec. 1871, and was 


i 47 


buried in Scrayingham churchyard, York- 
shire, on 21 Dec. He married in 1828 Eliza- 
beth, daughter of James Nicholson, by whom 
he had a large family. 

[Frasers Mag. August 1847, pp. 215-22; 
Tait's Edinburgh Mag. 1849, pp. 319-24 ; Punch, 
1849, xvi. 191 ; Kichardson's Mysteries of Hud- 
son's Railway Frauds, 1850 ; Report of Evidence 
of Hudson on Trial Richardson v. Woodson, 1 850; 
Bankers' Mag. December 1 85 1 , pp. 746-5 4 ; Hunt's 
Merchants' Mag., New York, July 1853, pp. 36- 
50 ; Evans's Facts, Failures, and Frauds, 1859, 
pp. 6-73; Times, 16 Dec. 1871, p. 9, and 22 Dec. 
p. 3 ; Lord W. P. Lennox's Celebrities I have 
known, 2nd ser. 1877, i. 185-92; Frederick S. 
Williams's Midland Railway, 1877, pp. 99-124, 
132; Graphic, 27 Aug. 1881, pp. 223, 229, with 
portrait; Illustrated London News, 6 Sept. 1845, 
p. 157, with portrait, 14 April 1849, p. 233, with 
view of his house at York, and 23 Dec. 1871, 
p. 619; York Herald, 16 Dec. 1871, p. 7, 23 Dec. 
pp. 4, 10; Hansard, 21 Sept. 1841, p. 672 et seq.] 

GK C. B. 

HUDSON, HENRY (d.1611), navigator, 
was not improbably, as has been conjectured, 
the grandson of Henry Hudson or Herdson, 
alderman of London, who helped to found 
the Muscovy Company in 1555, and died in 
the same year. This older Henry Hudson 
left many sons and kinsmen, whose names 
sometimes appear as Hoddesdon and Hoge- 
son, and who all seem to have been interested 
in or connected with the Muscovy Company. 
Hudson, the navigator, is first mentioned as 
appointed in 1607 to command the Hopeful 
in a voyage set forth by the same company 
' to discover the pole.' On 19 April he and 
the crew of the Hopeful, twelve men all 
told, communicated together in the church 
of St. Ethelburge in Bishopsgate, 'purposing 
to go to sea four days after.' One of the little 
party was Hudson's son John, who seems to 
nave been then a lad of sixteen or eighteen ; 
from which it may be judged that Hudson 
was born before rather than after 1570. The 
chief aim of this voyage was, in accordance 
with the proposal made by Robert Thome 
[q. v.] eighty years before, to sail across the 
pole to the l islands of spicery.' Hudson 
sailed from Gravesend on 1 May, and struck 
the east coast of Greenland in lat. 69-70, 
on 13 June ; then continuing a northerly 
course, he again sighted the coast in lat. 73, 
and named the land Cape Hold with Hope. 
Forced eastwards by the continuous icy bar- 
rier between Greenland and Spitzbergen, he 
followed the line of this barrier and came on 
the 28th to Prince Charles Island ; thence 
he groped his way to the northward and 
along the coast of Spitzbergen, naming Hak- 
luyt's Headland as he passed. On 13 July 

he was, by observation, in lat. 80 23'. After 
struggling towards the north for three days 
longer, ignorant that he was being swept back 
by a southerly current, he described the land 
as trending far to the north beyond 82. This 
remark is a test of the error in his reckoning, 
for the most northerly land in the Spitzbergen 
group is in 80 45'. He satisfied himself, 
however, that there was in that quarter no 
passage to the pole ; so, after again trying 
the ice barrier, he turned southwards, and 
discovering on his way an island then named 
1 Hudson's Touches,' but since identified with 
Jan Mayen, he arrived in the Thames on 
15 Sept. 

Thome's scheme for a short and easy pas- 
sage across the north pole being thus proved 
impracticable, Hudson, in the following year, 
and still in the service of the Muscovy Com- 
pany, repeated the attempt which had been 
made by Willoughby, Barentz, and others of 
less note, to find a passage by the north-east. 
On 22 April 1608, with a crew of fifteen all 
told, including himself and his son John, he 
dropped down the river, and rounded the 
North Cape on 3 June. After coasting along 
the ice in lat. 74-75 till the 24th, in hope 
of passing to the north of Novaya Zemlya, he 
turned to the south-east, and on the 26th 
sighted the land, apparently near North Goose 
Cape. His idea was now to pass by the 
Waigatz or Kara Strait, and so double ' the 
north cape of Tartaria,' when, as he supposed, 
he would find himself within easy sailing of 
the Pacific. The Waigatz was, however, im- 
passable, and on 6 July, after riding out a 
heavy gale at anchor, 'we weighed,' he says, 
( and set sail and stood to the westward, 
being out of hope to find passage by the 
north-east.' For a few days longer he en- 
deavoured to examine Willoughby Land [see 
WILLOUGHBY, SIR HUGH], but the descrip- 
tion and position of it were too vague to per- 
mit any certain identification of it, either then 
or now. On the 12th he stood away to the 
westward; on the 18th was again 'off the 
North Cape, and anchored off Gravesend on 
26 Aug. 

During the following winter Hudson en- 
tered into negotiations with the Dutch East 
India Company, and in their service he sailed 
from Amsterdam on 25 March 1609 with 
two ships, the Good Hope and Half Moon, 
he himself in the latter. His primary inten- 
tion was again to attempt the passage through 
the Waigatz as in the former year ; but off 
the coast of Novaya Zemlya his crew, con- 
sisting mostly of Dutchmen, refused to go on, 
and compelled him to turn back ; the Good 
Hope is heard of no more and would seem to 
have made straight for Holland, while Hud- 





son, in the Half Moon, stretched across the was then cut adrift and never seen again. 
Atlantic to the coast of Nova Scotia, and That Hudson and all his companions perished 
thence southwards as far as lat. 35 ; from miserably cannot be doubted. On board the 
which turning northwards he carefully ex- Discovery Bylot was elected master : pro- 
amined the coast, looking into Chesapeake visions were very short, and in endeavouring 
and Delaware Bays and reaching Sandy Hook 
on 2 Sept. The story of a strait through the 
continent in or about lat. 40 had been long 
since discredited, but had lately been revived, 
apparently by Indian reports of the great 
chain of lakes ; and Hudson, having now satis- 
fied himself of its falsehood, devoted the next 
month to an examination of the river which 
has since borne his name, and which he as- 

to kill some deer their party was attacked by 
the Eskimos, and Green with four others 
slain. On the passage home Juet and others 
died. Only a miserable remnant survived to 
reach England, and those almost spent with 
famine and sickness. They were thrown into 
prison, but would seem to have been very 
shortly released and admitted to further em- 
plovment and confidence. Bylot sailed the 

cended to near the position of the present^ folio wing year in Button's voyage to Hudson's 
Albany. On 4 Oct. he came again into the Bay [see BUTTON, SIK THOMAS]. It is pro- 
sea, and returned to England on 7 Nov. This bable that the death of Juet, and still more 
was the end of Hudson's Dutch connection, of Green, stood the mutineers in good stead : 
and on 17 April 1610 he sailed from London the whole blame of the murder of Hudson 
in the Discovery, fitted out at the cost of Sir and his companions was laid on them, and 
Thomas Smythe, Sir Dudley Digges, and those who came home were perhaps judged 
John Wolstenholme, to attempt the north- to have expiated their crime by their suffer- 
west passage. By the end of June he had ings. 

groped his way into the strait since known ' Hudson's personality is shadowy in the 
by his name ; on 3 Aug. he passed out of it, extreme, and his achievements have been the 
between Digges Island and Cape Wolsten- ; subject of much exaggeration and misrepre- 
holme, into the bay beyond, and spent the ; sen'tation. The river, the strait, the bay, and 

, 1 / 11 . 1 * , l t j 1 _ J? 1 1 1* _V 1 1 ' _ 

next three months ( in a labyrinth without 
end,' apparently in the examination of the 
eastern shore and the adjacent islands. By 
the end of October the Discovery was in the 
extreme south of James Bay, and on 1 Nov. 
was hauled aground in a place judged fitting 
to winter in, possibly near Moose Fort ; on 
the 10th she was frozen in. The winter 
passed miserably enough : provisions were 
not too plentiful, and the supply of game or 
fish was scanty. Some months before Hud- 
son had quarrelled with his mate, Juet, whom 

the vast tract of land which bear his name 
have kept his memory alive ; but in point of 
fact not one of these was discovered by Hud- 
son. All that can be seriously claimed for 
him is that he pushed his explorations further 
than his predecessors, and left of them a more 
distinct but still imperfect record. It has 
been conclusively shown by Dr. Asher that 
the river, the strait, and the bay were all 
marked in maps many years before the time 
of Hudson. What Hudson really did was to 
show, in four several voyages, that the pas- 

he displaced, appointing Robert Bylot [q. v.] sage to Cathay was certainly not the simple 
in his stead. There was consequently an ill- thing that it ' 

feeling in the ship which the winter hardships 
did not lessen. It may well be that Hudson's 
temper became morose and suspicious: he 
was accused of favouritism, and of unfairly 
distributing the provisions. He had'a violent 
quarrel with one of his favourites, a dissolute 
fellow named Green, who acted as his clerk, 
and now reviled him in the strongest terms. 
Finally, as they broke out of the ice, he dis- 
placed Bylot, and appointed one King to do 
his duty. This seems to have turned the 
scale. It is impossible to speak of the details, 
for the accounts are very meagre and all come 

had been represented by Thome 
and others ; that there was no strait through 
the continent of North America in a low 
latitude, and that if there was one in a high 
latitude it could scarcely be of any practical 
value. He tried in fact all the routes that 
had been suggested, and these having all 
failed, there is little doubt that had he lived 
he would have examined beyond Davis Strait 
and have anticipated Baffin's discoveries of 
a few years later [see BAFFIN, WILLIAM]. He 
was a bold, energetic, and able man, zealous 
in the cause to which he had devoted him- 
self, though prevented by cruel fortune from 

achieving any distinct success. Hudson's son 
John, the companion of all his historical 
voyages, perished with him. In April 1614 

through a suspicious channel. It is, how- 
ever, certain that on 23 June 1611 Hudson 

was seized, bound, and put into the small . a , , 4 . 

boat or shallop : with him eight others, in- his widow applied to the East India Company 
eluding John, his son, and King the new for some employment for another son, ' she 
mate, after a sharp struggle, in which four i being left very poor.' The company considered 
men were killed, were put into the boat ; it I that the boy had a just claim on them, as his 




father had ' perished in the service of the com- 
monwealth ; ' they accordingly placed him for 
nautical instruction in the Samaritan, and 
gave 51. towards his outfit. 

[Asher's Henry Hudson the Navigator, edited, 
with an Introduction, for the Hakluyt Society, 
1860, is an almost exhaustive account of all that 
is known of Hudson's career, and includes the 
earliest accounts of his voyages as published in 
England by Purchas in 1625, and in Holland by 
Hessel-Geritz in 1612-13, by Van Meteren in 
1614, and by De Laet in 1625, as well as later 
notices. A few interesting facts concerning the 
last voyage and the mutiny have been supplied 
by W. J. Hardy (St. James's Gazette, 20 April 
1887). -In an Historical Inquiry concerning 
Henry Hudson, 1866, J. M. Bead has attempted 
to trace Hudson's family, but in the absence of 
evidence he offers nothing beyond ingenious and 
probable conjecture. A full bibliography of the 
subject is given by Asher, p. 258.] J. K. L. 

HUDSON, HENRY (Jl. 1784-1800), 
mezzotint engraver, engraved a few good 
plates. Among the portraits engraved by 
him were Viscount Macartney and Lord 
Loughborough after Mather Brown, Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
Frances and Emma Hinchliffe, as 'Music,' 
after W. Peters, Admiral Roddam after L. F. 
Abbott, and others. Among other pictures 
which he engraved were ' Industry ' and 
* Idleness ' after George Morland, ' A Rescue 
from an Alligator ' after J. Hoppner, ' David 
and Bathsheba ' after Valerio Castelli, ' Bel- 
shazzar's Feast ' after Rembrandt, &c. Some 
of his prints were published at 13 Great Rus- 
sell Street, Bloomsbury, but one, a portrait 
of Andrew Wilkinson after W. Tate, was 
published at Petersham. 

[Dodd's manuscript History of English En- 
gravers (Brit.Mus. Addit. MS. 33402) ; Chaloner 
Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits.] L. C. 

HUDSON, SIR JAMES (1810-1885), 
diplomatist, son of Harrington Hudson of 
Bessingby Hall, Bridlington, Yorkshire, by 
Anne, daughter of the first Marquis Towns- 
hend, was born in 1810, and educated at 
Rugby and Westminster, and in Paris and 
Rome. He was page to George III and Wil- 
liam IV, and also assistant private secretary 
to the latter king, and gentleman usher to 
Queen Adelaide. He was the messenger who 
^vas sent to summon Peel home on the dis- 
missal of Melbourne in 1834 (see Croker 
Papers, ii. 245 ; TOERENS, Life of Lord 
Melbourne, ii. 49). From Disraeli's de- 
scription, i The hurried Hudson rushed into 
the chambers of the Vatican,' he was nick- 
named ' Hurry Hudson.' He then entered 
the diplomatic service, and was successively 

secretary of legation at Washington in 1838, 
at the Hague in 1843, and at Rio Janeiro 
in 1845. He was promoted to be envoy at 
Rio Janeiro in 1850. In 1851 he was ap- 
pointed envoy to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, 
but before proceeding to Florence was pro- 
moted to the legation at Turin, where he re- 
mained until 1863. He strongly sympathised 
with the cause of Italian unity and indepen- 
dence, and lent it great assistance. He re- 
ceived the order of the Bath in 1855, when 
the Sardinian troops arrived in the Crimea, 
and the Grand Cross of the Bath in 1863. His 
sympathy with the Italian patriots almost 
passed the limits of diplomatic discretion. 
He was summoned home in April 1859, < and 
came,' says Lord Malmesbury, in a state of 
great alarm, fearing he might not be allow * 
to return to Turin as minister, and took leave 
of Cavour, saying it was doubtful whether 
he would see him again. The fact is that he 
is more Italian than the Italians themselves, 
and he lives almost entirely with the ultras 
of that cause. I had reason to complain of 
his silence, and quite understand how dis- 
agreeable to him it must have been to aid, 
however indirectly, in preventing a war which 
he thought would bring about his favourite 
object, namely, the unification of Italy' (Me- 
moirs of an Ex-Minister, ii. 169). The 
' Times ' said of him that he had disobeyed 
the instructions of two successive govern- 
ments, and acted according to the wishes of 
the people of England. When the Italian 
kingdom was consolidated in 1860, Hudson 
found his expenses as minister fast increasing, 
and although Lord John Russell when at 
the foreign office raised his salary from 
3,600 J. to 4,000 J., and in 1861 to 5,000 J., he 
found it insufficient to cover his expenses. 
In 1863 Lord John offered him the embassy 
at Constantinople, but Hudson preferred to 
remain at Turin until he became entitled to 
his first-class pension later in the year. On 
his resignation Lord John Russell was un- 
fairly charged with jobbery in removing him 
to make way for Henry Elliot, a relative of 
his own (cf. G. ELLIOT'S pamphlet, Sir James 
Hudson and Earl Russell, London, 1886 : 
WALPOLE, Lord John Russell, ii. 438). From 
1863 until 1885 Sir James lived in retirement 
principally in Italy. He died at Strasburg on 
20 Sept. 1885. 

[Times, 23 Sept. 1885. For the controversy 
upon his retirement see Times, 15, 18, and 25 Aug. 
and 12 Sept. 1863.] J. A. H. 

HUDSON, JEFFERY (1619-1682), 
dwarf, was born at Oakham, Rutland, in 
1619. His father was a butcher, Avho kept 
and baited bulls for George Villiers, first duke 
of Buckingham. Neither of his parents was 




undersized. When he was nine years old 
his father presented him at Burleigh-on-the- 
Hill to the Duchess of Buckingham, who 
took him into her service. At this time he 
was scarcely eighteen inches in height, and, 
according to Fuller, ( without any deformity, 
wholly proportionable.' Shortly afterwards 
Charles I and Henrietta Maria passed through 
Rutland, and at a dinner given by the Duke 
of Buckingham in their honour Hudson was 
brought on the table concealed in a pie, from 
which he was released in sight of the com- 
pany. The queen was amused by his sprightly 
ways. He passed into her service, and be- 
came a court favourite. In 1630 he was sent 
into France to fetch a midwife for the queen's 
approaching confinement, but, as he was re- 
turning with the woman and the queen's 
dancing-master, their ship was captured by 
a Flemish pirate, and all were taken to Dun- 
kirk. By this misfortune Hudson lost, it is 
said, 2,5001. Davenant wrote his ' JefFreidos,' 
a comic poem printed in 1638 with ' Mada- 
gascar, to celebrate Hudson's misadven- 

In 1636 appeared a very small volume, 
written in honour of Hudson, called 'The 
Newe Year's Gift,' which had a euphuistic 
dedication to Hudson, and an engraved por- 
trait of him by J. Droeshout ; another edi- 
tion appeared in 1 638. When the Prince of 
Orange besieged Breda in 1637, Lithgow re- 
ports that the dwarf, t Strenuous Jeffrey,' was 
in the prince's camp in company with the 
Earls of Warwick and Northampton, who 
were volunteers in the Dutch service. During 
the civil wars he is said to have been a captain 
of horse ; it is certain that he followed the 
queen, as he was with her in the flight to 
Pendennis Castle in June 1644, and went with 
her to Paris. He was, says Fuller, ' though a 
dwarf, no dastard ;' accordingly ,when insulted 
by Crofts at Paris about 1649, he shot him 
dead with a pistol in a duel. Crofts had 
rashly armed himself with a squirt only. In 
consequence Hudson had to leave Paris, 
though Henrietta Maria seems to have saved 
him from the imprisonment which he is often 
stated to have undergone. But at sea he was 
captured by a Turkish rover, carried to Bar- 
bary, and sold as a slave. His miseries, ac- 
cording to his own account, made him grow 
taller. He managed to get back to England, 
probably before 1658, when Heath addressed 
some lines to him in his ' Clarastella.' After 
the Restoration Hudson lived quietly in the 
country for some years on a pension sub- 
scribed by the Duke of Buckingham and 
others ; but coming up to London to push his 
fortunes at court he was, as a Roman catho- 
lic, suspected of complicity in the popish 

plot (1679), and confined in the Gatehouse 
at Westminster. He did not die here, as 
Scott and others state, but was released. In 
June 1680 and April 1681, ' Captain ' Jefiery 
Hudson received respectively 50/. and 201. 
from Charles II's secret service fund. He 
died in 1682. 

The accounts of his height vary, but ac- 
cording to his own statement, as made to 
Wright, the historian of Rutland, after reach- 
ing the age of seven, when he was eighteen 
inches high, he did not grow at all until he 
was thirty, when he shot up to three feet six 
or nine. Portraits of Hudson and Evans, a 
tall servant of Charles I, were carved in relief 
in the wall over Bullhead Court, Newgate 
Street, London, the stone probably once form- 
ing the sign of a shop. In addition to the 
engraving in the ' Newe Year's Gift,' which 
has been reproduced in Caulfield's ' Memoirs 
of Remarkable Persons,' and in the ' Eccen- 
tric Magazine/ there is a painting of Hudson 
by Mytens at Hampton Court, a copy of 
which is at Holyrood. Another portrait by 
Mytens was in the possession of Sir Ralph 
Woodford ; this was engraved by G. P. Hard- 
ing for the ' Biographical Mirror.' He also 
appears in the portrait of Henrietta Maria by 
Vandyck at Petworth. Walpole mentions 
another portrait in his day, in possession of 
Lord Milton. Hudson's waistcoat, breeches, 
and stockings are in the Ashmolean Museum, 

[Fuller's Worthies, ed. Nichols, ii. 245 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1732, p. 1120; Fairholt's Kemarkable and 
Eccentric Characters, p. 63 ; Wright's Eutland, 
ed. 1684, p. 105; The New Yeeres Gift; Lith- 
gow's True . . . Discourse upon . . . this last 
siege of Breda, 1637, p. 45; Akerman's Moneys 
received and paid for secret services of Charles II 
and James II (Camd. Soc.). pp. 14, 28 ; Walpole's- 
Anecd. of Painting, ed. Wornum, vol. ii.; Law's 
Cat. of Pictures at Hampton Court Palace, 263 ; 
Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England, ii. 404 ; Miss 
Strickland's Lives of the Queens of England, v. 
313, 327; Sir Walter Scott's Peveril of the 
Peak ; Bromley's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, p. 
160.] W. A. J.A. 

HUDSON, JOHN (1662-1719), classical 
scholar, born at Widehope, near Cocker- 
mouth, Cumberland, in ] 662, was the son of 
James Hudson. In 1676 he entered Queen's 
College, Oxford, as a servitor, but was sub- 
sequently elected a tabarder. He graduated 
B.A. on 5 July 1681, and M.A. on 12 Feb. 
1684. On 29 March 1686 he became fellow 
and tutor of University College. For the use 
of his pupils he privately printed a compila- 
tion from Bishop Beveridge's treatise, with 
the title ' Introductio ad Chronologiam ; sive- 
Ars Chronologica in epitomen redacta,' 8vo r 



Oxford, 1691 ; and at the request of Arthur 
Charlett [q. v.], master of University College, 
he edited ' Velleius Paterculus/ 8vo, Oxford, 
1693, which Charlett distributed as presents 
on New-year's day. A second edition was 
issued in 1711. He next prepared a 'Eu- 
tropius' with the Greek paraphrase of Pee- 
anius, but becoming absorbed in an edition 
of ' Thucydides ' neglected to print it. Hud- 
son was at onetime a Jacobite of the cautious 
type. His politics interfered with his elec- 
tion to the mastership of his college in 1691, 
though in the following year he had suffi- 
cient influence to secure the post for Char- 
lett. He would, it is said, have succeeded 
William Levinz in the regius professorship 
of Greek in 1698 had not Bishop Burnet 
informed the king that Humphrey Hody 
(the successful candidate) had written in 
favour of the government, whereas Hudson 
was rather suspected of being opposed to it. 
He found it to his advantage to modify his 
opinions, but he failed to obtain any church 
preferment. In April 1701, on the resignation 
of Dr. Thomas Hyde [q. v.], he was elected 
Bodley's librarian, and on 5 June following 
he accumulated his degrees in divinity. He 
had given in 1696-8 seventy books to the 
library, and in 1705-10 he added nearly six 
hundred. Immediately upon his election he 
appointed Thomas Hearne [q. v.] an assistant 
librarian. Hearne had previously owed much 
to his kindness. He came, however, to de- 
test Hudson for having deserted the Jacobite 
cause, and wrote in bitter terms of him in his 
diaries. Hudson was not a model librarian ; 
he is even said to have thrown from the 
shelves the copy of Milton's ' Poems ' pre- 
sented by the poet himself in 1647, which 
was saved by mere chance. That he was 
close-fisted is clear from his contributing 
only ten shillings towards the relief of Sir 
Thomas Bodley's impoverished relations. In 
1711 Hudson refused the principalship of 
Gloucester Hall, but in , the following year 
was elected, through the interest of Dr. Rad- 
cliffe, to that of St. Mary Hall. He built the 
present lodgings for the principal at St. Mary 
Hall on the site of the old refectory (WooD, 
Colleges and Halls of O.?/., ed. Gutch,p. 674). 
He died of dropsy on 27 Nov. 1719, and was 
buried on 1 Dec. in the chancel of St. Mary's 
Church, Oxford. Shortly before his death he 
sent for Hearne, commended his edition of 
William of Newborough's 'History,' then 
passing through the press, and gave him some 
notes for it. He left an estate at Horsepath, 
near Oxford, and (so Hearne was told) above 
7 ,000 /. in money. His books were bequeathed 
t o University College library. He married, on 
2 April 1710, Margaret, widow of a barrister 

and commoner of University College, named 
Knapp, and only daughter of Sir Robert Har- 
rison, knt., alderman and mercer of Oxford, by 
whom he had one daughter, Margaret, born on 
24 July 1711, and married on 29 July 1731 
to John Boyce, rector of Saintbury, Glouces- 
tershire. Mrs. Hudson married as her third 
; husband Dr. Anthony Hall [q. v.], and dying 
| in September 1731 was buried on the 25th 
j of that month in the chancel of St. Mary's 
Church, Oxford. Hearne, however, insinuates 
that Hudson had been previously married to 
a Miss Biesley. In the Bodleian Library is a 
portrait of Hudson by W. Sonmans, the gift 
of his widow (WOOD, Antiq. of Oxf., ed. 
Gutch, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 953), from which S. 
Gribelin engraved a folio plate. 

Hudson's other publications are : 1 . ' Thucy- 
didis de Bello Peloponnesiaco libri octo,' 
with the Latin version (revised) of JEmilius 
Portus, and brief notes, fol., Oxford, 1696 ; 
several other editions in 4to and 8vo. 
2. 'Geographies veteris Scriptores Graeci 
minores. Cum interpretatione Latina [of 
Hudson and others], dissertationibus (H. 
Dodwelli), ac annotationibus,' 4 vols. 8vo, 
Oxford, 1698-1712. 3. 'Dionysii Halicar- 
nassensis Antiquitatum Romanarum libri 
quotquot supersunt,' Greek and Latin, 2 vols. 
fol., Oxford, 1704. 4. ' Dionysii Longini de 
j SublimitatelibelhiSjCumprsefatione. . .notis 
! . . . et variis lectionibus,' Greek and Latin, 
i 8vo, Oxford, 1710 ; another edition, 1718. 
5. * Mseris Atticista de vocibus Atticis et 
Hellenicis. GregoriusMartinus de Grsecarum 
literarum pronunciatione,' 2 pts. 8vo, Oxford, 
1712. 6. ' Fabularum ^Esopicarum Collec- 
tio, quotquot Greece reperiuntur. Accedit 
Interpretatio Latina/ 8vo, Oxford, 1718. 
7. { Flavii Josephi Opera quae reperiri potue- 
runt omnia,' 2 vols. fol., Oxford, 1720 (also 
1726), published at his dying request by his 
friend Anthony Hall. Hudson had anno- 
tated Dr. John Wills or Willes's ' Two Dis- 
courses upon Josephus/ prefixed to Sir Roger 
L'Estrange's translation of that historian, 
fol. London, 1702. 8. ' Velleii Paterculi quae 
supersunt,' 8vo, 1711. 9. 'Ethices Compen- 
dium a G. Langbsenio. Accedit Methodus 
Argumentandi Aristotelica ad dxptftttav ma- 
thematicam redacta. Disposuit et limavit J. 
Hudsonus,' 12mo, London, 1721. It is doubt- 
ful, however, whether Hudson had any share 
in this work. He encouraged Leonard Lich- 
field, the Oxford printer, to publish in 1693 
Erasmus's * Dialogus Ciceroniauus,' to which 
he added the epistles of Erasmus and others 
relating to the subject and an index. By his 
assistance David Gregory (1661-1708) [q. y.] 
was enabled to bring out an accurate * Euclid' 
in 1703, and Hearne a creditable ' Livy ' in 

Hudson * 



1708. To Ayliffe's Antient and present State 
of the University of Oxford, 1714, he con- 
tributed a notice of the Bodleian Library. 
Several letters from and to him are preserved 
in the Bodleian Library, where is also (Raw- 
linson MS. Misc. 350) his ' Indices Auctorum 
a variis Scriptoribus vel citatorum vel etiam 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 451-60 ; 
Hearne's Collections (Oxf. Hist. Soc.); Macray's 
Annals of Bodleian Library.] G-. Gr. 

HUDSON, MARY (d. 1801), organist, 
daughter of Robert Hudson [q. v. ] , was elected 
organist of St. Olave's, Hart Street, London, 
on 20 Dec. 1781, at a yearly salary of twenty- 
five guineas, and held this post until her 
death on 28 March 1801. During the last 
eight or nine years of her life she also ful- 
filled the duties of organist at the church of 
St. Gregory, Old Fish Street. 

She was the composer of several hymn 
tunes, and of a setting for five voices of a 
translation of the epitaph on Purcell's grave- 
stone, commencing ' Applaud so great a 
guest!' The hymn tune 'Llandaff' is as- 
signed both to her and to her father. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 755 ; Vestry Minutes 
of St. Olave's, Hart Street ; James Love's Scottish 
Church Music (1891), p. 175.] E. F. S. 

'-t"t 1648), royalist divine, was born in West- 
^ moreland {Reg. Matric. Oxon. fol. 87 b) in 
1605, and in February 1621-2 became a ' poor 
child ' and subsequently tabarder of Queen's 
College, Oxford. He proceeded B.A. in Fe- 
bruary 1625, and M.A. in January 1628 
(WooD, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 422, 441). 
It seems doubtful if he be identical with the 
Michael Hudson who matriculated from 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 3 July 
1623. About 1630 he was elected a fellow 
of Queen's College, Oxford, married, and was 
for a time tutor to Prince Charles. He was 
presented by Charles I to the rectory of West 
Deeping, Lincolnshire, 16 June 1632 ; to that 
of Witchling, Kent, 29 March 1633 ; and to 
the vicarage of Wirksworth, Derbyshire, 
10 Aug. 1633. He was also rector of Uffing- 
ton, Lincolnshire, and of Market Bosworth, 
Leicestershire, but seems to have assigned 
the former on 19 March 1640-1 to Thomas 
South in exchange for the rectory of King's 
Cliffe, Northamptonshire. Both South and 
Hudson were sequestrated from the living of 
Uffington by the Earl of Manchester 31 Dec. 
1644. On the outbreak of the civil war 
Hudson had joined the royalists, and after the 
battle of Edgehill retired to Oxford, where he 
was brought into contact with the king, was 

made one of the royal chaplains, and received 
the degree of D.D. in February 1642-3 {ib. 
iv. 55). His want of reserve and bluntness 
caused Charles I to nickname him his plain- 
dealing chaplain. Hudson's known fidelity 
led to his appointment as scout-master to the 
army in the northern parts of England, then 
under the command of the Marquis of New- 
castle, a position which he occupied till 1644. 
In April 1646, when Charles I determined 
to entrust his person to the Scots army, he 
chose Hudson and John Ashburnham [q. v.] 
to conduct him to the camp at Newark-on- 
Trent. The parliament, on 23 May 1646, con- 
sequently despatched a serjeant-at-arms for 
his arrest, but the Scots refused to give him 
up (RUSHWORTH, vi. 271), and after a few 
days' confinement released him. Very shortly 
afterwards, while endeavouring to reach 
France, he was arrested at Sandwich (7 June 
1646) and was imprisoned in London House. 
On 18 June 1646 he was examined by a com- 
mittee of parliament, when he detailed the 
wanderings of the king between Oxford and 
the Scots camp, On 18 Nov. he escaped, and 
is said (WHITELOCKE, Memorials of English 
Affairs, p. 237) to have conveyed letters 
from the king to Major-general Laugharne 
in Wales. In the following January he was 
again captured at Hull and was imprisoned 
in the Tower of London, where he was not al- 
lowed to see any one except in the presence of 
a keeper. Here he chiefly employed himself 
in writing and in perfecting a project to de- 
liver the Tower into royalist hands, which he 
was unable to put into execution. He again 
escaped early in 1648 in disguise with a 
basket of apples on his head, and returning 
to Lincolnshire he raised a party of royalist 
horse and stirred up the gentry of Norfolk 
and Suffolk to more activity on the king's 
side. With the chief body of those who had 
taken arms under his command, Hudson re- 
tired to Woodcroft House, Northampton- 
shire, a strong building surrounded by a moat, 
where they were speedily attacked by a body 
of parliamentary soldiery. Hudson, who is 
believed to have borne a commission as a 
colonel, defended the house with great 
courage, and when the doors were forced, 
went with the remnant of his followers to the 
battlements, and only yielded on promise of 
quarter, which was afterwards refused. Hud- 
son was flung over the battlements, but man- 
aged to support himself upon a spout or pro- 
jecting stone until his hands were cut off, 
when he fell into the moat beneath. In reply 
to his request to be allowed to die on land, 
a man, named Egborough, knocked him on 
the head with a musket (6 June 1648), while 
another parliamentarian cut out his tongue 




and carried it about as a trophy. His body 
-was buried at Denton, Northamptonshire. A 
proposal to reinter it at Uffington does not 
seem to have been carried out. 

Hudson married about 1630 Miss Pollard of 
Newnham Courtney, Oxfordshire. He lost 
by the rebellion the whole of his estates, and 
after his death his wife and children were 
supported by charity. His boldness, genero- 
sity, and almost fanatical loyalty are un- 
doubted. Walker says he was a scholar and 
a plain and upright Christian. He wrote : 
1. ' The Divine Right of Government Natural 
and Politique, more particularly of Monarchic, 
the onely legitimate and Natural source of 
Politique Government/ which was printed in 
4to, 1647, a portrait of Charles I, by P. Stent, 
being prefixed. The book was written in the 
Tower. 2. ' An Account of King Charles I,' 
&c., 8vo, which was not published till 1731 
{by Hearne). 

[Walker s Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 269, 367 ; 
Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 233; Lloyd's 
Memoirs, p. 625; Whitelocke's Memorials, pp. 
239, 306, 307 ; Hearne's Chronicon de Dunstable, 
vol. ii. ; Gary's Memorials of the Civil Wars, i. 
93, 109 ; Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, bk. ix.] 

A. C. B. 

HUDSON, ROBERT (/. 1600), poet, 
was probably a brother of Thomas Hudson 
(Jl. 1610) [q. v.], and was, like him, one of 
the ' violaris,' or Chapel Royal musicians, of 
James VI. Hudson seems to have been a 
special friend of Alexander Montgomerie, 
author of the ' Cherrie and the Slae,' who 
addresses him in a group of sonnets, appeal- 
ing for his interest at court, and at length 
declaring himself sadly disappointed in him 
as capable of merely courtier's courtesy. 
Montgomerie, in the course of his appeal, de- 
nominates Hudson the ' only brother of the 
Sisters nyne,' and predicts for him a secure 
immortality through his 'Homer's style' and 
his ' Petrarks high invent.' Four sonnets by 
him alone survive. Of these one is commen- 
datory of King James's ' Poems ' (1584) ; 
another belauds the manuscript ' Triumphes 
of Petrarke ' by William Fowler (printed 
in IKVING, Scotish Poetry, p. 463); the 
third is an epitaph on Sir Richard Maitland 
(PiNKEKTON, ii. 351) ; and a fourth is a com- 
mendatory sonnet on Sylvester's version of 
Du Bartas (HUNTER, Chorus Vatum, i.411). 

[Pinkerton's Ancient Scotish Poems; Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 24488, f. 411 ; Irving's Poems 
of Alexander Montgomery and Hist, of Scotish 
Poetry.] T. B. 

HUDSON, ROBERT (1731-1815), com- 
poser, born in 1731, possessed a good tenor 
voice, and in his youth sang at concerts in 

the Ranelagh and Marylebone Gardens. At 
the age of twenty-four he was elected as- 
sistant organist to St. Mildred's, Bread Street, 
and in the following j>ear was appointed 
' vicar-choral' of St. Paul's. In 1758 he was 
created a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, 
and in 1773 almoner and master of the chil- 
dren at St. Paul's. The latter post he held 
for twenty years. He was also for some 
time music-master at Christ's Hospital. In 
1784 he took the degree of Mus.Bac. at Cam- 
bridge, from St. John's College. He died at 
Eton in December 1815, and was buried in St. 
Paul's Cathedral. 

His compositions include a cathedral ser- 
vice, several chants and hymn tunes, and a 
collection of songs, published in 1762, under 
the title of < The Myrtle.' The hymn tune 
is assigned both to him and to his daughter 
Mary [q. v.] He also set for five voices the 
lines commencing ' Go, happy soul,' from Dr. 
Child's monument at Windsor. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 755 ; Brown's Biog. 
Diet, of Music, p. 335 ; Eetis's Biog. Univ. des 
Musiciens, iii. 380 ; Grraduati Cantabrigienses, 
p. 249 ; James Love's Scottish Church Music 
(1891), p. 175.] E. F. S. 

HUDSON, THOMAS (ft. 1610), poet, 
was probably a native of the north of Eng- 
land. His name stands first in the list of 
* violaris ' in the service of James VI in 1567 : 
1 Mekill [i. e. probably, big] Thomas Hudsone, 
Robert Hudsone [q. v.], James Hudsone, 
William Hudsone, and William Fullartoun 
their servand.' The Hudsons in all likelihood 
were brothers. All their names reappear in 
'The Estait of the King's Hous' for 1584 
and 1590, with particulars as to salary and 
liveries. Thomas Hudson was also installed 
master of the Chapel Royal 5 June 1586, 
his appointment being ratified by two acts 
of parliament dated respectively 1587 and 

Hudson's chief work is 'The Historie of 
Judith in forme of a Poeme: penned in 
French by the noble poet, G. Salust, Lord of 
Bartas : Englished by Tho. Hudson,' Edin- 
burgh, 1584. The work was probably sug- 
gested by the king, to whom Hudson dedicates 
it, and who supplied a commendatory sonnet. 
It runs fluently, and the number of verses is 
limited to that of the original text. Hudson's 
version was reissued in London in 1608, with 
the later editions of Joshua Sylvester's * Du 
Bartas,' and again in 1613, alone. Drummond 
of Hawthornden much preferred Sylvester's 
rendering to Hudson's. Hudson is one of the 
contributors to ' England's Parnassus,' 1600, 
and Ritson and Irving are agreed in identify- 
ing him with the ' T. H.' who contributed a 



sonnet to James VI's ' Essays of a Prentise,' 
Edinburgh, 1 585. In < The Eeturn from Par- 
nassus ' (played at Cambridge in 1006), Hud- 
son and Henry Lock, or Lok, are advised to 
let their l books lie in some old nooks amongst 
old boots and shoes/ to avoid the satirist's 
censure. Hawkins hastily infers (Origin of 
the English Drama, ii. 214) that Hudson and 
Lok were the Bavius and Msevius of their 
age. Hudson's efforts are never contemptible, 
and Sir John Harrington (in his notes to 
Orlando Furioso, bk. xxxv.) characterises the 
' Judith ' as written in ' verie good and sweet 
English verse.' 

[Authorities in text; Addit. MS. 24488, p. 
411; Kitson's Bibl. Poet.; Irving's Lives of 
Scotish Poets and Hist, of Scotish Poetry; 
Drummond's Conversations with Jonson (Shake- 
speare Soc.), p. 51.] T. B. 

HUDSON, THOMAS (1701-1779), por- 
trait-painter, a native of Devonshire, perhaps 
of Bideford, was born in 1701. He was a 
pupil of Jonathan Richardson the elder [q.v.], 
and there is an interesting portrait of Hud- 
son, drawn by Richardson while Hudson was 
studying with him, in the print room at the 
British Museum. Hudson made a runaway 
match with his master's daughter, by whom 
he had one daughter who died young. Adopt- 
ing the profession of a portrait-painter, he 
attained so much success that he succeeded 
Jervas and Richardson as the most fashion- 
able portrait-painter of the day. He painted 
innumerable portraits of the gentry and 
celebrities of his time. As a portrait-painter 
Hudson fully deserved his eminence, though 
the uninteresting character of costume and 
pose then in vogue has prevented full justice 
being done to his work. He showed firm- 
ness and solidity in his drawing, was pleasing 
in his colour, and true and faithful in his 
likenesses, but he was without the necessary 
touch of genius to secure permanent fame. 
His portraits have often been noted for 
the excellence shown in the painting of 
white satin and other portions of the drapery, 
though this is perhaps due to the skill of 
Joseph Van Haecken [q. v.], who with his 
brother was largely employed by Hudson, 
Ramsay, and others to add the draperies 
in their portraits. In 1740 Hudson, who 
was a frequent visitor at Bideford, came 
across the youthful Joshua Reynolds [q. v.] 
The latter was shortly afterwards apprenticed 
by his parents to Hudson, whose studio he 
entered as assistant and pupil. Hudson's 
tuition could hardly have failed to be of last- 
ing benefit to Reynolds, but the superior 
genius of the latter soon showed itself, and 
after two years he quitted, or was dismissed 

by, Hudson through some slight disagree- 
ment. "With the rise of Reynolds to fame 
and prosperity Hudson's supremacy came 
to an end, and he eventually retired con- 
tentedly, remaining on good terms with Rey- 
nolds for the remainder of his life. Hudson 
lived for many years in Great Queen Street,. 
Lincoln's Inn Fields ; in later life he built 
for himself a villa at Twickenham, near Pope's 
Villa, and made a second marriage with Mrs. 
Fiennes, a widow with a good -fortune. In 
I 1748 Hudson accompanied Hogarth, Hay- 
man, and others, on a tour on the continent. 
Hudson and some of the party visited the 
great artists and famous collections in 
j Flanders and Holland. Hudson's best work 
I is the family group of Charles, duke of Mar 1- 
j borough, at Blenheim Palace, ' executed in a 
most refined manner, highly finished, and in 
a very delicate silvery tone' (SCHAKF, Cat. 
of Blenheim Collection). In the National 
Portrait Gallery there are portraits by him 
of Handel, Sir John Willes, George II, and 
Matthew Prior (the latter a copy after 
Richardson). Other portraits by Hudson of 
Handel are in the Bodleian Library at Ox- 
; ford and in the collection of Earl Howe at 
Gopsall, Leicestershire. A good portrait by 
I Hudson of Samuel Scott [q. v.] the marine 
painter is in the National Gallery. Another 
well-known picture by Hudson is the so- 
called 'Benn's Club of Aldermen' in Gold- 
i smiths' Hall. Hudson exhibited with the 
I Society of Artists in 1761, and on the divi- 
i sion of societies joined the Incorporated So- 
ciety of Artists. He was a great collector of 
i drawings many of which he acquired at the 
I sale of the collection of his father-in-law, 
! Richardson prints, and other works of art. 
He was esteemed a competent j udge of matters 
connected with their study and criticism, 
though a well-known story is told how he 
was convicted by Benjamin Wilson [q. v.] 
of having mistaken an etching by the latter 
for a rare etching by Rembrandt (see J. T. 
SMITH, Nollekens and his Times, ii. 224). 
Hudson died at Twickenham 26 Jan. 1779, 
and his collections were dispersed by auction 
in March following. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Leslie and 
Taylor's Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds; 
Walpolo's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wornum ; 
Vertue's MSS. (Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 23076, 
23079) ; Seguier's Diet, of Painters ; Chaloner 
Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits ; informa- 
tion from George Scharf, C.B., F.S.A.] L. C. 

HUDSON, WILLIAM (.1635), lawyer, 
was admitted in 1601 a member of Gray's 
Inn, where he was called to the bar in 1605, 
became an ancient in 1622, a bencher in 
1623, and reader in Lent 1624. He prac- 




tised in the Star-chamber, and was one of 
the subscribers of the information exhibited 
in that court on 7 May 1629 against Sir John 
Eliot [q. v.], Denzil Holies [q. v.], and the 
other members of the House of Commons 
who had been concerned in the tumultuous 
proceedings which preceded the recent dis- 
solution. In February 1632-3 he opened the 
case against Prynne on his trial for the pub- 
lication of * Histriomastix.' He died in or 
before 1635. Hudson married twice. His se- 
cond wife, whom he married at Islington by 
license dated 3 April 1613, was Anne, widow 
of William Stodderd of St. Michael-le Querne, 
London, skinner. He left in manuscript a 
learned and lucid ' Treatise of the Court of 
Star Chamber,' a copy of which was given 
by his son Christopher to Lord-keeper Finch, 
passed into the Harleian collection (Harl. 
MS. 1226), and was printed by Hargrave in 
* Collectanea Juridica/ London, 1792, 8vo. 

[Douthwaite's Gray's Inn, p. 68 ; Cases in the 
Court of Star Chamber (Camd. Soc.); Cobbett's 
State Trials, iii. 311, 562; Chester's London 
Marriage Licenses ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1628-9, p. 540.] J. M. E. 

HUDSON, WILLIAM (1730 P-1793), 

botanist, was born at the White Lion Inn, 
Kendal, which was kept by his father, be- 
tween 1730 and 1732. He was educated at 
Kendal grammar school, and apprenticed to 
a London apothecary. He obtained the prize 
for. botany given by the Apothecaries' Com- 
pany, a copy of Ray's ' Synopsis,' which is now 
in the British Museum ; but he also paid at- 
tention to mollusca and insects. In Pennant's 
'British Zoology' he is mentioned as the dis- 
coverer of Trochus terrestris. From 1757 to 
1758 Hudson was resident sub-librarian of 
the British Museum, and his studies in the 
Sloane herbarium enabled him to adapt the 
Linnsean nomenclature to the plants de- 
scribed by Ray far more accurately than did 
Sir John Hill [q. v.] in his l Flora Britannica ' 
of 1760. In 1761 Hudson was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society, and in the following 
year appeared the first edition of his l Flora 
Anglica,' which, according to Pulteney and \ 
Sir J. E. Smith, 'marks the establishment of j 
Linnsean principles of botany in England.' | 
Smith writes that the work was ' composed j 
under the auspices and advice of Benjamin I 
Stillingfleet. Hudson, at the time of its pub- j 
lication, was practising as an apothecary in 
Panton Street, Haymarket, and from 1765 
to 1771 acted as 'prsefectus horti' to the 
Apothecaries' Company at Chelsea. A con- 
siderably enlarged edition of the ' Flora ' ap- 
peared in 1778; but in 1783 the author's 
house in Panton Street took fire, his collec- 

tions of insects and many of his plants were 
destroyed, and the inmates narrowly escaped 
with their lives. Hudson retired to Jermyn 
Street. In 1791 he joined the newly esta- 
blished Linnean Society. He died in Jermyn 
Street from paralysis on 23 May 1793, being, 
according to the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' in 
his sixtieth year. He bequeathed the re- 
mains of his herbarium to the Apothecaries' 
Company. Linnaeus gave the name Hudsonia 
to a North American genus of Cistacece. A 
portrait of Hudson was engraved. 

[Rees's Cyclopaedia, article by Sir J. E. Smith ; 
Cornelius Nicholson's Annals of Kendal, p. 345 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1793, i. 485; Field and Semple's 
Memoirs of the Botanic Garden at Chelsea, p. 88 ; 
Trimen and Dyer's Flora of Middlesex, p. 392 ; 
Pulteney's Sketches of the Progress of Botany, 
ii. 351 ; Bromley's Cat. of Portraits.] G. S. B. 

HUEFFER, FRANCIS (more correctly 
FEANZ HTJFFER) (1845-1889), musical critic, 
was born on 22 May 1845 at Minister, where 
his father held various municipal offices. After 
attending the lyceum and academy of his 
native place, he studied philology at Leipzig 
in 1866, and at Berlin from 1867 to 1869. 
He took the degree of Ph.D. at the university 
of Gottingen in July 1869, when his dis- 
sertation on the troubadour; Guillem de 
Cabestanh, attracted favourable notice. It 
was subsequently published at Berlin (1869). 
While at Berlin he found time to devote 
much attention to music, for which he had 
a natural predilection, and joined the then 
very limited number of ardent admirers of 
Wagner. In 1869 he came to London, and 
soon engaged in literary work. His first 
essays appeared in the l North British Re- 
view/ the 'Fortnightly Review,' and the 
* Academy.' He became assistant editor of 
the last about 1871, and in that year his 
appreciative critique in the l Academy ' of 
Swinburne's 'Songs before Sunrise ' attracted 
much attention. In 1874 the publication of 
his remarkable book, ' Richard Wagner and 
the Music of the Future ' (reprinted from 
the ' Fortnightly Review '), placed him in a 
foremost place among musicians of advanced 
views. Some five years later he succeeded 
Mr. 0. J. F. Crawfurd as editor of the 'New 
Quarterly Magazine,' to which he had been 
a frequent contributor. About the same time 
his connection with the 'Times' began, and 
in the autumn of 1879 he succeeded J. W. 
Davison [q. v.] as musical critic to that 
journal. In 1 878 appeared his learned treatise 
on Provensal literature, entitled ' The Trou- 
badours ; a History of Prove^al Life and 
Literature in the Middle Ages,' which led to 
his election to the -'Felibrige' society, and 




he delivered lectures on the same subject at 
the Royal Institution in 1880. He was na- 
turalised in January 1882 (Parliamentary 

Hueffer edited a series of biographies of 
' The Great Musicians/ writing for it a life of 
Wagner, which formed the opening volume 
(1881 ; 2nd edit. 1883). In 1883 he wrote 
the libretto for Dr. Mackenzie's ' Colomba ; ' 
in 1885 the words for Mr. F. H. Cowen's 
cantata, 'The Sleeping Beauty;' the libretto 
for Dr. Mackenzie's 'Troubadour' in 1886; 
and a skilful translation of Boito's ' Otello ' 
(for Verdi's music) in 1887. He was also 
for some time correspondent of the French 
musical paper, * Le Menestrel,' and wrote 
various articles in Grove's 'Dictionary,' Men- 
del's ' Musik-Conversations-Lexicon,' and the 
earlier part of the ' Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica' (9th edit.) In 1883 he edited a short- 
lived magazine called ' The Musical Review,' 
and in 1886 ' The Musical World.' He died 
after a short illness on 19 Jan. 1889, and was 
buried on the 24th at the St.Pancras cemetery, 
East Finchley. He married in 1872 Cathe- 
rine, younger daughter of Ford Madox Brown, 
the painter. 

Besides the works mentioned above he pub- 
lished : 1. ' Musical Studies,' collected essays 
from the 'Times' and elsewhere, 1880; an 
Italian translation appeared at Milan in 1883. 
2. 'Italian and other Studies,' 1883. 3. 'Half 
a Century of English Music,' 1889 (published 
posthumously). He also wrote critical me- 
moirs for the Tauchnitz editions of Rossetti's 
* Poems,' 1873, and his l Ballads and Sonnets,' 
1882; edited ' The Dwale Bluth' and other 
literary remains of Oliver Madox-Brown, 
with memoir (in collaboration with W. M. 
Rossetti), 1876; and translated Guhl and 
Koner's ' Life of the Greeks and Romans,' 
1875, and ' The Correspondence of Wagner 
and Liszt,' 1888. 

Like Wagner, he was an ardent disciple of 
Schopenhauer, and his purely literary works 
show a good deal of the philosophical spirit. 
As a musical critic, although he wrote in a 
language not his own, and on a subject for 
which he had no exceptional natural qualifi- 
cations, he yet filled a post of great responsi- 
bility with success, if not with distinction, 
and he exerted an elevating influence on the 
art of his time. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicinns, iv. 
680, 819 ; Times, 21 and 25 Jan. 1889 ; informa- 
tion from W. M. Kossetti, esq., Mrs. Hueffer, and 
Professor Hermann Hiiffer of Bonn; personal 
knowledge.] J. A. F. M. 

HUES, ROBERT (1553 P-1632), mathe- 
matician and geographer, born at Little Here- 
ford about 1553, entered Brasenose College, 

Oxford, as a servitor in 1571, or perhaps 
later. He subsequently removed to Magdalen 
Hall, from which he graduated B. A. as 'Ro- 
bert Hughes ' on 12 July 1578 (Reg. of Univ. 
of Oxf.j Oxf. Hist. Soc., vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 
76). His skill as a scientific geographer com- 
mended him to the notice of Thomas Caven- 
dish [q. v.], the voyager, with whom he sailed 
at least once round the world. His society 
was sought, too, by Thomas, lord Grey of 
Wilton, whom he frequently visited when 
confined in the Tower. After Lord Grey's 
death, on 6 July 1614, Hues was patronised 
by Henry, earl of Northumberland, and be- 
came tutor to his son Algernon when the 
latter was at Christ Church. The earl allowed 
him an annuity. Hues is mentioned by 
Thomas Chapman [q. v.] in the preface to his 
' Homer,' 1611, as one of the learned and 
valued friends to whose advice he was in- 
debted. He died unmarried at Kidling- 
ton, Oxfordshire, on 24 May 1632, aged 79, 
and was buried in the divinity chapel at 
Christ Church (epitaph in WOOD, Colleges 
and Halls, ed. Gutch,p. 503). He is author 
of 'Tractatus de Globis et eorum Usu, ac- 
commodatus iis qui Londini editi sunt anno 
1593, sumptibus Gulielmi Sandersoni civis 
Londinensis/8vo, London, 1594, dedicated to 
Sir Walter Raleigh. Other editions were pub- 
lished at Amsterdam in 1611 and 1624 (the 
latter with notes and illustrations by J. I. 
Pontanus), and at Heidelberg in 1613. An 
English translation by J. Chilmead was is- 
sued at London in 1638. The treatise was 
written for the special purpose of being used 
in connection with a set of globes by Emery 
Molyneux, now in the library of the Middle 
Temple. Chilmead's English version was re- 
issued in 1889 by the Hakluyt Society, under 
the editorship of Clements R. Markham. 
Wood mentions as another work of Hues a 
treatise entitled ' Breviarium totius Orbis,' 
which he says was several times printed; 
this is most probably identical with the 
' Breviarium Orbis Terrarum,' stated by 
Watt to have been printed at Oxford in 1651 
(Bibl. Brit. i. 523). 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 534-5 ; 
Warton's Hist of Engl. Poetry, ed. Hazlitt, iv. 
317; Will registered in P. C. C. 30, Eussell.] 

G. G. 

HUET or HUETT, THOMAS (d. 1591), 
Welsh biblical scholar, was a native of Wales, 
and in 1544 a member of Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Cambridge (B.A. 1562). He became 
master of the college of the Holy Trinity at 
Pontefract, and when it was dissolved received 
a pension, which he was in receipt of in 1555. 
On 20 Nov. 1560 the queen gave him the 




living of Trefeglwys in Montgomeryshire. 
From 1562 to 1588 he was precentor of St. 
David's Cathedral. Huet was a strong pro- 
testant. He signed the Thirty-nine Articles 
in the convocation of 1562-3, and in 1571 
dismissed the cathedral sexton at St. David's 
for concealing popish mass-books. These 
books he publicly burned. Richard Davies 
[q. v.], bishop of St. David's, recommended 
him in 1565 for the bishopric of Bangor, but 
he failed to secure it, though supported at 
first by Parker. However, he received the rec- 
tories of Cefnllys and Disserth in Radnor- 
shire, and as Parker calls him Doctor Huett, 
he probably at some time proceeded to the 
degree of D.D. Huet died on 19 Aug. 
1591, and was buried in Llanavan Church, 
Brecknockshire. He was married. His 
daughter was wife of James Vychan, a gen- 
tleman of Pembrokeshire. 

Huet co-operated with Davies and W. 
Salesbury in the translation of the New Testa- 
ment into Welsh, he undertaking the book 
of Revelation. The first edition was pub- 
lished in 1567, London, fol. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 101 ; Williams's 
Eminent Welshmen, p. 224 ; Brit. Mus. MSS. I 
Lansd. viii. 75, 76; Dwnn's Herald. Vis. of 
Wales, i. 182, 193 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. Early Printed 
Books.] W. A. J. A. 

1778), painter, was born of English parents 
at Florence in 1703. He studied painting 
under Anton Domenico Gabbiani, and even- 
tually became a painter of some repute in 
Florence, though his paintings had no real 
merit. He painted a ' St. Raphael ' as an 
altarpiece for the church of S. Felicita in 
Florence, various small pictures for the grand 
duke, and some for the monastery of Vallom- 
brosa at Forli. Hugford has better claim to 
repute as an art critic and expert, and as a 
teacher in the academy of St. Luke at 
Florence. Among his pupils was F. Barto- 
lozzi, R.A. [q. v.] Hugford published in 
1762 ' Raccolta di cento Pensieri diversi di 
Anton Domenico Gabbiani, Pittor Fioren- 
tino,' which contains one etching by Hug- 
ford himself. He died at Florence in 1778, 
aged 75. 

1771), elder brother of the above, also studied 
painting, but eventually became a monk at 
Vallombrosa. Father Hugford is well known 
as one of the chief promoters of the art of 
scagliola, which he learnt from a monk of 
the abbey of S. Reparata di Marradi. He 
brought this art to the highest pitch of ex- 
cellence which it attained. His best pupil 
was Lamberto Gori, who learnt drawing 

from Ignazio Hugford. Father Hugford died 
in 1771. 

[Eosini's Storia della Pittura; Pilkington's 
Diet, of Painters; Zani's Enciclopedia ; Tuer's 
Bartolozzi and his Works.] L. C. 


(Jl. 1557), poet and opponent of the Reforma- 
tion, is stated to have been a shoemaker or 
hosier in London, and the first writer for the 
catholic cause who had not received a monas- 
tical or academical education. He dwelt 
in Pudding Lane, a circumstance which oc- 
casioned Thomas Haukes, a gentleman of 
Kent, to tell him in a disputation at Bishop 
Bonner's house, ' Ye can better skille to eate 
a pudding and make a hose then in scripture 
eyther to aunswere or oppose ' (FoxE, Acts 
and Mon., ed. Townsend, vii. Ill, 759). 
Bishop Bale calls him ' insanus Porcarius r 
and ' Milo Porcarius, vel Hoggardus, servo- 
rum Dei malignus proditor/ and ridicules 
him for endeavouring to prove the necessity 
of fasting from Virgil's ' ^Eneid' and Cicero's 
1 Tusculan Questions.' Strype also speaks of 
him disparagingly, remarking that ' he set him 
self to oppose and abuse the gospellers, being 
set on and encouraged by priests and mass- 
mongers, with whom he much consorted, and 
was sometimes with them at Bishop Bonner's 
house.' It is plain, however, that Huggarde 
was noticed by leading men on the protes- 
tant side, and that he was one of the most 
indefatigable opponents of the Reformation. 
The writers against him included Laurence 
Humphrey, Robert Crowley, William Keth, 
and John Plough. He was living in the last 
year of Mary's reign, and in the title-pages 
of several of his works he describes himself 
as ' servant to the Queene's most excellent 
Males tie.' 

His works are : 1. ' The Abuse of the 
Blessed Sacrament of the Aultare,' a poem, 
published towards the close of the reign of 
Henry VIII. Robert Crowley [q. v.] wrote a 
' Confutation,' London, 1548, 8vo, with which 
the whole of Huggarde's poem was reprinted. 
2. ' The Assault of the Sacrament of the Altar ; 
containyng as well six severall Assaults, made 
from tyme to tyme, against the said blessed 
Sacrament : as also the names and opinions 
of all the hereticall Captains of the same 
Assaults. Written in ... 1549, by Myles 
Huggarde, and dedicated to the Quenes 
most excellent Maiestie, being then Ladie 
Marie ; in whiche tyme (heresie then reign- 
ing) it could take no place,' London, 1554, 
4to ; in verse. 3. ' A new treatyse in maner 
of a Dialoge, which sheweth the excellency 
of manes nature, in that he is made to the 
image of God,' London, 1550, 4to, black let- 




ter, in verse. 4. ' Treatise of three Wed- 
dings,' 1550, 4to. 5. 'A treatise entitled 
the Path waye to the towre of perfection,' 
London (R. Caley), 1554, 4to; London, 1556, 
4to ; in verse. An analysis of this work is 
given in Brydges and Ilaslewood's ' British 
Bibliographer/ iv. 67. 6. ' A Mirrour of 
Loue, which such Light doth giue, That all 
men may learn, how to lone and line,' Lon- 
don [1555], 4to, in verse; dedicated to Queen 
Mary. 7. 'The Displaying of the Protes- 
tants, and sondry their Practises, with a 
Description of divers their abuses of late fre- 
quented within their malignaunte churche. 
Perused and set forte with thassent of au- 
thoritie, according to the order in that be- 
half appointed ' (anon.), London, 1556, 8vo, 
black letter. In reply to this work John 
Plough published at Basel ' An Apology for 
the Protestants.' Dr. Laurence Humphrey, 
William Heth, and others joined in the at- 
tack upon Huggarde. 8. 'A Short Treatise 
in Meter upon the cxxix Psalme of Dauid, 
called De Profundis,' London, 1556, 4to. 
9. ' New ABC, paraphrastically applied as 
the State of the World doth at this day re- 
quire/ London, 1557, 4to. 10. 'A Myrrovre 
of myserie, newly compiled and sett forthe 
by Myles Huggarde seruaunt to y e quenes 
moste excellente maiestie/ 1557, 4to, manu- 
script in the Huth Library. It is a poem in 
seven-line stanzas, not known to have ap- 
peared in print. It is dedicated in verse to 
the queen, and is most beautifully written on 
vellum, having the royal arms in the lower 
centre, and a curious drawing before the poem 
itself. Following the dedication is a prologue 
in twelve stanzas of four lines each. 11. Songs 
and religious poems, in Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 15233. 12. A poem, containing 113 
seven-line stanzas, of controversy against the 
reformers, in Harleian MS. 3444, which once 
belonged to Queen Mary. 

[Addit. MS. 24489, p. 566 ; Ames's Typogr. 
Antiq. (Herbert), pp. 377, 618, 829, 831, 1568, 
1582, 1589; Bale's De Scriptoribus, i. 728, ii. 
Ill ; Dodd's Church Hist. i. 206 ; Grillow's Diet, 
of English Catholics, iii. 323 ; The Huth Library, 
ii. 745; Maitland's Keformation Essays, pp. 303, 
417, 510, 520 n.\ Notes and Queries, 4th ser. vi. 
94 ; Pits, De Anglise Scriptoribus, p. 752 ; Kit- 
son's Bibl. Poetica, p. 245 ; Strype's Memorials, 
iii. 206 fol. ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 406 ; War- 
ton's Hist, of English Poetry, 1840, iii. 172, 264; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), i. 301.] T. C. 

HUGGINS, JOHN (fl. 1729), warden of 
the Fleet. [See under BAMBEIDGE, THOMAS.] 

HUGGINS, SAMUEL (1811-1885), ar- 
chitect, was born in 1811 at Deal in Kent, 
but, brought to Liverpool in infancy, he re- 

sided there most of his life. William Hug- 
gins (1820-1884) [q. v.] was his brother. In 
1846 he began regular practice as an architect. 
He was a voluminous writer on subjects con- 
nected with his profession, particularly in 
defence of the classic style. He became a 
member of the Liverpool Architectural So- 
ciety in 1849, and was president from 1856 
to 1858. He resided in Chester with his 
brother William from 1861 to 1865, and in- 
terested himself in the preservation of the 
city's ancient buildings. In 1868 he read 
before the Liverpool Architectural Society a 
paper opposing the proposed restoration of 
Chester Cathedral, and in 1871 another paper 
' On so-called Restorations of our Cathedral 
and Abbey Churches.' The latter aroused a 
strong feeling on the subject of restorations, 
and led, after much discussion in the press, 
to the formation of the Society for the Pro- 

' tection of Ancient Buildings. Huggins pub- 
lished in 1863 < Chart of the History of 
Architecture. . . .' A reduced engraving of 

! this chart appeared in the ' Building News/ 

! 31 Oct. 1863. He compiled the catalogue of 
the Liverpool Free Public Library, 1872. He 

| died at Christleton, Chester, 10 Jan. 1885. 

' His portrait was painted by his brother Wil- 

[The Biograph, 1879, i. 406; Liverpool news- 
papers.] A. N. 

HUGGINS, WILLIAM (1696-1761), 
translator of Ariosto, son of John Huggins, 
warden of the Fleet prison, was born in 
1696, matriculated at Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford, 16 Aug. 1712, proceeded B.A. 1716, 
M.A. 1719, and became fellow of his college 
1722. Abandoning an intention of taking 
holy orders, he was, on 27 Oct. 1721, ap- 
pointed wardrobe-keeper and keeper of the 
private lodgings at Hampton Court. He sub- 
sequently resided at Headly Park, Hamp- 
shire. He died 2 July 1761. 

Huggins published: 1. 'Judith, an Oratorio 
or Sacred Drama; the Music composed by 
Mr. William Fesche, late Chapel Master of 
the Cathedral Church at Antwerp/ London, 
1733, 8vo. 2. Translation of sonnets from 
the Italian of Giovanni Battista Felice Zappa, 
1755, 4to. 3. 'The Observer Observ'd; or 
Remarks on a certain curious Tract intitled 
" Observations on the Faiere [sic] Queene of 
Spencer," by Thomas Warton/ London, 1756, 
8vo. 4. 'Orlando Furioso . . . translated 
from the Italian/ 2 vols., London, 1757, 4to. 
This has an elaborate preface and annota- 
tions. At his death he left in manuscript a 
tragedy, a farce, and a translation of Dante, 
of which the ' British Magazine/ 1760, pub- 
lished a specimen. His portrait was both 




painted and engraved by Hogarth, and was 
to have been prefixed to the translation of 

(1841), and another of his elder brother, 
Samuel Huggins. 

[Liverpool Mercury, 28 Feb. 1884 ; exhibition 
[Bloxam's Reg. of Magd. Coll. vi. 185 ; Baker's j catalogues ; private information.] A. N. 

:irrr T)r!>fl. Nir>Vmls' Tllnstvp nf T.if- iii \ 

Biog. Dramatica ; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. .... 
601; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 686; Boswell's 
Life of Johnson, iv. 12.] K. B. 

HUGGINS, WILLIAM (1820-1884), 
animal-painter, was born in Liverpool in 
1820. Samuel Huggins [q. v.] was an elder 
brother. William received his first instruc- j 
tion in drawing at the Mechanics' Institution, ; 
afterwards the Liverpool Institute, and now 
the government school of art, where at the 
age of fifteen he gained a prize for a design, 

* Adam's Vision of the Death of Abel.' He 
also made many studies from the animals at i 
the Liverpool zoological gardens, and was a j 
student at the life class of the old Liverpool 
academy, of which he became a full member. 
One of the best-known of his early works 
was ' Fight between the Eagle and the Ser- j 
pent,' to illustrate a passage from Shelley's i 

* Revolt of Islam.' The reclining figure in j 
the composition is his wife. Disappointed j 
at the reception of his animal pictures, he 
painted about 1845 several subjects from 
Milton, ' Una and the Lion ' from Spenser's 

' Faerie Queene,' ' Enchantress and Nourma- 
hal' from Moore's ' Lalla Rookh,' &c. In 1861 
Huggins removed to Chester, and during his 
residence there painted many views of the 
cathedral and the city, the ' Stones of Ches- 
ter, or Ruins of St. John's,' * Salmon Trap on 
fche Dee,' &c. He left Chester in 1876 for I 
Bettws-y-Coed, North Wales, with the pur- I 
pose of studying landscape ; one of the results \ 
was ' The Fairy Glen,' exhibited at the Liver- 
pool Exhibition, 1877, but he again returned 
to Chester, and died at Christleton, near that 
city, 25 Feb. 1884. 

Huggins was a constant exhibitor at the 
Royal Academy from 1846 till within a few 
years of his death, and at the exhibitions at 
Liverpool, Manchester, Dublin, Edinburgh, 
and Glasgow. His horses, cattle, and poultry 
pictures were his best and most characteristic 
work, good in drawing, and remarkable for 
brilliance of colour ; ' Tried Friends,' pur- 
chased by the Liverpool corporation, well 
illustrates these qualities. Few artists have 
been more versatile ; he not only drew por- 
traits in chalk of many of his friends, but 
painted some large equestrian portraits in oil. 
An excellent example is the portrait of Mr. T. 
Gorton, master of the Holcombe hunt, with 
a leash of hounds. He was an accomplished 
musician, and had an exceptional knowledge 
of other branches of art, such as ceramics and 
glass. Among his portraits is one of himself 

1845), marine -painter, born in 1781, began 
life as a sailor in the service of the East India 
Company. During his voyages he made many 
drawings of ships and landscapes in China 
and elsewhere. He eventually settled in 
Leadenhall Street, near the East India House, 
and practised his art as a profession, being 
specially employed to make drawings of ships 
in the company's service. In 1817 he exhi- 
bited a picture in the Royal Academy, and 
continued to exhibit occasionally up to his 
death. From his nautical knowledge his pic- 
tures had some repute as portraits of ships, 
but were weak in colouring and general com- 
position. Some of them were engraved. Hug- 
gins was marine-painter to George IV and to 
William IV : for the latter he painted three 
large pictures of the battle of Trafalgar, two 
of which are at Hampton Court and one in 
St. James's Palace. He died in Leadenhall 
Street on 19 May 1845. 

[Gent. Mag. new ser. 1815, xxiv. 93; Ked- 
grave's Diet, of Artists ; Royal Acad. Catalogues.] 

L. C. 

HUGH (d. 1094), called or GKANTMES- 
NIL, or GKENTEMAISNIL, baron and sheriff of 
Leicestershire, son of Robert of Grantmesnil, 
in the arrondissement .of Lisieux, by Advice 
(Had wisa), daughter of Geroy, lord of Escalfoy 
and of Montreuil near the Dive, was probably 
born not later than 1014. He served Duke Ro- 
bert the Magnificent, who resigned the duchy 
in 1035. His father at his death left his land's 
in equal shares to Hugh and his younger 
brother Robert. On receiving their inherit- 
ance they determined to build a monastery, 
and fixed on a spot near their own home. 
Their uncle, William FitzGeroy, pointed out 
that the site was unsuitable, and persuaded 
them to restore the abbey of St. Evroul, 
which they obtained by exchange from the 
abbot and convent of Bee, for it was then 
a cell of that house. They undertook their 
work in 1050, endowed their house, and 
peopled it with monks from Jumieges. Ro- 
bert became a member of the convent, was 
appointed prior and afterwards in 1059 abbot, 
was expelled by Duke William in 1063, betook 
himself to Italy, where he was welcomed by 
Robert Guiscard, and was given an abbey to 
rule over, and two others over which he 
placed two of his followers (OEDEKIC, pp. 474, 
481 -4). Hugh was also banished along with 
some other lords in consequence of accusa- 




tions brought by Koger of Montgomery and 
his wife Mabel. He was recalled, was one 
of the inner council consulted by the duke as 
to an invasion of England, and took part in 
the battle of Hastings (ib. p. 501). When the 
Conqueror visited Normandy in 1067, Hugh 
was left in command of Hampshire. He was 
appointed sheriff of Leicestershire, and re- 
ceived many grants of lands, chiefly in Lei- 
cestershire, where he held sixty-seven mano rs, 
and in Nottinghamshire, where he held 
twenty. His wife, Adelaide, daughter of Ivo 
of Beaumont, was very handsome, and he 
returned to Normandy in 1068, in order, it 
is said, to prevent her getting into mischief 
(ib. p. 512). Two of his sons, Ivo and Alberic, 
were concerned in the rebellion of Robert in 
1077 [see under HENRY I], and in conjunc- 
tion with other Norman lords he prevailed 
on the Conqueror to forgive Robert. He 
joined in the rebellion against Rufus in 1088, 
and committed ravages in Leicestershire and 
Northamptonshire. In January 1091 he 
helped Richard of Courcy, whose son Robert 
had married his daughter Rohesia, against 
Robert of Belleme [q. v.], and Robert's lord 
and ally, Duke Robert, who was besieging 
Courcy, and though then too old to wear har- 
ness gave his friends much useful advice. 
His son Ivo was taken and imprisoned by the 
duke, to whom Hugh sent an indignant re- 
monstrance, reminding him how faithfully he 
had served him, his father, and his grand- 
father, and requesting to be allowed to deal 
with Robert of Belleme without interference. 
As far as Hugh was concerned the arrival 
of Rufus in Normandy must have brought 
matters to a satisfactory conclusion. He was 
in England, when in 1094, worn out by old 
age, he felt death near, and accordingly as- 
sumed the monastic habit which had been 
sent some time before from Evroul for that 
purpose. He died on the sixth day after so 
doing, 22 Feb. His body was salted, care- 
fully sewed up in an ox-skin, and conveyed to 
St. Evroul, where it was honourably buried. 
Orderic, a monk of the house, wrote and re- 
corded his epitaph (ib. p. 716). By his wife 
Adelaide he had five sons and five daughters 
who grew up, and apparently a son and daugh- 
ter who died in infancy (comp. ib. pp. 622, 
717). Of his sons his eldest, Robert, who in- 
herited his Norman estates, alone was long- 
lived; he married thrice, and died in 1122 
without leaving children. His second son, 
William, married Mabel, daughter of Robert 
Guiscard, and his third, Ivo, who inherited 
his sheriffdom and his English estates, a 
daughter of Gilbert of Ghent (de Gand), lord 
of Folkinghani and other lands in Lincoln- 
shire. Three of Hugh's sons, William, Ivo, 

and Alberic, went on the first crusade, and 
were among the ( rope-dancers ' of Antioch 
(WILLIAM OF TYRE, vi. 4, ap. Gesta Dei 
per Francos, p. 715. ; ORDERIC, p. 805 ; for 
explanation of the term see GIBBON, v. 220). 
Four of Hugh's daughters were married 
(ORDERIC, p. 692). 

Ivo in 1101, after his return to England, 
levied private war on his neighbours, was 
tried, and made an arrangement with Robert 
of Meulan, by which he secured Robert's 
good offices with the king, but was forced to 
agree to a marriage between his young son 
Ivo and Robert's niece. He died on his pil- 

[As a monk of St. Evroul, Orderic naturally 
gives many particulars about Hugh and his house, 
and was of course well informed ; references to 
Duchesne's Hist. Norm. SS. ; Will, of Jumieges, 
vii. 4, 29* (Duchesne) ; Anglo-Saxon Chron. an. 
1088 (Eolls Ser.) ; Will, of Malmesbury, iv. 488 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.); Will, of Tyre, Gesta Dei per 
Francos, p. 715 ; Ellis's Introd. to Domesday, i. 
429 ; Freeman's Norman Conq. ii. 233, iii. 183, 
187, iv. passim, and William Rufus, i. passim; 
Gibbon's Decline and Fall, v. 220, ed. Smith, 
1862.] W. H. 

HUGH (d. 1098), called OF MONTGOMERY, 
cond son of Roger of Montgomery [q. v.], by 
Mabel, daughter of William Talvas, lord of 
Belleme, and younger brother of Robert of 
Belleme [q. v.], held during his father's life- 
time the manor of Worfield in Shropshire, 
and was distinguished as a leader against the 
Welsh, laying waste Ceredigion (Cardigan- 
shire), and even Dyfed (Pembrokeshire), in 
1071 and the following years. Being at Bures 
in Normandy when his mother was murdered 
there in the winter of 1082, he pursued her 
murderers with sixteen knights, but was un- 
able to overtake them. In conjunction with 
his brothers Robert and Roger of Poitou, he 
joined the rebellion against Rufus in 1088, 
and helped to hold Rochester Castle against 
the king. He succeeded his father in Eng- 
land in 1094, becoming Earl of Shrewsbury 
and Arundel (for the Arundel title see under 
ROGER OF MONTGOMERY and Second Peerage 
Report, pp. 406-26). He was suspected of 
being concerned in plots against Rufus in 
1095, and after the king's triumph privately 
purchased his favour with a present of 3,000/. 
Constantly engaged in war with the Welsh, 
he was probably specially concerned in the 
invasion and occupation of Ceredigion and 
Dyfed in 1 093. By the Welsh he was called 
the Red, by the Scandinavians apparently 
the Brave or the Proud. In 1094 the Welsh 
rose against him and the other Norman lords, 
and though he made war upon them in North 




Wales, and put several bands to flight, he 
was not able to repress their ravages ; at 
Michaelmas 1095 they took Montgomery and 
slew all his men that were in the castle. 
Early in 1098 he joined forces with Hugh, 
earl of Chester [q. v.], and made war in 
Anglesey, for the Welsh had made an alliance 
with the Northmen of Ireland. The earls 
treated the Welsh with great cruelty [see 
under HUGH, EAEL OF CHESTEE]. When the 
fleet of the Norwegian king, Magnus Bare- 
foot, appeared, the two earls met at Dwy- 
ganwy on the mainland, Hugh of Shrews- 
bury being first on the spot and waiting some 
days for his ally. They crossed over into 
Anglesey, and when the fleet drew near Hugh 
of Shrewsbury rode along the shore, spurring 
his horse, for he was in haste to marshal his 
men lest the Northmen should land before 
they were drawn up in battle array. As he 
did so the ships came within bow-shot of 
him, and Magnus and one of his men both 
shot at his face, for the rest of him was 
covered with mail. The king's arrow pierced 
his eye and killed him. His body was buried 
in the cloister of Shrewsbury Abbey, which 
had been built by his father and finished by 
himself. His death was much lamented. He 
was a valiant warrior, and, save for his cruel- 
ties to the Welsh, was gentle in manner and 
amiable in disposition. He does not appear 
to have been married, and was succeeded by 
his brother Eobert of Belleme. 

[Orderic, pp. 578, 581, 708 (Duchesne) ; Ann. 
Cambr. p. 26 (EollsSer.); Brut y Tywysogion, 
pp. 61, 63, 66 (Rolls Ser.) ; Anglo-Saxon Chron. 
ann. 1094, 1098 (Rolls Ser.) ; Florence, an. 1098 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Will, of Malmesbury's Gesta 
Regum, iv.306 ; Towel's Caradoc, p. 155; Laing's 
Heimskringla, iv. 93, ed. Anderson ; Griraldus 
Cambr. Itin. Kambr. ii. 7, Op. vii. 128, 129 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Dugdale's Baronage, p. 26, Monas- 
ticon, iii. 520 ; Freeman's Norman Conq. v. 113 ; 
Freeman's William Rufus, i. 57, 473, ii. 62, 
129-47.] W. H. 

HUGH (d. 1101), called OF AVEANCHES, 
EAEL OF CHESTEE, son of Richard, called Goz, 
viscount of Avranches, is said to have been a 
nephew of William the Conqueror, his mother, 
to whom the name of Emma is given, being 
a daughter of Herleva (OEMEEOD ; DOYLE) ; 
but for this there seems to be no authority 
earlier than the fourteenth century. His 
father, Richard, was the son of thurstan 
Goz, lord of Hiesmes, son of Ansfrid, a Dane. 
Thurstan was unfaithful to Duke William in 
1040, and helped Henry, king of France, in 
his invasion of Normandy. His son Richard 
remained loyal and made his father's peace 
with the duke. When the duke was about 
to invade England, Hugh, who had by that 


time succeeded to his father's viscounty, was 
one of his chief councillors, and contributed 
sixty ships to the invading fleet (WILLIAM OF 
POITIEES, ap. Gesta Willelmi I, p. 121, see 
also p. 22). He was richly rewarded with 
grants of English land. When Gerbod, earl 
of Chester, left England in 1071, the Con- 
queror bestowed his earldom on Hugh, who 
was invested with singular power, for he was 
overlord of all the land in his earldom save 
what belonged to the bishop, he had a court 
of his barons or greater tenants in chief, 
offences were committed against his peace 
not against the king's, and writs ran in his 
name. These characteristics became recog- 
nised as constituting apalatine earldom. The 
exceptional power which he held was designed 
to strengthen him against the Welsh, against 
whom he carried on frequent and sanguinary 
wars in conjunction especially with Robert 
of Rhuddlan [q. v.] and his own baronial 
tenant Robert of Malpas ; he fought success- 
fully in North Wales, invaded Anglesey, and 
built the castle of Aberlleiniog on the eastern 
coast of the island. Besides his earldom he 
held lands in twenty shires. 

Extravagant without being liberal he loved 
show, was always ready for war, and kept an 
army rather than a household. An inordi- 
nate craving for sport led him to lay waste 
his own lands that he might have more space 
for hunting and hawking. He was glutton- 
ous and sensual, became so unwieldy that he 
could scarcely walk, and was generally styled 
Hugh the Fat; he had many children by 
different mistresses. His wars with the Welsh 
were carried on with a savage ferocity, which 
makes the name Wolf (Lupus) bestowed on 
him in later days an appropriate designation. 

I At the same time he was a wise counsellor, a 

I loyal subject, and not without strong religi- 
ous feelings ; his household contained several 
men of high character, his chaplain was a 
learned and holy man, and both the earl and 
his countess, Ermentrude, daughter of Hugh 
of Claremont, count of Beauvais, were friends 
and admirers of Anselm (OEDEEIC, pp. 522, 
598; EADMEE, Historia Novorum, ii. 363). 

I When in 1082 Bishop Odo was planning an 
expedition to Italy, Hugh prepared to ac- 

I company him, but the scheme came to nothing. 
In the rebellion of 1088 he remained faithful 
to William Rufus. As viscount of Avranches 
he upheld the cause of his count Henry [see 
HENEY I], though when both Rufus and Duke 
Robert marched against the count in 1091, he 
surrendered his castle to them. The story that 
it was by his advice that Henry occupied Mont 
St. Michel is probably without foundation 
(WAGE, 1.14624; FEEEMAN, William Rufus, 
ii. 530). In 1092 he designed to turn out 




the secular canons of St. Werburgh's, Chester, 
arid establish in their place a body of monks 
from the abbey of Bee. Accordingly he sent 
to Anselm, then abbot of Bee, who spoke of 
him as an old friend, asking him to come and 
help him, and his request was supported by 
other nobles. Anselm refused to visit Eng- 
land at that time [see under ANSELM], and 
the earl fell sick, and sent him another mes- 
sage urging him to come for the good of his 
soul. After a third message Anselm came, 
and helped the earl, who was then recovered, 
in his work. Hugh rebuilt the church in 
conjunction with his countess, endowed the 
monastery, and made Anselm's chaplain the 
first abbot. When Henry's fortunes mended 
in 1094, Hugh was again one of his chief sup- 
porters, and received from him the castle of 
St. James on the Beuvron in the south of the 
Avranchin, of which he had previously been 
constable, as his father had been before him. 
On 31 Oct. he was summoned by Rufus to 
accompany Henry to Eu, where the king then 
was ; they, however, sailed to England, and 
remained in London over Christmas. During 
his absence in Normandy the Welsh rebelled ; 
they invaded and wasted Cheshire, took the 
earl's towns, and destroyed his castle in Angle- 
sey. During the wars of the next three years 
North Wales, with which the earl must have 
been most concerned, remained unsubdued. 
In January 1096 he was at the king's court 
at Salisbury, where he advised that William 
of Eu, who had been defeated in judicial 
combat, should be mutilated, for William had 
married the earl's sister and had been un- 
faithful to her. In 1098 he joined Hugh of 
Montgomery [q. v.], earl of Shrewsbury, in an 
invasion of Anglesey ; they bribed the Norse 
pirates from Ireland, who were in alliance 
with the Welsh, to help them to enter the 
island, rebuilt the castle of Aberlleiniog, 
slaughtered large numbers, and mutilated 
their captives. An old priest named Cenred, 
who had given counsel to the Welsh, was 
dragged out of church, and after he had suf- 
fered other mutilations his tongue was cut 
out. More than a century and a half later 
it was commonly believed that the Earl of 
Chester (or perhaps his fellow-earl) kennelled 
his hounds for a night in the church of St. 
Tyfrydog, and the next morning found them 
all mad. When the fleet of Magnus Barefoot, 
king of Norway, appeared off the island, the 
earls led a large force to prevent the North- 
men from landing. The Earl of Shrewsbury 
was slain, and Magnus made peace with the 
Earl of Chester, declaring that he meant no 
harm to England, and had come to take 
possession of the islands which belonged to 
him. Hugh completed the conquest of Angle- 

sey and subdued the larger part of North 
Wales. He was in Normandy when he heard 
of the death of Rufus in 1100 ; he crossed at 
once to England and was one of the principal 
councillors of Henry. The next year he fell 
sick, assumed the Benedictine habit at St. 
Werburgh's, and three days afterwards died 
on 27 July. His body was first buried in the 
cemetery of the abbey, and was afterwards 
removed by his nephew Ranulf, earl of Ches- 
ter, called le Meschin (d. 1129 ?), into the 
chapter-house. The report that his remains 
were discovered in 1724 seems doubtful (Os,- 
MEEOD, i. 218). 

By his wife Ermentrude he had one son, 
Richard, who succeeded him, receiving in- 
vestiture of the earldom about 1107. Richard, 
who was handsome, loyal, and amiable, mar- 
ried Matilda, daughter of Stephen, count of 
Blois, by Adela, daughter of the Conqueror, 
and while still a young man was drowned 
with his wife when the White Ship foundered 
on 27 Nov. 1119. Also probably by his wife 
Hugh had a daughter named Giva, who 
married Geoffrey Ridell, lord of Wittering, 
Northamptonshire, one of Henry's justices, 
and after her husband was drowned in the 
White Ship founded the Benedictine priory 
of Canwell, Staffordshire (Monasticon, iv. 
104; TANNEE, Notitia, p. 496). 

Of his illegitimate children, Robert be- 
came a monk of St. Evroul's, and was in 
1100 wrongfully made abbot of St. Ed- 
mund's, whence he was removed by Anselm's 
authority (OEDEEIC, pp. 602, 783 ; LIEBEE- 
MANN, Annals of St. Edmund's, p. 130; ST. 
ANSELM, Epp. iv. 14), and Othere was tutor 
to the sons of Henry I and was drowned in 
the White Ship. 

[Orderic, pp. 522, 598,602, 704, 768, 783,787, 
870 (Duchesne) ; William of Poitiers, G-esta Wil- 
lelmi Conq.pp. 22, 121 (Giles); Will.'of Jumieges, 
vii. 6, viii. 4 (Duchesne) ; Anglo- Sax. Chron. arm. 
1094, 1098; Florence of Wore. ii. 42 (Engl. 
Hist. Soc.) ; Will, of Malmesbury's Gesta Eegum, 
\\. 329 (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Hen. of Huntingdon, 
Hist. p. 242, De Contemptu Mundi, p. 304 (Kolls 
Ser.); Eadmer's Hist. Nov. pp. 362, 363, and 
Anselmi Epp. iv. 14, 81 (Migne) ; Liebermann's 
p. 130; Wace's Eoman de Kou, 1. 14624 sq. ; Ann. 
Cambrise, an. 1098, and Brut y Tywysogion, ann. 
1092 (1094), 1096 (1098), both Kolls Ser.; 
Laing's Heimskringla, iii. 129-33 ; Giraldi 
Cambr. Itin. Kambr. ii. 7, Op. vi. 128, 129 
(Rolls Ser.); Freeman's Norman Conq. iv. passim, 
Will. Rufus, i. 11, passim; StuBbs's Const. Hist, 
i. 363, 364; Ellis's Introd. to Domesday, i. 437 ; 
Ormerod's Hist, of Cheshire, i. 11, 12, 123, 124, 
218 ; Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 362; Dugdale's 
Monasticon, ii. 271 sqq.iv. 104; Tanner's Notitia, 
p. 496.] W. H. 




HUGH (fi. 1107 P-1155 ?), called ALBUS 
or CAKDIDUS, chronicler, was from early boy- 
hood a monk of Peterborough, haying been 
brought into the brotherhood by his elder 
brother, Reinaldus Spiritus, one of the sacrists 
of the monastery, in the time of Abbot Ernulf, 
who ruled the house between 1107 and 1114. 
Hugh was a very sickly child, and though 
he lived to a good age, he was never strong 
He was called 'Hugo Albus,' from the pale- 
ness and beauty of his countenance. Later 
writers have called him l Hugo Candidus, 
which Leland translates as if it were a sur- 
name, ' Hugh Whyte.' 

Hugh's chief teachers were Abbot Ernuli 
and his brother Reinald, of both of whom 
he speaks in terms of warm affection. He 
remained a monk during the abbacies of John, 
Henry, Martin of Bee, and William of Wal- 
terville. He won the affection, both as j unior 
and senior, of the monks and abbots, and was 
equally popular in neighbouring monasteries 
and in the country around. He was em- 
ployed in every branch of the business of the 
monastery, both internal and external. In 
Abbot Martin's time (1133-55) he was 
elected sub-prior. He was present when the 
church was burnt in 1116, and at the subse- 
quent reconsecration by Bishop Alexander 
of Lincoln, in Lent 1139, he kissed and 
washed the right arm of St. Oswald, the 
most precious of the Peterborough relics, 
and bore testimony that the flesh and skin 
was still whole, in accordance with St. Aidan's 
prophecy. On the very day of Martin's death 
(2 Jan. 1155) he was appointed with eleven 
other senior monks, all of whom were junior 
to him, as a committee for the election of 
the new abbot, and they chose William of 
Walterville, one of their own house. Next 
day Hugh was sent with the prior, Reinald, 
to announce the election to Henry II, whom 
they found at Oxford with Archbishop Theo- 
bald. Henry confirmed the election. 

Hugh wrote in Latin a history of the 
abbey of Peterborough up to the election of 
Abbot Walterville. A later hand has in- 
terpolated some references to Hugh's own 
death and a short account of the deposition 
of Walterville in 1175. It is conjectured that 
Hugh died soon after the election of Walter- 
ville. It is sometimes thought that Hugh 
wrote the concluding portions of the Peter- 
borough English ' Chronicle,' which, like his 
local history, comes abruptly to an end with 
Abbot Walterville's election. Mr. Wright 
points out, however, that Hugh used the 
English ' Chronicle ' in compiling his history, 
and that he mistranslates some of the Eng- 
lish words in a way that shows little fami- 
liarity with the English tongue. This, if 

substantiated, would be conclusive against 
his authorship of the greater work. 

Hugh's l History of Peterborough ' was pub- 
lished in 1723 by Joseph Sparke in his 'His- 
torise Anglicanae Scriptores Varise,' pp. 1-94. 
An abridged translation of parts into Norman - 
French verse is printed in the same collection, 
as well as a continuation, up to 1245, by 
another monk, Robert of Swaffham, from 
whom the chief manuscript, still preserved 
at Peterborough, is called the 'Liber de 

[The sole authority for Hugh's life is his own 
account of himself in his Historia Ccenobii Bur- 
gensis, pp. 34, 66, 67, 68-70, 90, the chronology 
of which can be adjusted by reference to the 
Peterborough Chronicle ; Gunton's Hist, of the 
Church of Peterborough ; Wright's Biog. Brit. 
Anglo-Norman Period, pp. 176-8; Hardy's De- 
scriptive Cat. of MS. Materials for British His- 
tory, ii. 412-13.] T. F. T. 

HUGH (d. 1164), abbot of Reading and 
archbishop of Rouen, was born in Laon late 
in the eleventh century. He belonged in all 
probability to the noble family of Boves, a 
theory to which his arms (an ox passant) 
give support. He was educated at Laon in 
the celebrated school of Anselm and Ralph, 
and became a monk of Cluny. A few years 
after his reception the abbot made him prior 
of Limoges, but he went to England about 
the same time, and became for a short time 
prior of Lewes, whence he was transferred 
in 1125 to the abbey of Reading, then newly 
founded. While travelling abroad in 1129 
he was elected to the archbishopric of Rouen 
and consecrated 14 Sept. 1130. At this 
time he founded the abbey of St. Martin of 
Aumale. In his province he was vigorous 
and strict, and tried for some time in vain to 
bring the powerful abbots under his control. 
He took part with Pope Innocent II against 
Anacletus, received Innocent at Rouen in 
1131, and rejoined him at the council of 
Rheims in the same year, bringing him letters 
in which the king of England recognised him 
as lawful pope. Henry II had taken the side 
of the abbots in their recent struggle with 
Hugh, and he was now further incensed by 
Hugh's refusal to consecrate Richard, natu- 
ral son of the Earl of Gloucester, bishop of 
Bayeux on account of his illegitimate birth. 
This difficulty was got over by a special dis- 
pensation from the pope, but Hugh thought 
t prudent to go in 1134 to the council of Pisa, 
and on its conclusion to remain in Italy on 
egatine business for some time. He was re- 
called, however, by the murmuring of the 
nobles of his province and the personal com- 
)laints of Henry, and returned in 1135 in 
ime, according to a letter preserved in the 





' Historia Novella ' of "William of Malmes- 
bury, to attend the king, who had always 
respected him, on his deathbed at Colombieres. 
In 1136 he was back at Rouen. 

Hugh was a staunch supporter of King 
Stephen, and passed much time in England 
during the civil wars. Early in 1137 Stephen 
went to Normandy, and when he had failed 
to capture the Earl of Gloucester, Hugh was 
one of his sureties that he would do Robert 
no further injury. It was by his interven- 
tion that the dispute between the king and 
the bishops regarding the custody of castles 
was settled at the council of Oxford in 1139, 
which Henry of Blois [q. v.] had summoned. 
Hugh also reconciled the Earl of Gloucester 
and the Count of Boulogne. As the rebellious 
abbots of his province were now without 
royal support, he was able to carry out the 
decision of the council of Rheims, and to ex- 
act an oath of obedience ; among those whom 
he forced to tender it was Theobald, after- 
wards archbishop of Canterbury, then newly 
elected abbot of Bee. In 1147 Hugh took 
part in the controversy with Gilbert de la- 
PoirSe. In 1150 Henry, prince of Wales, 
began to rule in Normandy, and Hugh found 
in him a strong supporter. He died 11 Nov. 
1164, and was buried in the cathedral at 
Rouen, where there is an epitaph composed 
by Arnold of Lisieux. 

Hugh wrote : 1. 'Dialogi deSummo Bono/ 
seven books of dialogues, six of which were 
composed when he was at Reading, and re- 
vised, with the addition of a seventh, at 
Rouen. 2. 'De Heresibus sui Temporis,' 
three books upon the church and its minis- 
ters, directed against certain heresies in Brit- 
tany. It was dedicated to Cardinal Alberic. 
3. * In Laudem Memoriae ' and ' De Fide Ca- 
tholica et Oratione Dominica.' 4. ' De Crea- 
tione Rerum,' or the ' Hexameron.' The 
manuscript of this work passed to Clairvaux 
and thence to the library at Troyes (f. 423). 
5. l Vita Sancti Adjutoris,' the life of a monk 
of Tiron. All these have been printed in 
Migne's ' Patrologise Cursus,' Latin ser., vol. 
cxcii., where mention will be found of the 
previous editions of Martene and d'Achery. 
Some of Hugh's letters are to be found in 
Migne, and some in William of Malmesbury's 
Chronicle. Two were formerly in the library 
of Christ Church, Canterbury. 

[The life in the Nouvelle Biographie Generale 
is by Haureau, and supersedes that in the His- 
toire Litteraire; Cat. of the Depart. Libr. of 
France ; Martene's Thesaurus novus Anecdoto- 
rum, torn. v. ; Martene and Durand's Collectio 
Veterum Scriptorum, torn, ix., Paris, 1733; 
G-allia Christiana, torn. ii. ; Ordericus Vitalis, 
Hist. Eccles. ; "Will, of Malmesb. Hist. Novella, 

bk. ii. ; Migne's Patrologise Cursus, Lat. ser, 
vol. cxcii.] J. Gr. F. 

HUGH (d. 1181), called HUGH OF CY- 
VEILIOG, palatine EARL or CHESTER, was the 
son of Ranulf II, earl of Chester [q. v.], and 
of his wife Matilda, daughter of Earl Robert 
of Gloucester, the illegitimate son of Henry I. 
He is sometimes called Hugh of Cyveiliog, 
because, according to a late writer, he was 
born in that district of Wales (PowEL, Hist. 
of Cambria, p. 295). His father died on 
16 Dec. 1153, whereupon, being probably still 
under age, he succeeded to his possessions on 
both sides of the Channel. These included 
the hereditary viscounties of Avranches and 
Bayeux. Hugh was present at the council of 
Clarendon in January 1164 which drew up 
the assize of Clarendon (STUBBS, Select Char- 
ters, p. 138). In 1171 he was in Normandy 
(ETTOIST, Itinerary of Henry II, p. 158). 

Hugh joined the great feudal revolt against 
Henry II in 1173. Aided by Ralph of Fou- 
geres, he utilised his great influence on the 
north-eastern marches of Brittany to excite 
the Bretons to revolt. Henry II despatched 
an army of Brabant mercenaries against 
them. The rebels were defeated in a battle, 
and on 20 Aug. were shut up in the castle 
of Dol, which they had captured by fraud 
not long before. On 23 Aug. Henry II ar- 
rived to conduct the siege in person (HovE- 
DUN, ii. 51). Hugh and his comrades had no 
Chron. of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I, 
iii. 221). They were therefore forced to sur- 
render on 26 Aug. on a promise that their 
lives and limbs would be saved (W. NEW- 
BURGH in HOWLETT, i. 176). Fourscore 
knights surrendered with them (DICETO, i. 
378). Hugh was treated very leniently by 
Henry, and was confined at Falaise, whither 
the Earl and Countess of Leicester were also 
soon brought as prisoners. When Henry II 
returned to England, he took the two earls 
with him . They were conveyed from Barfleur 
to Southampton on 8 July Il74. Hugh was 
probably afterwards imprisoned at Devizes 
(EYTON, p. 180). On 8 Aug., however, he 
was taken back from Portsmouth to Barfleur, 
when Henry II went back to Normandy. He 
was now imprisoned at Caen, whence he was 
removed to Falaise. He was admitted to 
terms with Henry before the general peace, 
and witnessed the peace of Falaise on 11 Oct. 
(Fcedera, i. 31). 

Hugh seems to have remained some time 
longer without complete restoration. At last, 
at the council of Northampton on 13 Jan. 
1177, he received grant of the lands on both 
sides of the sea which he had held fifteen 




years before the war broke out (BEXEDICTUS, 
i. 135 ; HOVEDEN, ii. 118). In March he 
witnessed the Spanish award. In May, at 
the council at Windsor, Henry II restored 
him his castles, and required him to go to Ire- 
land, along with William Fitzaldhelm [q. v.] 
and others, to prepare the way for the king's 
son John (BENEDICTUS, i. 161). But no great 
grants of Irish land were conferred on him, 
and he took no prominent part in the Irish 
campaigns. He died at Leek in Stafford- 
shire on 30 June 1181 (ib. i. 277 ; Monas- 
ticon, iii. 218 ; OEMEEOD, Cheshire, i. 29). 
He was buried next his father on the south 
side of the chapter-house of St. Werburgh's, 
Chester, now the cathedral. 

Hugh's liberality to the church was not so 
great as that of his predecessors. He granted 
some lands in Wirral to St. Werburgh's, and 
four charters of his, to Stanlaw, St. Mary's, 
Coventry, the nuns of Bullington and Green- 
field, are printed by Ormerod (i. 27). He also 
confirmed his mother's grants to her founda- 
tion of Austin Canons at Calke, Derbyshire, 
and those of his father to his convent of the 
Benedictine nuns of St. Mary's, Chester (Mo- 
nasticon, vi. 598, iv. 314). In 1171 he had 
confirmed the grants of Ranulf to the abbey 
of St. Stephen's in the diocese of Bayeux 
(EYTOtf, p. 158). More substantial were his 
grants of Bettesford Church to Trentham 
Priory, and of Combe in Gloucestershire to 
the abbey of Bordesley, Warwickshire (Mo- 
nasticon, vi. 397, v. 407). 

Hugh married before 1171 Bertrada, the 
daughter of Simon III, surnamed the Bald, 
count of Evreux and Montfort. He was 
therefore brother-in-law to Simon of Mont- 
fort, the conqueror of the Albigenses, and 
uncle of the Earl of Leicester. His only le- 
gitimate son, Ranulf III, succeeded him as | 
DE]. He also left four daughters by his wife, 
who became, on their brother's death, co- 
heiresses of the Chester earldom. They were : 
(1) Maud, who married David, earl of Hunt- 
ingdon, and became the mother of John the 
Scot, earl of Chester from 1232 to 1237, on 
whose death the line of Hugh of Avranches 
became extinct; (2) Mabel, who married 
William of Albini, earl of Arundel (d. 1221) 
[q. v.] ; (3) Agnes, the wife of William, earl 
Ferrers of Derby ; and (4) Hawise, who mar- 
ried Robert de Quincy , son of Saer de Quincy, 
earl of Winchester. Hugh was also the father 
of several bastards, including Pagan, lord of 
Milton; Roger; Amice, who married Ralph 
Mainwaring, justice of Chester ; and another 
daughter who married R. Bacon, the founder 
of Roucester (OKMEKOD, i. 28). A great 
controversy was carried on between Sir 

Peter Leycester and Sir Thomas Mainwaring, 
Amice's reputed descendant, as to whether 
that lady was legitimate or not. Fifteen 
pamphlets and small treatises on the sub- 
ject, published between 1673 and 1679, were 
reprinted in the publications of the Chetham 
Society, vols. Ixxiii. Ixxix. and Ixxx. Main- 
waring was the champion of her legitimacy, 
which Leycester had denied in his ' Historical 
Antiquities.' Dugdale believed that Amice 
was the daughter of a former wife of Hugh, 
of whose existence, however, there is no re- 
cord. A fine seal of Earl Hugh's is engraved 
in Ormerod's ' Cheshire,' i. 32. 

[Benedictus Abbas andKoger de Hoveden (both 
ed. Stubbs in Eolls Ser.) ; Hewlett's Chronicles 
of Stephen, Henry II, and Kichard I (Eolls Ser.); 
Eyton's Itinerary of Hen. II ; Ormerod's Cheshire, 
i. 26-32 ; Diigclale's Baronage, i. 40-1 ; Dugdale's 
Monasticon, ed. Ellis, Caley, and Bandinel; 
Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 364 ; Beamont's in- 
troduction to the Amicia Tracts, Chetham Soc.l 

T. F. T. 

HUGH (1135P-1200), SAINT, bishop of 
Lincoln, was born at Avalon, near Pont- 
charra in Burgundy, close to the Savoy fron- 
tier, probably in 1135. He came of a noble 
family. His father was William, lord of 
Avalon ; his mother's name was Anna. The 
father desiring to devote himself to a reli- 
gious life took his son of eight years old 
with him to the cloister which he had se- 
lected for himself, a priory of Regular Canons 
at Villarbenoit, which was in immediate 
connection with the church of Grenoble. 
Here the young Hugh was put to school, 
together with many other children of noble 
families. He is said to have shown great 
proficiency in his studies, and to have become 
very skilful in singing the various monastic 
services. At the age of nineteen he was or- 
dained deacon by the Bishop of Grenoble, 
and a few years afterwards, most probably in 
1159, was appointed, together with an aged 
priest, to the cell or mission chapel of St. 
Maximin, where he zealously performed 
ministerial duties for the people. But be- 
coming earnestly desirous of dedicating him- 
self to a more rigidly ascetic life he paid a visit 
to the monastery of the Grande Chartreuse. 
Here he was enamoured of the deep seclu- 
sion and strict life of the members of the 
monastery, and was anxious to join them. 
His prior, fearing this, caused Hugh to take 
an oath not to enter the Carthusian order. 
In spite of this, however, he soon contrived 
to escape to the famous monastery, where he 
took the vows not much later than 1160. 
He became remarkable for his diligent 
studies and extreme austerities, and in 1170 
was appointed procurator or bursar of the 




monastery. This necessitated his constant 
communication with the outer world, so 
that his high character and tact came to 
be generally known. Henry II, king of 
England, had founded a small Carthusian 
monastery at Witham in Somerset, which, 
being badly managed, was on the point of 
collapse, when a noble of Maurienne sug- 
gested to Henry a way of saving it by pro- 
curing the services of Hugh of Avalon as 
prior. The king accordingly sent an influen- 
tial embassy to Grenoble to solicit the grant 
of this famous monk. After very great diffi- 
culty the grant was obtained by the aid of 
the Archbishop of Grenoble. Hugh came to 
England at the latest in 1176, and probably 
in 1175 ; on arriving at Witham he found 
everything in a most miserable state. By his 
energy and tact he brought matters to a 
better condition, and was able in an inter- 
view with the king to show him the neces- 
sity of doing more for the monastery. A 
great friendship now sprang up between 
King Henry and the prior. Henry made 
frequent visits to the monastery in his hunt- 
ing expeditions in Selwood Forest. He con- 
sulted Hugh about his affairs of state, and 
determined to promote him to the important 
see of Lincoln, which had now been two 
years vacant. In May 1186, at a council 
held at Eynsham, near Oxford, he sent for 
the canons of Lincoln, and desired them to 
elect as their bishop Hugh the Burgundian. 
Some of these canons, men of considerable 
eminence and great wealth, objected to Hugh 
as an obscure foreign monk, but they were 
forced to yield to the king. When, however, 
his election was notified to Hugh, he refused 
to accept it. He would have nothing to do 
with any constrained choice, nor would he 
consent to be made bishop save by the ex- 
press permission of the head of his order, the 
prior of the Grande Chartreuse. The canons 
upon this again elected him unanimously in 
their chapter, and an embassy having been 
despatched to the Chartreuse the prior's con- 
sent was obtained. 

Hugh was consecrated bishop of Lincoln 
in the chapel of the invalid monks at West- 
minster on St. Matthew's day, 21 Sept. 1186 
(the Magna Vita incorrectly implies that it 
was in 1185 ; see Dimock's preface, pp. xxv- 
xxix). The king bore all the expenses at- 
tendant upon the consecration and the sub- 
sequent enthronisation at Lincoln, which 
took place 29 Sept. The new bishop or- 
dered a large number of the deer in his 
well-stocked park of Stow to be slaughtered 
to feed the poor of his cathedral city. He 
also at once published certain decreta to 
meet some of the abuses then prevalent. 

Hugh's residence was at Stow, about twelve 
miles from Lincoln, and it is with this place 
that the legends of his famous swan, which 
displayed such extraordinary affection to the 
bishop, are connected. On his commencing 
the administration of his diocese Hugh was 
confronted with the tyrannical forest laws, 
and the vexatious demands and encroach- 
ments of the king's foresters. These he de- 
termined at once to check. He excommu- 
nicated the chief forester for some oppres- 
sive act, and thereby incurred the wrath of 
the king. This was much increased by the 
bishop's direct refusal to bestow a prebend in 
his church on a courtier recommended by the 
king. Henry, who had probably expected 
an obedient and accommodating prelate in 
Hugh, was greatly enraged. The bishop, 
whose courage was high, determined to 
have a personal interview with him to bring 
about an explanation. He found the king 
in Woodstock Chase, resting from hunting, 
with many courtiers about him. He was re- 
ceived in silence and with evidences of grave 
displeasure ; but the cool confidence of the 
bishop and his jocular remarks turned the 
tide in his favour, and the interview ended 
by Henry approving the excommunication 
of 'his chief forester and the refusal of the 
prebend to his nominee. The bishop soon 
became conspicuous by his zealous perform- 
ance of his duties, and especially by his un- 
bounded charity. This was eminently shown 
by his treatment of the unhappy lepers then 
abounding in East Anglia. He delighted to 
tend these sufferers with his own hands, and 
did not shrink from eating out of the same 
dish with them. He was also remarkable 
for the attention which he showed and en- 
forced on others to the due performance of 
the rites for the burial of the dead, then 
much neglected. The bishop stood singularly 
apart from the men of his time in his appre- 
ciation of alleged miracles. He desired 
neither to hear about them as attributed to 
others, nor would he allow them to be im- 
puted to himself. Hugh's disciplinary pro- 
ceedings against evil-doers were very severe, 
and his anathema was so much dreaded that 
it was regarded as equivalent to a sentence 
of death. It was the bishop's practice to re- 
tire every year at harvest-time to his old 
monastery at Witham, where he could prac- 
tise the discipline which he so much loved, 
undisturbed by the affairs of his huge diocese. 
His character was a singular combination of 
keen worldly wisdom and tact with the 
deepest ascetic devotion. His most striking 
characteristic was perhaps his perfect moral 
In July 1188 Hugh went on an embassy 




to the French king, and he was in France at 
the time of Henry II's death, but returned 
to England in August 1189, and was present 
at Richard's coronation, and at the councils 
of Sadberge and Pipewell. During 1191 he 
took part in the opposition to Longchamp, 
whose commands he refused to execute. 
About the same time also he ordered the re- 
mains of Fair Rosamund to be removed from 
Godstow Priory. Hugh was concerned in 
the dispute between the chapter of York and 
Archbishop Geoffrey in 1194-5, and in the 
latter year refused to suspend Geoffrey, de- 
claring he would rather be suspended him- 
self. Hugh had supported Richard against 
John, whom he excommunicated in February 
1194, but when the occasion came was fear- 
less in his opposition to the king. In a coun- 
cil held at Oxford early in 1198, Hubert 
Walter asked for a grant in aid of the king's 
wars; Hugh, together with Bishop Herbert 
of Salisbury, opposed him, and the archbishop 
had to yield. Bishop Stubbs describes this 
as ' a landmark in constitutional history, the 
first clear case of refusal of a money grant 
demanded directly by the crown' (HOVEDEN, 
vol. iv. preface, p. xci). Richard, in fury at 
this opposition to his demands, ordered the 
immediate confiscation of the bishop's goods. 
Hugh went to him in Normandy, determined 
to make him retract the sentence. The in- 
terview between them took place in the 
chapel of Roche d'Andeli. The bishop's un- 
flinching courage was completely successful, 
and excited the king's admiration. Not long 
afterwards he was involved in another quar- 
rel with Richard, who had made a heavy 
demand on the canons of Lincoln. Hugh 
again went abroad to settle matters, and 
arrived just before the death of Richard. 
He took part in the funeral rites of the 
king at Fontevrault, and immediately after- 
wards had many colloquies with John, who 
was very anxious to secure the great in- 
fluence of Hugh in his support. The bishop 
appears to have thoroughly gauged John's 
worthless character, and spoke very plainly 
to him. 

Hugh returned to England, and was pre- 
sent at John's coronation on 27 May 1199, but 
he was soon again in France, summoned by 
the king to aid in affairs of state. He now 
formed the project of paying a visit to the 
scene of his earlier life, the monastery of the 
Grande Chartreuse, and early in June 1200 he 
quitted Paris to make this journey. Every- 
where he was received with the greatest 
honour, and on reaching Grenoble, where the 
city was splendidly decorated for his recep- 
tion, he celebrated mass in company with the 
archbishop, and had the pleasure of greeting 

his elder brother "William, lord of Avalon, 
and his brother's young son, who was bap- 
tised by him. The next day the bishop 
and his party visited the Grande Chartreuse, 
where they were received with the highest 
honour. On his return journey the bishop 
fell ill of a low intermittent fever, and being 
unskilfully treated he landed in England in 
a state of great exhaustion, and was with 
difficulty conveyed to London, where, in the 
old Temple, the house of the bishops of Lin- 
j coin, he lay lingering for some months, edi- 
! fying all his attendants by his patience and 
great devotion, till at length on 16 Nov. the 
end came. His body was conveyed to Lin- 
coln to be interred in the cathedral, which 
he had been chiefly instrumental in rebuilding 
after its partial destruction by the great 
earthquake of 1185. The obsequies of Hugh 
j were very remarkable. King John, who was 
j then holding a council at Lincoln, took part 
j in carrying the coffin. The bishop was in- 
| terred in the chapel of St. John Baptist in 
; the north-eastern transept of the cathedral, 
24 Nov. 1200. Worship at the tomb imme- 
diately commenced. In 1220 Hugh was 
canonised as a saint by the Roman church, 
and his body was translated to a place in the 
! church more convenient for the crowds of 
worshippers. Sixty years later (1280), upon 
j the completion of the angels' choir, it was 
| again translated, and a shrine, said to have 
been of pure gold, was erected over it. The 
1 translation took place in the presence of Ed- 
ward I and his queen and a great concourse 
of noble persons. The worship of St. Hugh 
soon assumed almost as great proportions in 
I the north as that of St. Thomas of Canter- 
I bury did in the south of England. St. Hugh's 
1 church is held to be one of the best examples 
of the fully developed pointed architecture. 
He also built, or at any rate commenced, the 
, great hall in the episcopium or bishop's house 
adjoining the cathedral. To aid in these 
works he established the guild of St. Mary, 
the members of which all bound themselves 
to contribute a certain sum for the building 
of the cathedral. The central tower and 
nave as they now stand are of somewhat 
later date ; the end of St. Hugh's work may 
be easily recognised in the eastern walls of 
the western transepts. 

[Magna Vita S. HugonisEpiscopi, ed. Dimock, 
London, 1864; Metrical Life of St. Hugh, ed. 
Dimock, Line. 1860; G-iraldus Cambrensis, vol. 
vii., ed. Dimock, London, 1877 ; Eogeri de Hove- 
den Historia, ed. Stubbs, London, 1870; Bene- 
dict! G-esta Regis Henrici Secundi, ed. Stubbs, 
London, 1867; Life of St. Hugh of Avalon 
bv the present writer, London, 1879.1 

G. G. P. 




HUGH (d. 1235), called HUGH OF WELLS, 
bishop of Lincoln, was the eldest son of Ed- 
ward of Wells, a large landed proprietor at 
Lanchester, two miles south-west of Wells. 
The family name appears to have been Trot- 
man. Josceline [q. v.], bishop of Bath and j 
Wells, was Hugh's younger brother. On his I 
father's death Hugh, as the heir, was confirmed ! 
by King John in the possession of his manors, 
including Axbridge and Cheddar. His name 
appears frequently in the rolls of John's reign, i 
especially in the charter rolls from 1200 to \ 
1209, as l clericus regis.' As deputy to the i 
chancellor, Walter de Grey, afterwards arch- \ 
bishop of York [q. v.l, and ( signifer regis ' i 
(Annals of Worcester, iv. 397), he sealed royal 
letters-patent and other public documents 
(RTMER, Fcedera, i. 100, 142 ; Rot. Lit. Pat. 
p. 80) in his own name, which has led Wen- 
dover (iii. 228), Sch&lby (Girald. Cambr.vii. 
203), and others into the error of stating 
that he was actually chancellor. Hugh 
first appears in the rolls as Archdeacon of 
Wells on 1 May 1204, under Bishop Sa- | 
varic. He held other preferments, such as I 
the prebend of Louth in Lincoln Cathedral, j 
to which he was presented by John in March j 
1203 (Rot. Lit. Pat. p. 27), and the rectory of 
Aldefrith in Norfolk, where he seems to have 
built a new church dedicated to St. Nicholas j 
(Rot. Lit. Glaus, p. 159). In 1209 John pro- I 
cured the election of Hugh to the see of Lin- 
coln, which had lain vacant since the death 
of William de Blois, 10 May 1203. 

Hugh declined to become a pliable instru- 
ment in John's hands. The country was then 
under the papal interdict. The king there- 
fore sent Hugh to Normandy, to be conse- 
crated by the Archbishop of Rouen ; but Hugh 
disregarded the king's injunctions, and pro- 
ceeded to Melun, where Archbishop Stephen 
Langton was in banishment, received con- 
secration at his hands, and swore canonical 
obedience to him, on 20 Dec. 1209. John 
retaliated by seizing the revenues of the see, 
and Hugh remained in exile, together with 
his brother Josceline, who had also turned 
against the king, and the other partisans of 
Langton. On 15 Nov. 1211 Hugh and his 
brother were residing at St. Martin de Ga- 
renne, near Bordeaux, where the former made 
a still extant will, in which he bequeathed 
three hundred marks to the building of the 
cathedral of Wells, five hundred marks to 
that of Lincoln, five hundred marks for the 
foundation of a hospital of St. John the Bap- 
tist at Wells, and other legacies for the canons 
and vicars of the cathedral there and at Lin- 
coln (Report of Hist. MSS. Commission on 
MSS. of Wells Cathedral, pp. 186-7 ; Lin- 
colnshire Notes and Queries, ii. 173-6). John's 

charter of submission, given at Dover on 
13 May 1213, authorised Hugh, Langton, 
Josceline, and the other banished bishops to 
fulfil the duties of their office, and restitution 
of the revenues of his see, amounting to 750/., 
was made to Hugh (MATT. PAKIS, Chron. Maj. 
ii. 542). He landed at Dover with the other 
bishops on 16 July in the same year, and 
they were received by John at Winchester 
on 20 July (ib. pp. 542-3, 550). A large sum 
of money was assessed on the royal revenue 
as a compensation to the diocese of Lincoln, 
of which fifteen thousand marks were paid 
(Rot. Lit. Pat. p. 106). The rent of the fair 
at Stow Park was remitted, and the manor 
of Wilsthorpe was given for the yearly rent 
of 20 J. (Annals of Dunstable, iii. 37). Brian 
de Insula was ordered to furnish Hugh with 
three hundred stags for Stow Park. Hugh 
showed his gratitude for these royal favours 
by siding with the king against the barons 
at Runnymede in 1215, and his name stands 
in the introduction to Magna Charta (MATT. 
PARIS, us. ii. 589-90 ; WEKDOVER, iii. 302). 
Yet after the death of John he supported 
the cause of Louis the Dauphin and the 
barons. He was absent from England when 
the foreign forces were defeated at Lin- 
coln on 19 May 1217, and on his return he 
was compelled to pay one thousand marks, 
1 ad opus domini Papse,' to recover his bi- 
shopric, and one hundred marks to gain the 
favour of Gualo the legate (MATT. PAEIS, iii. 
32 ; WENDOVER, iv. 33). The same year the 
bishop's castle at Newark was seized by 
Robert de Gaugi, one of the freebooters of 
that lawless time, who held it for the barons. 
It was invested by William Marshal, and 
after an eight days' siege it capitulated, the 
bishop giving Robert 1001. sterling for the 
provisions stored in the castle (MATT. PARI.S, 
iii. 33-4 ; WENDOVER, iv. 35). In 1219 he 
acted as a justice itinerant (Rot. Lit. Claus. 
pp. 387, 403, 405). 

On the establishment of peace Hugh was 
able to devote him self to his episcopal duties, 
which he fulfilled to the benefit not only 
of his own diocese, but of the whole church 
of England. His great work was the or- 
dination of vicarages in those parishes the 
tithes of which had been appropriated to 
monastic bodies. A definite portion of the 
revenues of the parish church usually 
fixed by Hugh at one-third of the income 
of the benefice, together with a house and 
some glebe was thus assigned to the 
vicar who had the cure of the parishioners' 
souls. He was no longer treated as the curate 
of the convent, removable at the convent's 
will, and receiving whatever stipend the con- 
vent might choose to allot. Nearly three hun- 




dred vicarages were thus established in the dio- 
cese of Lincoln before 1218, when the ' Liber 
Antiquus de Ordinationibus Vicariamm ' was 
drawn up ; and the work was energetically 
prosecuted by Hugh to the end of his life. The 
historians of the day, themselves usually mem- 
bers of conventual establishments, bitterly 
denounced Hugh's praiseworthy policy. He 
is styled by Matthew Paris 'monachorum 
persecutor ; canonicorum, sanctimonialium et 
omnium malleus religiosorum ' (MATT. PARIS, 
Chron.Maj. iii. 306; Hist. Angl ii. 375). 

Hugh consecrated the church of Dunstable 
18 Oct. 1213, and held a visitation there in 
1220 in person, and again by his official, 
Grosseteste, then archdeacon of Lincoln, in 
1233 (Annals of Dunstable, iii. 42, 57, 132). 
He also made a visitation of his whole dio- 
cese, issuing articles of inquiry to be made 
by his archdeacons, which present an interest- 
ing picture of the state of the church at that 
period (WILKINS, Concilia, i. 627-8). When 
an anchoress at Leicester professed to live 
without food, Hugh at first refused all cre- 
dence to the tale, but having had her watched 
for a fortnight, and there being no evidence 
of her having taken any sustenance, he ac- 
cepted the story (MATT. PAKIS, Chron. Maj. 
iii. 101). He sat on a commission, together 
with archbishop Langton and his brother 
Josceline of Wells, and others, in Worcester 
chapter-house, 3 Oct. 1224, to settle differences 
between the bishop and the convent (Annals 
of Worcester, iv. 416). In 1225 he witnessed 
the confirmation of Magna Charta (Annals 
of Burton, i. 231). He was among the first 
to recognise the commanding genius of 
Grosseteste, and was one of his earliest 
patrons. Grosseteste in his ' Letters ' speaks 
of himself as Hugh's ' alter ille,' with whom 
there was ' one heart and one mind ' (GROSSE- 
TESTE, Epistolce, p. 136). Hugh refused 
Grosseteste permission to undertake a pil- 
grimage in 1231-2, on account of the risks 
he would run of falling into the hands of the 
Komans (ib. pp. xxxv., 22). He treated the 
Jews of his diocese with great sternness, join- 
ing with Archbishop Langton in 1223 in a 
prohibition to Christians, under pain of ex- 
communication, to sell victuals to them an 
order speedily reversed by the royal authority. 
The king's clemency had also to be extended 
to prisoners in the bishop's prisons (Rot. Lit. 
Claus. pp. 541, 563, 567). He zealously co- 
operated with his brother Josceline in the 
building and reorganisation of the cathedral of 
Wells, and joined with him in the foundation 
of the hospital of St. John the Baptist at that 
city (19 Feb. 1220-21). The nave of his own 
cathedral at Lincoln was in building during 
his episcopate ; he founded the chantry-chapel 

of St. Peter, in the south arm of the eastern 
transept, and the Metrical Life of St. Hugh ' 
suggests that he completed the chapter-house. 
By his will he bequeathed one hundred marks 
to the fabric, and all the hewn timber through- 
out his episcopal estates, to be redeemed by 
his successor (Grosseteste) for fifty'marks if 
he thought good. He built the kitchen and 
completed the hall begun by St. Hugh at 
the episcopal palace at Lincoln, towards 
which the king granted him forty trunks of 
trees from Sherwood Forest (Rot. Lit. Claus. 
p. 606); and also a hall at Thame, and a 
manor-house at B uckden, which subsequently 
became the sole episcopal palace. His later 
will, which contains many interesting particu- 
| lars, dated at Stow Park 1 June 1233, is 
; printed in the Eolls edition of ' Giraldus 
Cambrensis ' (vol. vii. Appendix G, pp. 
223-30), and ably commented on by Mr. 
Freeman (ib. pp. xc-xcv). He died 7 Feb. 
1234-5, and was buried in the north choir 
aisle of his cathedral. 

[Martirologium of John of Schalby, Grirald. 
Camb. vii. 203, xc. xcv. ; Matt. Paris's Chron. 
Maj. ii. 526, 528, 542, 550, 589. iii. 32-4, 101, 
306 ; Hist. Angl. ii. 120, 139, '225, 227, 235, 
375; Wendover, iii. 302, iv. 33, 35; G-rosse- 
teste's Letters, xxxv. 22, 136, 196; Eymer's 
Foedera, i. 142, 146, 151 ; Annales Monastic!, 
i. 231, iii. 37, 42, 57, 132, iv. 397; Canon 
Perry's Biography, ap. Lib. Antiq. Hug. de 
Wells (ed. by A. Gibbons).] E. V. 

HUGH (1246 P-1255), called HUGH OP 
LINCOLN", SAINT, was son of a woman of Lin- 
coln named Beatrice. It is said that after 
having been missing from his home for some 
days, he was found dead in a well belong- 
ing to the house of a Jew named Copin, 
about 29 June (MATT. PARIS), or more 
probably on 28 Aug. 1255 (Annals of Bur- 
ton). The neighbours believed that he had 
been crucified by the Jews of the city, who 
were under the rule of a rabbi named Pey- 
j tivin the Great, and it is asserted that his 
1 body bore the marks of crucifixion. In ijs 
| full form the story is that Copin enticed the 
boy, who was eight or nine years of age, into 
his house when at play with his companions, 
that the Jews tortured him during ten days, 
keeping up his strength by feeding him well, 
or, according to another version, that they 
almost starved him for twenty-six days, and 
| sent meanwhile to the other Jewries in Eng- 
| land to gather the Jews together. Many are 
| said to have assembled, and on 26 Aug. the 
I boy is stated to have been tried before a man 
' acting the part of Pilate, to have been scourged, 
crowned with thorns, and crucified in mockery 
of the death and passion of Jesus Christ. The 
Jews accounted for the presence of so many 




of their people in the city by saying that they 
had come to attend a wedding. It is said 
that they tried to sink the boy's body in the 
river, that the water would not hide it, that 
when they buried it the earth refused to 
remain above it, and that they therefore 
threw it into the well. Later than might 
have been expected Hugh's playfellows told 
his mother when and where they had last 
seen him ; she went to Copin's house, and 
the body was discovered. John of Lexing- 
ton, one of the officers of Henry III, being 
at Lincoln, the people brought Copin before 
him, and charged him with the murder. 
Lexington is represented as encouraging the 
accusers ; he threatened the Jew with in- 
stant execution, promising, however, that he 
should be saved from death and mutilation 
if he would make a full confession. Copin 
confessed the crime, and is reported to have 
said that the Jews crucified a boy in the same 
manner every year. Lexington caused him to 
be kept in prison. Meanwhile a blind woman 
who touched Hugh's body is stated to have 
received sight, and other miracles are re- 
ported. Hearing this the dean of Lincoln, 
Richard of Gravesend, afterwards bishop, and 
the canons of the cathedral church begged 
to have the body, and, in spite of the oppo- 
sition of the parson of the parish to which 
Hugh belonged, buried it with great state in j 
their church next to the body of Bishop j 
Robert Grosseteste. A monument has with- 
out sufficient reason been ascribed to Hugh. 
His mother went to meet the king on his 
return from the north, and laid her com- 
plaint before him. Henry at once ordered 
Copin to be drawn at a horse's tail through 
the streets of Lincoln and then hanged ; the 
order was executed with great barbarity. 
Peytivin the Great escaped ; eighteen Jews 
were hanged on 23 Nov., and ninety-one 
were imprisoned in London. On 7 Jan. 
1256 Henry issued a writ to the sheriff of 
Lincoln commanding him to call a jury of 
twenty-four knights and burghers for the 
trial of the Jews confined in the Tower, who 
had put themselves on the county, and sent 
commissioners to Lincoln to hold an inquest 
on the case in March. The Jews were found 
guilty and condemned to death. They per- 
suaded the Franciscans (MATT. PARIS, or the 
Dominicans, Annals of Burton) to plead for 
them, but in vain. In consideration of a 
large sum Richard, earl of Cornwall, inter- 
fered on their behalf, and they were released 
on 15 May. The martyrdom of Hugh was 
made the subject of a French ballad before 
the end of Henry's reign, and in later times 
remained a popular theme for ballad poetry 
(MICHEL, Hugues de Lincoln). Reference is 

made to it by Chaucer in the ' Prioress's 
Tale,' and by Marlowe in his 'Jew of Malta/ 
act iii. 

Such accusations against the Jews were 
commonly used for the purpose of extorting 
money, and were, therefore, encouraged by 
the royal officers. But the theory that they 
were invented in order to replenish the ex- 
chequer is insufficient. They were mainly 
the outcome of popular malice, ignorance, 
and superstition, and were often turned to 
the advantage of local churches. In England 
the first case of the kind seems to have 
happened in the reign of Stephen, when the 
Jews of Norwich are said to have bought a 
boy namedWilliam, and, having tortured hirn r 
to have crucified him on Good Friday. The 
monks buried him in their church, miracles 
followed, and he was venerated as a saint 
{Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, an. 1137 ; ROBERT 
DE MONTE, col. 459). A case of the same sort 
is said to have taken place at Gloucester in the 
next reign (TRIVET, p. 68). On 10 June 1181 
a boy named Robert is supposed to have been 
murdered by the Jews at Bury ; he was buried 
in St. Edmund's Abbey, and many miracles 
were wrought (JOHN DE TAXSTER ap. Cont. 
FLOR. WIG. ii. 155 ; GERVASE, i. 296), which 
were recorded by Jocelin de Brakelond ( JOCE- 
LIN, p. 12). In 1192 a Jew of Winchester 
was accused of crucifying a boy ; no compe- 
tent witnesses appeared against him, he paid 
a sum of money, and the case fell through 
(RICHARD or DEVIZES, pp. 59-64). It was 
commonly believed at the time that the Jews 
were in the habit of buying Christian chil- 
dren in order to crucify them in mockery of 
the death of Christ (COGGESHALL, p. 26). 
Seven Jews of Norwich were accused before 
Henry III, at Christmas 1234, of having 
stolen and circumcised a boy, intending to- 
crucify him the following Easter ; some were 
executed (W T ENDOVER, iv. 324). All the Jews 
of the Norwich Jewry were arrested on a 
similar charge by order of Bishop William 
Ralegh in 1240; four were put to death 
(MATT. PARIS, iv. 30). In 1244 the corpse of a 
boy was found in London tattooed with marks 
said to be Jewish characters ; it was believed 
that the Jews had bought the boy and tor- 
tured him, and that he had died before they 
could crucify him ; the body was buried in 
St. Paul's by the canons (ib. p. 377). On 
14 Sept, 1279, soon after Edward I had 
heavily punished the Jews for abusing the 
coin, a boy is said to have been crucified at 
Northampton, but survived. On this occa- 
sion many Jews were sent up to London and 
there put to death (' Bury Chronicle ' ap. Cont. 
FLOR. WIG. ii. 222). 

A belief in the guilt of the Jews has pre- 




vailed in most Christian lands in times of igno- 
rance and fanaticism since the fifth century. 
In 428 an attack was made upon the Jews in 
Mestar, in the region of Chalcis, for crucify- 
ing a boy, and many were afterwards punished 
by legal sentence (SOCRATES, Historia, vii. 
c. 16 ; CASSIODOKUS, Historia Tripartita, xi. 
c. 13). Several cases are reported in France 
in the twelfth century, in Germany in the 
thirteenth and two following centuries, and 
in Spain in the fifteenth century. A like 
crime is said to have been committed at Con- 
stantinople in 1569, and on 17 April 1598 
a boy named Albert was supposed to have 
been crucified in Poland (Acta SS. xi. 832). 
In 1840 the old superstition was revived at 
Damascus and at Rhodes, and in 1882 at 
Tiszaeszlar, near Tokay, in Hungary. In the 
last case the innocence of the Jews was con- 
clusively proved by legal proceedings. 

[For the story of St. Hugh the contemporary 
authorities are Matt. Paris, v. 516-19, 546, 552 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Annales Monast., Annals of Burton, 
i. 340 sq., 348, 371, and of Waverley, ii. 346 
(Eolls Ser.); Royal Letters, Henry III, ii, 110 
(Rolls Ser.); Fcedera, i. 335, 344 (Record Off.); 
ballad in Fr. Michel's Hugues de Lincoln ; there 
are many later notices of the story; see also 
Tovey's Anglia Judaica, pp. 136-43; Archseo- 
logia, i. 26 ; Papers at Anglo-Jewish Exhibition 
of 1887, p. 159 ; Hume's paper in Liverpool Lit. 
and Philos. Soc.'s Proc. of 13 Nov. 1848, and 
criticism upon it in Athenaeum of 15 Dec. 1849 ; 
Chaucer's Cant. Tales, Prioress's Tale, p. 102, 
ed. Tyrwhitt ; Marlowe's Jew of Malta, act iii. 
p. 165, ed. Dyce ; ballads in Michel's Hugues de 
Lincoln from collections of Grilchrist, i. 210, 
Jamieson, i. 139, Pinkerton, i. 75, Motherwell, 
p. 51, and Brydges, i. 381 ; Percy's Reliques, i. 
54-60, ed. "Wheatley. For similar accusations in 
England, Anglo-Saxon Chron. an. 1137 (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Rob. de Monte (Migne), col. 459; Trivet, 
p. 68 (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; two Conts. of Flor. of 
Wore. ii. 155, 222 (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Gervase 
of Cant. i. 296 (Rolls Ser.) ; Chron. of Jocelin de 
Brakelond, pp. 12, 113, 144 (Camden Soc.) ; Ric. 
of Devizes, pp. 59-64 (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Walt. 
of Coggeshall, p. 26 (Rolls Ser.) ; Roger of 
Wendover, iv. 324 ; Matt. Paris, iv. 30, 377, u.s.; 
in France, Lambert Waterlos, an. 1163, Rob. de 
Monte, ann. 1 171, 1177 in Recueil des Historiens, 
xiii. 315, 320, 520, and Rigord, an. 1191, Will, of 
Armorica, an. 1192, and Chr. de St. Denys in xvii. 
37, 71, 377. For accounts of similar charges in 
other lands, see Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. c. 16 
(fo. Paris); Cassiodorus's Hist. Tripart. xi. c. 13, 
Op. p. 343 (fo. Venice) ; Fleury's Hist, du Chris- 
tianisme, 1. 88, c. 40, ed. Vidal, v. 600 ; G-raetz's 
G-eschichte der Juden, vols. vi. vii. passim; Fr. 
Michel's Hugues de Lincoln, u.s. ; Acta SS. Bol- 
land. xi. 501, 695-738, 832, 836 ; Erfurt Annals, 
Pertz SS. xvi. 31 ; Annals Placent., Rerum Ital. 
SS. xx. cols. 945-9 (Muratori); H. Stero, an. 
1288, Rerum Germ. SS. i. 572 (Freher); Percy's 

Reliques, u.s.; Dr. Lea's Religious Hist, of 
Spain, pp. 437 sq. ; Ann. Register, vol. cxxiv.for 
1882, p. 248.] W. H. 

HUGH OP EVESHAM (d. 1287), cardinal. 

HUGH OF BALSHAM (d. 1286), bishop of 
Ely and founder of Peterhouse, Cambridge. 

HUGH, WILLIAM (d. 1549), divine, 
born in Yorkshire, was, according to Wood, 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford, but 
graduated B. A. in April 1539, and proceeded 
M.A. 6 June 1543, from Corpus Christi Col- 
lege. He engaged in teaching at Oxford, 
but afterwards became chaplain to Lady 
Denny. He died at Corpus Christi College 
in 1549. Hugh published 'The Troubled 
Mans Medicine,' London, 1546, a religious- 
work, said in the preface to have been written 
for a sick friend, and edited by John Faukener. 
A second part, entitled ' A Swete Consola- 
tion, and the Second Boke of the Troubled 
Mans Medicine/ &c., has a separate title- 
page, a dedication to Lady Denny, and a 
curious frontispiece. Another edition is dated 
1567, 8vo. The whole was reprinted in 1831 
among the works of 'British Reformers/ 
Hugh is also credited with : 1. ' A Boke of 
Bertram the Priest in treating of the Body and 
Blood of Christ,' London, 1549, 8vo, 12mo. 
This was corrected by Thomas Wilcocks, and 
reprinted in 1582, and again in 1686 with 
further corrections and additions. 2. 'De 
Infantibus absque Baptismo decedentibus/ 
dedicated to Queen Catherine Parr. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 182 ; 
Wood's Fasti Oxon. i. 109, 118 ; Reg. Univ. Oxf. 
(Oxf. Hist. Soc.), ed. Boase, i. 196; Ames's- 
Typogr. An f iq. (Herbert), pp. 579, 876; Tanner's 
BibLBrit.] J W.A.J.A. 

HUGKHES, DAVID (1813-1872), indepen- 
dent minister, was born at Cefn-uchaf, Llan- 
ddeiniolen, Carnarvonshire ; became member 
of Bethel independent church, Arfon, at an 
early age ; and complied with the request of 
the congregation to begin preaching in 1832. 
He studied at Hackney College, and after- 
wards at the university of Glasgow, where 
he graduated and read theology under Dr. 
Wardlaw. He was ordained on 14 Sept. 
1841, and became pastor of two small con- 
gregations in Flintshire. In 1845 he removed 
to St. Asaph, where he became part editor of 
the ' Beirniadur,' and projected his chief 
work, ' Geiriadur Ysgrythyrol a Duwinyddol,' 
i. e. ' A Scriptural and Theological Dictionary,' 
which was completed in 1852. A second edition 
of this work appeared, vol. i. 1072 pp., in 1876, 
edited by the Rev. John Peter, and vol. ii. 




1006 pp., in 1879, edited by the Rev. Thomas 
Lewis. The work contains a large number of 
biographies. Hughes removed to Manchester 
in 1846, and shortly afterwards to Bangor, 
where he remained nine years. On 1 Nov. 
1855 he settled at Tredegar in Monmouth- 
shire, and remained there till his death on 
3 June 1872. Hughes was a large contri- 
butor to the l Gwyddoniadur,' or l Welsh Cy- 
clopaedia,' and edited and enlarged the Eng- 
lish and Welsh dictionary of Caerfallwch 
[see EDWAKDS, THOMAS]. He began, with 
the author's sanction, a Welsh edition of 
Home's ' Introduction to the Bible,' but it 
was not completed. 

[Geiriadur Hughes, Cyfrol ii.] E. J. J. 

1794), admiral, was born at Hertford about 
1720. His father is said by his biographers 
to have been alderman and several times 
mayor of Hertford, but the local histories 
fail to corroborate the statement. He en- 
tered the navy on 4 Jan. 1734-5 on board the 
60-gun ship Dunkirk,with Captain DigbyDent 
(d. 1737), commodore on the Jamaica station. 
From the Dunkirk he was moved in Septem- 
ber 1736 to the Kinsale on the same station, 
and again, in July 1738, to the Diamond with 
Captain Knowles, and in her was present at 
the reduction of Porto Bello in November 
EDWARD]. In the following February he was 
moved into the Burford, Vernon's flagship, 
and on 25 Aug. was promoted to be lieuten- 
ant of the Cumberland fireship. On 6 March 
1740-1 he was transferred to the Suffolk 
with Captain D avers, and in her took part in 
the unsuccessful operations against Carta- 
gena in March and April 1741 . In June he 
was appointed to the Dunkirk, and in her 
witnessed the action off Toulon on 11 Feb. 
1743-4, but without taking any part in it, 
the Dunkirk being in the rear of the fleet 
under the immediate command of Lestock 
[see LESTOCK, RICHARD]. In the follow- 
ing July Hughes was moved into the Stir- 
ling Castle, and in October 1745 into the 
Marlboro ugh, in which in 1746 he returned 
to England. In June 1747 he joined the 
Warwick as a supernumerary for a passage 
to North America and the West Indies. On 
the way the Warwick, with the Lark in 
company, met the Spanish 70-gun ship 
Glorioso. After a sharp engagement, the 
Warwick, being unsupported by the Lark, 
was disabled, and the Glorioso escaped. John 
Crookshanks [q. v.], captain of the Lark, was 
condemned by court-martial for his conduct 
on the occasion. Hughes was promoted to 
the vacancy, 6 Feb. 1747-8. 

Hughes continued in command of the 
Lark till July 1750, when, on her paying 
off, he was placed on half-pay. In January 
1756 he commissioned the Deal Castle. In 
July 1757 he was appointed to the Somer- 
set of 64 guns, in which he joined Vice- 
admiral Holburne at Halifax. In 1758 the 
Somerset formed part of the fleet under Bos- 
cawen at the reduction of Louisbourg, and 
in 1759 under Saunders at the reduction of 
Quebec. Saunders afterwards hoisted his 
flag on board her and sailed for England with 
part of the fleet, but hearing of the French 
being at sea, hastened to reinforce Hawke 
off Brest, too late, however, to share in the 
glories of Quiberon Bay [see SAUNDERS, SIR 
CHARLES]. In the following year the Somer- 
set went to the Mediterranean with Saunders, 
who in September 1762 moved Hughes into 
his own ship, the Blenheim, in which he re- 
turned to England in April 1763. After 
another spell of half-pay, Hughes recom- 
missioned the Somerset in January 1771, and 
commanded her as a guardship at Ports- 
mouth till, in September 1773, he was ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief in the East 
Indies, with a broad pennant in the 50-gun 
ship Salisbury. He returned home in 1777, 
and on 23 Jan. 1778 was promoted to the 
rank of rear-admiral of the blue. 

In July he was again appointed commander- 
in-chief in the East Indies, though he did not 
! sail till the following spring, being detained, 
j partly by the difficulty of fitting out in the 
! depleted condition of the dockyards, and 
partly to do the duty of commander-in-chief 
at Portsmouth, while Sir Thomas Pye was 
presiding over the court-martial on Admiral 
Keppel. He was meantime created a knight 
of the Bath. When finally he put to sea, he 
had under his command a squadron of six 
ships of the line, including his own flag- 
ship, the Superb of 74 guns, and with 
these on the way out he had no difficulty in 
dispossessing the French, who had lately 
seized on the English settlement of Goree. 
In India his force was far in excess of any- 
thing the enemy could muster in eastern 
waters, and for the next two years he had 
little to do. In December 1780 he destroyed 
at Mangalore a number of armed vessels 
fitted out by Hyder Ali to prey on English 
commerce. On 26 Sept. 1780 he was ad- 
vanced to be vice-admiral of the blue. In 
November 1781, after receiving intelligence 
of the war with Holland, he co-operated with 
the troops under Sir Hector Munro in re- 
ducing Negapatnam. He then, taking some 
five hundred soldiers on board his ships, went 
to Trincomalee, where he arrived on the 
evening of 4 Jan. 1782. The place was not 




in condition to offer effective resistance. 
The town and the lower fort were occupied on 
the night of 5 Jan. 1782, the Dutch retreating 
to Fort Osnaburg on a commanding eminence. 
Preparations were immediately made for re- 
ducing this fort, and on the 9th Hughes sent 
in a formal summons as well as a private 
letter to the governor, with whom he had 
formerly been on terms of friendly acquaint- 
ance. The summons was refused, and the 
place was taken by storm on the morning of 
the llth, the loss on each side being small. 
Hughes provided for its defence as well as 
the means at his disposal permitted, and re- 
turned to Madras, where he anchored on 
8 Feb. Here he was joined a few days later 
by three ships newly arrived from England, 
and having intelligence of the French being 
on the coast in superior force, he took up a 
defensive position under the batteries. 

On the 16th the French squadron under 
M. de Suffren came in sight, but though 
superior in force in the ratio of twelve ships 
to nine of a smaller average strength, SufFren 
considered that the position of the English 
was unassailable, and made sail to the south- 
ward. He was immediately followed by 
Hughes, who during the night slipped past 
him, and on the morning of the 17th cap- 
tured a number of the merchantmen in con- 
voy and a transport laden with military 
stores. Suffren hastened to the rescue, while 
Hughes, having secured his prizes, prepared 
to defend them. But the fitful and gusty wind 
made his line very irregular, and about four 
o'clock in the afternoon the French, favoured 
by a passing squall, were able to attack his 
rear division, which, by the accidents of the 
weather, was separated from the van. Theo- 
retically, the English rear was completely 
overpowered ; but practically it held its own 
in a very severe struggle, centring round 
the Superb and Exeter [see KING, SIR RICH- 
ARD, 1730-1806], till another gust permitted 
the four ships of the van to come to its relief. 
On this Suffren drew off to reform his line, and 
the fight was not renewed. During the night 
the fleets separated ; both had sustained con- 
siderable damage ; the French drew back to 
Pondicherry and Hughes went to Trinco- 
malee to refit. He then returned to Madras, 
and was carry ing backtoTrincomalee a strong 
reinforcement for the garrison and a quantity 
of stores, when, on 9 April, as he was ap- 
proaching his port, he again fell in with the 
French fleet. He had the advantage of the 
wind, but being anxious to land his cargo be- 
fore engaging, and conceiving, probably, that 
the French with only a trifling superiority 
of force would not venture to attack him, 
he pursued his way, thus allowing the enemy 

to take the weather gage ; so that on the 
12th he found himself on a lee shore, with 
Suffren outside preparing to engage. Thi& 
he did about two o'clock, in a manner con- 
trary to all experience, and concentrating his 
attack on the English centre, placed it for a 
time in a position of great danger. The 
battle raged with exceptional severity round 
the Superb and Monmouth [see ALMS, JAMES], 
the latter of which was reduced to a wreck, 
and in both the loss of men was very great ; 
on board the Superb there were fifty-nine 
killed and ninety-six wounded. About four 
o'clock Hughes made the signal to wear, and 
in reforming his line succeeded in placing 
the little Monmouth in comparative safety 
to leeward. The fight then continued on 
more equal terms till about half-past five, 
when, in a violent rain-squall, the fleets 
separated, and anchored for the night off the 
islet of Providien. The next day Hughes 
got his fleet into better order, but, lumbered 
up as his ships were, he refused to accept 
the battle which Suffren offered, and remained 
at anchor till the French withdrew. It was 
during this time that Suffren proposed an 
arrangement for the exchange of prisoners, 
which Hughes declined, alleging that he had 
not the requisite authority. As, however^ 
the commander-in-chief on a distant station 
has necessarily a great deal of discretionary 
power, it is not improbable that he judged 
the exchange would be more to the advantage 
of the French, whose resources, at such a 
distance from their base at Mauritius, were 
very limited. Suffren seems to have regarded 
this as the real reason, and forthwith handed 
all his prisoners over to Hyder Ali. 

Hughes had meantime refitted his fleet at 
Trincomalee, and by the end of June took 
up a position before Negapatnam, which he 
understood the French were preparing to at- 
tack by land and sea. He was still there 
when the French fleet came in sight on 
5 July, and Suffren proposed to attack him 
at anchor. As he was standing in, however, 
one of his ships was partially dismasted in 
a squall, and in the delay that this occa- 
sioned, Hughes weighed, but would not be 
tempted to seaward lest he should give an 
opportunity to the French to get between 
him and the shore, and so land the troops 
which they had on board. The next morn- 
ing, 6 July, on Suffren again standing in, 
Hughes, having the advantage of the wind, 
made the signal to engage van to van, line 
to line, in the manner prescribed by the 
' Fighting Instructions;' he thus, notwith- 
standing his enemy's teaching, wasted his 
strength in a dispersed attack along the 
whole line, and the result was, as always. 




indecisive. After a bloody but useless 
struggle of rather over two hours' duration, 
a sudden shift of wind threw both lines into 
confusion; and so they separated, the damage 
on each side being fairly equal. The Eng- 
lish took up their former position off Nega- 
patnam, and the French, being unable to 
effect their purposed landing, carried their 
troops back to Cuddalore. On 1 Aug. they 
sailed for Ceylon, while Hughes lay at 
Madras refitting. The governor sent him 
word that the French had left Cuddalore 
and gone to the southward; Hughes answered 
that he was not responsible to the governor 
for the management of the fleet. It was not 
till the 19th that one of his own frigates, the 
Coventry, confirmed the news. Then, indeed, 
he realised that Trincomalee might be in 
danger, and put to sea the next day, 20 Aug. ; 
but the winds were unfavourable, and it was 
not till the evening of 2 Sept. that he was 
off the port. It had fallen to the French two 
days before, and the next morning, when 
Hughes was standing in towards the mouth 
of the harbour, he was disagreeably surprised 
to see the French flag suddenly hoisted. He 
necessarily drew back, and Suffren, who 
now had fifteen ships against the twelve 
with Hughes, at once followed, hoping to 
complete his victory by the destruction of 
the English fleet. His orders, as he gave 
them out, formulated the tactics which had 
proved so dangerous on 17 Feb. and on 
12 April ; the whole of his superiority was 
to be thrown on the English rear, leaving a 
barely equal force to hold the van in check. 
Fortunately, however, many of the French 
captains were averse to the task put before 
them ; and the ill-will of some, the unsea- 
manlike conduct of others, completely frus- 
trated Suffren's admirable plan. The ships 
engaged in an isolated manner, and after a 
desultory action of three hours, the fleets 
separated, the French making their way back 
to Trincomalee, and the English to Madras. 
On 1 Nov. a hurricane, which swept over 
the roadstead, forced them to sea. The Su- 
perb and Exeter were dismasted, and all 
were more or less damaged ; Hughes shifted 
his flag to the Sultan, and by slow degrees 
the fleet gathered together at Bombay. Here 
it was reinforced by a strong squadron brought 
out from England by Sir Richard Bickerton 
[q. v.], and when, some months later, Hughes 
returned to the east coast, he had, for the 
first time, a numerical superiority to the 
French, and was able, in June 1783, to co- 
operate with the army in the siege of Cud- 
dalore. On the 14th the French fleet ap- 
peared in the offing, and on the 17th succeeded 
in passing inside of the English, and in esta- 

blishing a free communication with the shore. 
The French ships were very short-handed, 
and took on board some twelve hundred 
men from the garrison, previous to engaging 
the English fleet outside. It was on the 20th 
that the two enemies again met ; but though 
Suffren had the position to windward, and 
though he had, before leaving Trincomalee, 
given out a detailed order for concentrating 
his attack on the English rear, he made no 
attempt to carry out the scheme, and per- 
mitted a dispersed attack along the whole 
line. The result was the useless slaughter of 
a hundred men on each side, but the strategic 
advantage remained with the French. Hughes 
raised the blockade and withdrew to Madras, 
where he soon received news of the peace. 

There is no other instance in naval history 
of two fleets thus fighting five battles within 
little more than a year (four of them within 
seven months) with no very clear advantage 
on either side. French writers speak of the 
five battles as five ( glorious victories,' but in 
reality they were very evenly balanced in 
point of fighting, while, as to strategic re- 
sults, the English had a slight advantage 
from the first three, the French from the 
last two. The tactical advantage, however, 
commonly lay with the French, and they 
were prevented from reaping the benefit of 
it solely by the mutinous or cowardly con- 
duct of the French captains on the one hand, 
and, on the other, by the seamanlike skill 
and courage of Hughes and his comrades. 

On the peace Hughes returned to England 
and had no further command, though ad- 
vanced in due course on 1 Feb. 1793 to be 
admiral of the blue. He acquired in India 
' a most princely fortune,' estimated at over 
40,000/. a year, which, it is said, he largely 
distributed in unostentatious acts of benevo- 
lence (CHARLOCK). He died at his seat at 
Luxborough in Essex on 17 Feb. 1794. A 
portrait of Sir Edward Hughes, by Rey- 
nolds, the bequest of the admiral himself, 'is 
in the Painted Hall at Greenwich. 

Hughes married Ruth, widow of Captain 
Ball, R.N.; she died 30 Sept. 1800 (Gent. 
Mag. 1800, pt. ii. p. 1008). Hughes left no 
issue, and his wealth descended to a son of 
Captain Ball, R.N., his wife's son by her first 
(d. 1863), a social celebrity of the early part 
of the present century, when he was fami- 
liarly known as the < Golden Ball.' In 1819 
Ball took the additional name of Hughes, 
married Mdlle. Mercandotti, a celebrated 
Spanish dancer, in 1823, and, having by 
gambling and reckless expenditure dissipated 
great part of his fortune, removed to St. Ger- 
mains, near Paris, where he died in 1863 




, Reminiscences and Recollections, 
1889, ii. 89 ; GRANTLEY BERKELEY, Reminis- 
cences : B. BLACKMANTLE (i.e. C. M. WEST- 
MACOTT), English Spy, 1825, passim, with, 
plate of ' The English Opera House,' by R. 
Cruikshank, containing portraits of Ball- 
Hughes and his wife ; LYSONS, Suppl. p. 345 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1863, pt. i. pp. 533-4). 

[Official documents in the Public Eecord Office; 
Charnock's Biog. Nav. vi. 65 ; Kalfe's Nav. Biog. 
i. 137 ; Naval Chronicle, ix. 85 ; Beatson's Nav. 
and Mil. Memoirs, v. 561-615; Ekins's Naval 
Battles of Great Britain, pp. 180-98; Laughton's 
Studies in Naval History, pp. 110-45; Cheva- 
lier's Histoire de la Marine franchise pendant la 
G-uerre de 1'Independance am6ricaine, pp. 388- 
494 ; Cunat's Histoire du Bailli de Suffren, pas- 
sim ; Trublet's Hist, de la Campagne de 1'Inde 
par 1'escadre franchise sous les ordres de M. le 
Bailli de Suffren.] J. K. L. 

HUGHES, GEORGE (1603-1667), puri- 
tan divine, born of humble parentage in South- 
wark in 1603, was sent to Corpus Christ! Col- 
lege, Oxford, in the beginning of 1619. He 
was admitted B.A. on 19 Feb. 1622-3, and 
proceeded M.A. on 23 June 1625 as a fellow 
of Pembroke College (Oxf. Univ. Reg., Oxf. 
Hist. Soc., vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 417). About 
1628 he was ordained, and, after serving cura- 
cies in and near Oxford, he was chosen in 
1631 lecturer at All Hallows, Bread Street, 
London, where he soon obtained popularity 
as a preacher. He commenced B.D. on 10 July 
1633. For his refusal to comply with the 
rubrics he was suspended by Laud, and would 
have emigrated to America had he not been 
dissuaded by John Dod [q. v.], on whose re- 
commendation he was appointed chaplain to 
Lord Brooke at Warwick Castle. During his 
residence there he married a Coventry lady. 
Ultimately the mother of Serjeant Maynard 
prevailed on the Earl of Bedford to obtain 
for him the rectory of Tavistock in Devon- 
shire, and the earl also made him his chap- 
lain. The outbreak of the civil war obliged 
him to remove to Exeter, where his wife died. 
Here he won the esteem of Prince Rupert and 
his staff, who frequently heard him preach. 
On his deciding to leave the city the prince 
provided him with safe-conducts, which en- 
abled him to travel in peace to Coventry. On 
21 Oct. 1643 the corporation of Plymouth 
elected him vicar of St. Andrew's Church. 
He dedicated to the corporation his ' Dry 
Rod blooming and fruit-bearing ; or a trea- 
tise of the pain, gain, and use of chastenings ; 
preached partly in severall sermons [on Hebr. 
xii. 11-13], but now compiled more orderly 
and fully/ 4to, London, 1644. Baxter con- 
sidered it the best work of its kind. In 
1647 he was appointed to preach before 

the House of Commons, and received a vote 
of thanks. His sermon was printed with 
the title Vas-euge-tuba ; or the Wo-Joy- 
Trumpet, Sounding the third and greatest 
woe to the Anti-Christian World, but the 
first and last Joy to the Church of the Saints/ 
4to, London 1647. The following year he 
subscribed with seventy-two other ministers 
' The joint testimonie of the Ministers of 
Devon . . . with . . . the Ministers of -the 
province of London unto the truth of Jesus 
... in pursuance of the solemn League and 
Covenant of the three nations/ 4to, London, 
1648. In 1654 he was made one of the as- 
sistants to the commissioners of Devonshire. 
Though expelled from his living in August 
1662, he continued to reside at Plymouth. 
For holding services in secret he was arrested 
in 1665 and, with his brother-in-law and 
assistant Thomas Martyn, confined at St. 
Nicholas Island, near the town, where he 
remained about nine months. He found oc- 
cupation in writing a reply to John Sergeant's 
' Sure-footing in Christianity/ 1665, which ap- 
peared after his death under the title of ' Sure- 
footing in Christianity examined/ 8vo, Lon- 
don 1668. Meanwhile his health was fast 
failing. His friends managed to procure his 
release by giving heavy security; but he was 
forbidden to live within twenty miles of Ply- 
mouth. He accordingly took up his abode 
at Kingsbridge, Devonshire, where he died 
on 4 July 1667, and was buried in the church. 
A memorial tablet was erected to him about 
1670 by Thomas Crispin, for which Hughes's 
son-in-law, the well-known nonconformist 
divine, John Howe [q. v.], wrote a Latin in- 
scription. There is a portrait of him in Pal- 
mer's ' Nonconformist's Memorial.' His son 
Obadiah (1640-1704) was grandfather of 
Obadiah Hughes (1695-1751) [q. v.] 

His other writings are, besides sermons 
preached at the funerals 'of . . . Captaine 
Henry Waller/ 4to, London, 1632, and < of 
Master William Crompton . . . pastor of 
Lanceston, Cornwall/ 4to, London, 1642: 
1 . * Aphorisms, or Select Propositions of the 
Scripture, shortly determining the Doctrine 
of the Sabbath ' (edited by 0. Hughes), 8vo, 
London, 1670. 2. 'An Analytical Exposi- 
tion of ... Genesis and of xxiii. chap, of 
Exodus/ fol., Amsterdam, 1672. He also 
edited R. Head's < Threefold Cord to unite 
Soules for ever unto God/ 4to, 1647. 

[Palmer's Nonconf. Mem. ii. 56-62 ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 777-80 ; Eowe's Eccl. 
Hist, of Old Plymouth, ii. 37-9.] G-. G-. 

HUGHES, GRIFFITH (fl. 1750), na- 
turalist, was perhaps the son of Edward 
Hughes of Towyn, Merionethshire, who was 




born about 1707, matriculated at St. Joan's 
College, Oxford, in 1729, and graduated B. A. 
and M.A. in 1748. He was rector of St. 
Lucy's, Barbadoes, and fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1750, when he published a ' Na- 
tural History of Barbados.' The work, a folio 
of 314 pages, with a map and twenty-nine 
plates, mostly by Ehret, was published by sub- 
scription. Hughes also contributed a paper 
' Of a Zoophyton resembling the Flower of 
the Marigold' to the i Philosophical Trans- 
actions' for 1743, xlii. 590. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxonienses.] Or. S. B. 

1872), Irish judge, born in Dublin on 22 Aug. 
1810, was eldest son of James Hughes, so- 
licitor, of Dublin, by his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Trevor Stannus Morton of Dub- 
lin, solicitor. Hughes received his early edu- 
cation at a private school in Jervis Street, 
Dublin, and subsequently entered Trinity 
College, but did not proceed to a degree. In 
Hilary term 1830 he was admitted a student 
of the King's Inns, Dublin, and in Trinity term 
1832 of Gray's Inn, London; he was called 
to the Irish bar in Michaelmas term 1834. 

Hughes devoted himself almost exclusively 
to the chancery courts, and in 1837 published 
a ' Chancery Practice/ which had a consider- 
able success. He rapidly acquired an exten- 
sive practice, and was specially known for 
his complete mastery of all the details of 
chancery procedure, then much more compli- 
cated than at present. In 1844 he took silk, 
and as a leader continued to enjoy a very large 
practice, especially in the rolls court. In 1850 
he was appointed by Lord John Russell solici- 
tor-general for Ireland, and held that office 
till the fall of Lord John's government in 
1852. During this period the Ecclesiastical 
Titles Act was passed, and Hughes as a Roman 
catholic incurred some unpopularity with the 
more zealous of his co-religionists from his 
connection with the government. He never- 
theless received the support of the Roman 
catholic bishop and clergy when he unsuccess- 
fully contested Cavan in 1855. In 1856 he 
was returned for Longford, but did not secure 
re-election at the general election of 1857. 
In 1858 he was again solicitor-general for 
Ireland in Lord Palmerston's administration, 
and in 1859, on the return of Lord Palmer- 
ston to power, was appointed a baron of the 
court of exchequer in succession to Baron 
Richards. On the bench Hughes was one 
of the rare instances of a chancery lawyer 
making a successful common law judge. He 
continued a member of the court of exchequer 
till his death on 22 July 1872. 

In 1836 he married Sarah Isabella, daugh- 

ter of Major Francis L'Estrange. Two- ' 
daughters survived him, the elder now the 
wife of Lord Morris (lord of appeal) ; the 
younger the wife of Mr. Edward Fitzgerald 
of Fitz William Place, Dublin. 

[Annual Register, 1872; Life of Frederick 
Lucas, London, 1886, ii. 197 ; information from 
the family.] J. D. F. 

(1693-1776), Welsh poet, born on 22 March 
1693, was son of Gruffydd Hughes, who de- 
rived his lineage, according to the Welsh 
genealogies, from Tegeryn ab Carwed, the 
lord of Twrcelyn. He was chiefly self-edu- 
cated. He resided chiefly on his estate at 
Llwydiarth Esgob, near Llanerchymedd, An- 
glesea. He died on 6 April 1776, and was 
buried in Holyhead churchyard. Hughes's 
verses were held in high esteem by Goronwy 
Owen. He is one of the three Anglesea poets 
whose works are found in the ' Diddanwch 
Teuluaidd neu waith Beirdd Mon ' (London, 
1763 ; 2nd edition, Carnarvon, 1817; 3rd edi- 
tion, Liverpool, 1879). Other poems by him 
occur in the 'Blodeugerdd/ 'Diddanwch i'w 
Feddianydd ' (Dublin, 1773), and t Dewisol 
Ganiadau/ Hughes also published ' Dial 
Ahaz,' f Deddfau Moesoldeb,' and { Rheolau 
Bywyd Dynol ' (Dublin, 1774), all three pur- 
portingto be translations from English works. 
He left behind him several valuable manu- 
scripts containing poems, translations, tales, 
and biographies. Most of these came into 
the possession of his son, who succeeded to 
the estate, and many have since been lost, but 
a few are preserved at the British Museum. 

[Information from the Rev. R. Jenkin Jones ; 
biographical sketch prefixed to Diddanwch 
Teuluaidd, ed. 1817; Rowlands's Llyfryddiaeth, 
s.a. 1763 ; Works of Goronwy Owen, ed. Jones, 
i. 80.] D. LL. T. 

HUGHES, HUGH (1790 P-1863), artist, 
born at Pwllygwichiad, near Llandudno, son 
of Thomas Hughes, by Jane, his wife, was 
baptised at Llandudno, according to the parish 
register, 20 Feb. 1790. He lost his parents 
in childhood, and was educated by his ma- 
ternal grandfather, Hugh Williams of Med- 
diant Farm, Llansantffraid Glan Conwy, 
Denbighshire. In due time Hughes was ap- 
prenticed to an engraver at Liverpool. From 
Liverpool he removed to London as an im- 
prover, and took lessons in oil-painting. The 
earliest known specimen of his handiwork is 
a portrait (dated 1812) of the Rev. John 
Evans (1723-1817) of Bala, which was en- 
graved in vol. Hi. of the 'Drysorfa.' He 
spent three years (1819-22) at Meddiant 
Farm, working at his l Beauties of Cambria,' 
his best-known work. Hughes returned to 




London after 1823. He was a radical in 
religion and politics, and signed a petition 
in favour of the passing of the Catholic 
Emancipation Bill about 1828. The Lon- 
don leaders of the Welsh Calvinistic body, 
to which he belonged, thereupon expelled 
him from their communion. Hughes de- 
nounced this act of intolerance in many 
pamphlets and in letters to ' Seren Gomer ' 
(1828-30) with such effect that at a meeting 
of delegates of the Calvinistic methodists 
held at Bala in 1831 a resolution was passed 
deprecating interference with the exercise of 
political rights. Hughes was not, however, 
reinstated as member of the denomination. 
After a time he went over to the indepen- 
dents, and later to the Plymouth Brethren. 
In 1832 he wrote much, under the pseudonym 
' Cristion/ on church establishments and 
tithes in controversy with the Rev. Evan 
Evans [leuan Glan Geirionydd]. He died at 
Great Malvem 11 March 1863, and was buried 
in the cemetery there. He married after 1823 
a daughter of the Rev. David Charles of 
Carmarthen. Mrs. Hughes died at Aberyst- 
wyth 28 Dec. 1873. Their three children died 

Hughes's chief woodcuts appear in his 
' Beauties of Cambria,' Carmarthen, 1823, in 
which all the views were engraved by him- 
self, fifty-eight from his own drawings. In 
his knowledge of natural form and masterly 
handling of the graver Hughes has been com- 
pared to Bewick. His treatment of natural 
objects was realistic, minute, and laborious, 
and his foliage is always truthful and graceful. 
He also made many lithographs of Welsh 
scenery. Caricatures by him of the com- 
missioners of education sent down to Wales 
(1846-7) are very characteristic. Several of 
his sketches, including a map of North Wales 
under the name ' Dame Venedotia,' ' Pitt's 
Head ' near Beddgelert, and others of the 
neighbourhood of Snowdon, were published 
at Carnarvon. His sketch of ( Pwllheli and 
St. Tudwall's Road ' is in Humphrey's * Book 
of Views.' Many specimens of his work are 
in country houses about Carnarvon. 

Hughes also published: 1. ' Hynafion 
Cymreig,' a work on Welsh antiquities, Car- 
marthen, 1823, 8vo. 2. ' Y Trefnyddion a'r 
Pabyddion/ 1828 (?). 3. Lectures delivered 
before the London Cymmrodorion in ' Seren 
Gomer,' 1831. 4. < Y Papur Newydd Cym- 
reig,' 1836 (a Welsh newspaper), wrongly 
ascribed to another in ' Cardiff Eisteddfod 
Transactions/ 1883. 5. < Y Drefh i Ddyogelu 
purdeb Bywyd,' 1849. 6. ' The Genteelers,' 
a sarcastic political pamphlet. 7. < Yr Eg- 
Iwys yn yr Awyr,' an essay in ' Traetho- 
dydd,' 1853. He also edited three volumes 


of sermons by his father-in-law, David 
Charles; that published in 1846 contained 
a memoir, and projected a reprint of the 
' Brut ' in twenty numbers, of which only one 

[Mr. T. H. Thomas in Red Dragon, May 1887 - 
< Cymru Fu ' column in Weekly Mail ; Seren 
Gomer, 1828-32; Ymofynydd, 1890; private 
information.] R, j t j 

HUGHES, HUGH (TEGAI) (1805-1864), 
Welsh poet, was born in the small village of 
Cilgeraint, Llandegai, Carnarvonshire, in 
1805. His father was a deacon of the in- 
dependent church at Cororion, and district 
president of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. Hugh derived all his education from 
a Sunday school. When the independent 
church to which his family belonged was 
closed, he joined the Wesleyans, but subse- 
quently returned to the independents, and 
became well known in the district as a power- 
ful preacher. He was prevailed upon to take 
charge successively of churches at Rhos-y- 
lan, Tabor, and Llanystumdwy, at Jackson 
Street, Manchester, and at Capelhelyg, Chwi- 
log, and Abererch in Carnarvonshire. At 
Abererch he set up a printing-press, and 
edited ' Yr Arweinydd,' a penny monthly, 
for many years. In 1859 he removed to 
Aberdare, where he took charge of the new 
church at Bethel, and gathered a large con- 
gregation. Hughes was Arminian rather than 
Calvinistic, but in his views of church or- 
ganisation he was a pronounced independent, 
holding that each church should have the 
sole management of its own affairs. He lost 
money by his publications, and a public sub- 
scription was raised for him by friends during 
the last year of his life, but he died, 8 Dec. 
1864, before the testimonial was presented. 

Hughes was more voluminous as a writer 
than any Welshman of his day. He contri- 
buted largely to the current magazines. In 
early life he competed frequently and success- 
fully at Eisteddfodau, and later often acted a& 
an adjudicator. His principal works are : 
1. ' Rhesymeg' (logic), Wrexham, 1856. 2. <Y 
Drydedd Oruchwyliaeth ' (The Third Dispen- 
sation), Pontyprydd, 1859. 3. 'Grammadeg 
Barddoniaeth,' Carnarvon, 1862. 4. 'loan 
yn Ynys Patmos ' (Awdl) an ode on St. 
John in the Isle of Patmos, Aberdare, 1864. 
5. ' Grammadeg Athronyddol,' stereotyped 
after 4th ed. 6. Yr Ysgrifell Gymreig/ three 
editions, Wrexham. 7. ' Crynodeb o Ram- 
madeg Cymraeg/ i.e. introduction to Welsh 
Grammar, Carnarvon. 8. ( Catechism of 
Welsh Grammar/ Carnarvon. 9. 'Agoriad 
Gwybodaeth' (on composition). 10. ' Review 
of Cole, and an Essay on Divine Government/ 




Carnarvon. Dr. Hughes (Cowlyd) says this 
is the best specimen of reasoning in the Welsh 
language. It was written when Hughes left 
the Wesleyans, and supplies a full account of 
his religious views. 11. 'Bwrdd y Bardd ' 
(the first published collection of his poetical 
works). 12. ' Essay on Independency.' 
13. 'Olyniaeth Apostolaidd.' 14. 'Moses and 
Colenso.' 15. 'Cydwybod.' 16. 'Bedydd 
Cristeinogol.' 17. ' Deddf, Pechod, a Gras.' 
18. 'Ydrydedd Oruchwyliaeth.' 19. 'Cofiant 
J. Jones, Talsarn.' 20. ' Casgliad o Emynau.' 
21. 'Telyny Saint/ 

[J. T. Jones's Geiriadur Bywgraffyddol, i. 
567-70 ; three articles in Y G-eninen, 1889.] 

K. J. J. 

HUGHES, JABEZ (1685 P-1731), trans- 
lator, younger brother of John Hughes (1677- 
1720) [q. v.], was for some years one of the 
receiver's clerks in the stamp office. He died 
on 17 Jan. 1731, in the forty-sixth year of his 
age, leaving a widow, who accompanied the 
wife of Governor Byng to Barbadoes, and 
died there in 1740, and an only daughter. 

Hughes translated ' The Rape of Proser- 
pine, from Claudian, in three books, with the 
Story of Sextus and Erichtho from Lucan's 
Pharsalia, book 6' (London, 1714, 8vo ; an- 
other edition, corrected and enlarged, with 
notes, 1723, 12mo); Suetonius's 'Lives of 
the XII Csesars,' with notes (London, 1717, 
12mo, 2 vols.) ; and several novels from the 
Spanish of Cervantes, which were published 
anonymously in Samuel Croxall's l Select 
Collection of Novels and Histories' (second 
edition. London, 1729, 12mo, six vols.) His 
' Miscellanies in Verse and Prose ' were col- 
lected by his brother-in-law, William Dun- 
combe [q. v.], and published for the benefit 
of his widow in 1737 (London, 8vo). The 
dedication to the Duchess of Bedford, though 
signed by his widow, ' Sarah Hughes,' was 
written by John Copping, dean of Clogher 
(NICHOLS, Literary Anecdotes, 1814, viii. 
268). Two short pieces written by Hughes 
are given in John Nichols's ' Select Collec- 
tion of Poems ' (1780), vi. 39-40. 

[Preface to Hughes's Miscellanies in Verse 
and Prose, 1737 ; John Buncombe's Letters by 
Several Eminent Persons Deceased (2nd edit. 
1773), i. 160 ; Calamy and Palmer's Nonconfor- 
mist's Memorial, 1803, iii. 365-7; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] G. F. E. B. 

(1779-1844), Welsh Calvinistic methodist 
minister, was born at Neuadd-ddu, in the 
parish of Ciliau Aeron, at the foot of Trichrug 
Mountain, Cardiganshire, in 1779. At the 
age of twenty-one he settled in London. He 
was soon afterwards expelled from the body 

of Calvinistic methodists with which he had 
been in communion. In 1805 he returned 
under the influence of the Rev. John Elias, 
and four years later began preaching. In 1816 
he was ordained at Llangeitho, and continued 
a useful minister till his death, which took 
place at Rotherhithe in London on 2 Nov. 
1844. He was buried in Bunhill Fields. He 
was popular as a poet, and contributed largely 
to Welsh periodicals. 

Hughes's translations of Gray's ' Bard ' and 
Blair's ' Grave' are well executed; but his 
chief literary work was his ' New Testament 
Expositor,' based on Poole, Doddridge, Scott, 
Henry, &c. It was begun in 1829 and com- 
pleted in 1835, in 2 vols. 12mo, and published 
at Wyddgrug ; a second edition was issued at 
Holy well in 1845. A similar work on the 
Old Testament was left incomplete at his 

[J. T. Jones's Geiriadur Bywgraffyddol,!. 558- 
559.] R. J. J. 

HUGHES, JOHN (1677-1720), poet, born 
at Marlborough, Wiltshire, on 29 Jan. 1677, 
was elder son of John Hughes, clerk in the 
Hand-in-Hand Fire Office, Snow Hill, Lon- 
don, by his wife Anne, daughter of Isaac 
Burges of Wiltshire. His grandfather, Wil- 
liam Hughes, graduated at New Inn Hall, 
Oxford, in 1638, was ejected from his living 
at Marlborough in 1662, and died 14 Feb. 
1687 (PALMER, Nonconf. Mem. iii. 365 ; PECK, 
Desid. Cur.} Jabez Hughes [q. v.] was John's 
younger brother. John Hughes was educated 
at a dissenting academy, apparently in Little 
Britain, London, under Thomas Rowe, where 
he was the contemporary of Isaac Watts. 
Hughes showed a taste for literature at an 
early age, and at nineteen wrote a tragedy 
entitled ' Amalasont, Queen of the Goths,' 
which was never acted, and still remains in 
manuscript (Notes and Queries, 1st ser. x. 
266, 413). He obtained a place in the ord- 
nance office, and acted as secretary to seve- 
ral commissions for the purchase of lands for 
the royal dockyards. In 1706 he collected 
the materials for the first two volumes of ' A 
Complete History of England ... to the 
death of ... King William III ' (London, 
1706, fol., 3 vols. ; 2nd edit. London, 1719, 
fol., 3 vols.), and translated ' The Life of 
Queen Mary, written in Latin by Francis 
Godwin, Lord Bishop of Hereford,' which 
appears in the second volume. The third 
volume was written by White Kennett [q. v.], 
bishop of Peterborough, by whose name this 
history is generally known. In 1708 Hughes 
published his translation, made some six 
years previously, of Fontenelle's ' Dialogues 
of the Dead. . . . With a Reply to some Re- 
marks in a Critique call'd the Judgment of 


i 79 


Pluto, &c., and two original Dialogues,' Lon- 
don, 8vo (the second edition, London, 1730, 
12mo ; a new edition, Glasgow, 1754, 12mo). 
Hughes, ' though not only an honest but a 
pious man' (Lives of the Poets, ii. 184), dedi- 
cated the book to the Earl of Wharton, who, 
upon his appointment as lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland in the following year, offered to take 
Hughes with him. Hughes, however, relying 
upon the promises of another patron, which 
were never realised, declined the offer, and 
thus lost the chance of preferment. In 1712 
his opera of ' Calypso and Telemachus ' (Lon- 
don, 1712, 8vo ; second edition, London, 1717, 
8vo ; another edition, London, 1781, 8vo), 
the music for which was composed by John 
Ernest Galliard, was performed at the Queen's 
Theatre in the Haymarket, in spite of the 
strenuous opposition of most of the Italian 
performers to a musical entertainment in the 
English language. In 1715 he published 
* The Works of Mr. Edmund Spenser . . . 
with a Glossary explaining the old and ob- 
scure words ' (London, 8vo, 6 vols. ; another 
edition, London, 1750, 12mo, 6 vols.) Hughes 
was a constant invalid, and during the greater 

fart of his life was in narrow circumstances. 
n 1717, however, he was appointed by Lord- 
chancellor Cowper secretary to the commis- 
sions of the peace in the court of chancery, a 
post which procured him independence for 
the remainder of his life. His finely written 
and successful tragedy, l The Siege of Da- 
mascus,' was his best, as well as his last work 
(London, 1720, 8vo ; other editions, London, 
1770, 12mo, and London, 1778, 8vo ; re- 
printed in Bell's ' British Theatre,' vol. i., 
London, 1776, 8vo, and several other collec- 
tions of plays ; translated into French in ' Le 
Theatre Anglois,' torn. 7,London, 1749, 12mo). 
The play, the plot of which was obviously 
suggested by Sir William D'Avenant's 'Siege,' 
was dedicated to Lord Cowper, and was pro- 
duced at Drury Lane Theatre on 17 Feb. 
1720, and received with great applause. 
Hughes, who had been too ill to attend the 
rehearsals, died of consumption on the same 
night a few hours after its production, and 
was buried in the vault under the chancel of 
St. Andrew's, Holborn. His only sister, 
Elizabeth, married William Duncombe [q. v.] 
1 Sept. 1726, and died in 1735-6. His por- 
trait was painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller in 
1718, and was given by Hughes shortly be- 
fore his death to Lord Cowper (DUNCOMBE, 
Letters, &c., i. 266). An engraving of this 
portrait by Gerard Vandergucht is prefixed 
to the first volume of Hughes's ' Poems on 
Several Occasions,' &c. 

Johnson, in his 'Life of Hughes,' does 
not enter into any criticism of his works. 


prose as well as verse.' To which Pope re- 
plied : ' To answer your question as to Mr. 
Hughes ; what he wanted in genius he made 
up as a honest man ; but he was of the class 
you think him ' (Swiir, Works, 1814, xviii. 
402-3). Steele devoted the fifteenth number 
of ' The Theatre ' to a panegyric of Hughes, 
and declared that ' his head, hand, or heart 
was always employ'd in something worthy 
imitation ; his pencil, his bow-string, or his 
pen, each of which he us'd in a masterly 
manner, were always directed to raise and 
entertain his own mind, or that of others, to 
a more cheerful prosecution of what was 
noble and virtuous.' Hughes contributed to 
the ' Tatler,' ' Spectator,' and ' Guardian,' and 
with Sir Richard Blackmore [q. v.] wrote 
1 The Lay Monk,' a series of forty essays, the 
first of which was published on 16 Nov. 1713, 
and the last on 15 Feb. 1713-14. A second 
edition of these essays was published in 1714 
under the title of ' The Lay Monastery,' &c., 
London, 12mo. (For lists of these contribu- 
tions see DUNCOMBE, Letters by Several Emi- 
nent Persons Deceased, i. xi-xii, 122-5, 143- 
144; and CHALMEKS, British Essayists, i. 
Ixx-lxxi, v. li-liii, xiii. xxx, xlv-xlvi.) 
Several of his translations appeared in a 
periodical publication called ' The Monthly 
Amusement.' Hughes persuaded Addison 
to put his ' Cato ' on the stage, and under- 
took at his request to supply the fifth act, 
which was, however, ultimately written by 
Addison himself. Hughes withdrew most of 
his contributions to Steele's ' Poetical Mis- 
cellanies ' (London, 1714, 8vo) upon hearing 
that Pope's ' Wife of Bath, her Prologue, from 
Chaucer/ and some other pieces, which were 
inconsistent with his ideas of propriety, were 
to be included, ' and would only allow two 
small poems, and those without a name, to 
appear there' (DUNCOMBE, Letters, i. xiii). 
Hughes was a friend of Thomas Britton[q. v.J, 
and used to play the violin at 'the musical 
small coalman's' concerts. His 'Venus and 
Adonis,' and several other cantatas, were set 
to music by Handel. Pepusch and Haym 
also composed music for his poetical pieces. 
A collection of his ' Poems on Several Oc- 
casions, with some Select Essays in Prose,' 
&c., edited by his brother-in-law, was pub- 
lished in 1735 ( London, 12mo, 2 vols.) His 
poems are included in the tenth volume of 
Chalmers's ' Works of the English Poets ' 
(1810), and in many other poetical collections. 
His correspondence, ' with some pieces by 
Mr. Hughes never before published, and the 
original plan of the Siege of Damascus,' will 


1 80 


be found in ' Letters by several Eminent Per- 
sons Deceased/ edited by his nephew, the Rev. 
John Buncombe [q. v.] (second edition 1773). 
Hughes is said to have left in manuscript two 
acts of a tragedy entitled ' Sophy Mirza,' 
which was subsequently completed by Wil- 
liam Duneombe (BAKEE, Biog. Dram. 1812, 
i. 211, 379). 

He also wrote : 1. t The Triumph of Peace : 
a poem,' London, 1698, fol. In the dedica- 
tion to Sir Richard Blackmore, Hughes states 
that this was the first poetical essay which 
he had ' ventur'd to make publick.' 2. ' The 
Court of Neptune. On King William's Re- 
turn from Holland, 1699,' 1699. 3. 'The 
House of Nassau : a Pindaric ode,' London, 
1702, fol. 4. 'An Ode in praise of Musick, 
set for variety of Voices and Instruments by 
... P. Hart,' London, 1703, 4to. Reprinted 
(without the music) with Hughes's ' Cupid 
and Hymen's Holiday, a pastoral masque' 
[London, 1781 ?], 8vo. 5. ' A Review of the 
Case of Ephraim and Judah, and its appli- 
cation to the Church of England and the 
Dissenters. In a letter to Dr. Willis, Dean 
of Lincoln, occasioned by his Thanksgiving 
Sermon, preached before her Majesty at St. 
Paul's, on 23 Aug. 1705,' 1705. 6. < Advices 
from Parnassus. . . . Written by Trajano 
Boccalini. To which is added a continuation 
of the Ad vices by Girolamo Briani of Modena. 
All translated from the Italian by several 
Hands. Revia'd and Corrected by Mr. Hughes,' 
&c., London, 1706, fol. 7. Translation of 
Moliere's 'Misanthrope,' with a preface, 1709. 
It was afterwards reprinted (without the 
preface) with Moliere's other plays translated 
by Ozell. 8. ' The History of the Revolution 
in Portugal. ... By the Abbot de Vertot 
. . . Translated from the French ' (anon.), 
London, 1712. 9. < An Ode to the Creator 
of the World. Occasion'd by the Fragments 
of Orpheus' (anon.), London, 1713, fol. 
10. ' Apollo and Daphne : a masque. Set to 
musick by [Dr. Pepusch], and perform'd at 
the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane ' (anon.), 
London, 1716, 4to ; another edition [London, 
1781 ?], 8vo. 11. < An Ode for the Birth- 
day of Her Royal Highness the Princess of 
Wales,' London, 1716, 4to. 12. ' A Layman's 
Thoughts on the late Treatment of the Bishop 
of Bangor, in the charge made against him 
by Dr. Snape, and undertaken to be proved 
by the Bishop of Carlisle [Dr. Nicolson]. In 
a letter to the Bishop of Carlisle,' 1717. 
13. *A Discourse concerning the Antients 
and Moderns. Written by the same author, 
and translated by Mr. Hughes,' appended to 
Glanvill's translation of ' Conversations with 
a Lady on the Plurality of Worlds. Written 
in French by M. Fontenelle,' London, 1719, 

12mo. 14. < Charon ; or the Ferry-Boat. A 

vision. Dedicated to the Swiss Count 

[John James Heidegger],' London, 1719, 8vo. 
Reprinted in second volume of Samuel Crox- 
all's ' Select Collection of Novels and Histo- 
ries,' London, 1829, 12mo. 15. 'TheEcstacy: 
an ode,' London, 1720, fol. 16. ' Letters of 
Abelard and Heloise. To which is prefix'd 
a particular account of their lives, amours, 
and misfortunes. Extracted chiefly from 
Monsieur Bayle. Translated from the French. 
The fourth edition corrected ' (anon.), Lon- 
don, 1722, 12mo ; the seventh edition, Lon- 
don, 1743, 12mo ; the tenth edition, London, 
1765, 12mo; ditto, Dublin, 1769, 12mo ; 
another edition, London, 1788, 8vo ; another 
edition, London, 1805, 12mo ; another edition, 
Edinburgh, 1806, 12mo. 17. < The Compli- 
cated Guilt of the late Rebellion,' 1745. This 
was written by Hughes in 1716, but was not 
published until 1745, when it was printed 
with a preface by William Duneombe. 

[Preface to Hughes's Poems on Several Occa- 
sions, &c., 1735, pp. i-xxxvii ; Buncombe's Let- 
ters by Several Eminent Persons Deceased (2nd 
edit. 1773); Johnson's Lives of the English 
Poets (ed. P. Cunningham, 1854), ii. 183-8; 
Boswell's Life of Johnson (ed. G. B. Hill, 1887), 
i. 270, iii. 259, 314, iv. 36-7; Spence's Anecdotes 
(ed. S. W. Singer, 1858), p. 229; Biog. Brit, 
1757, iv. 2697-2709; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. 
1814, xviii. 294-7 ; Chalmers's British Essayists, 
1823, v. xlix-liii, xiii. xxxv-vi; Bisset's Bio- 
graphical Sketch of the Authors of the Spec- 
tator, 1793, pp. 217-39; Calamy and Palmer's 
Nonconformist's Memorial, 1803, iii. 365-7; 
Sir John Hawkins's History of Music, 1853, ii. 
789, 791, 809, 817, 829, 831 ; Baker's Biog. 
Dramat. 1812, vol. i. pt. i. pp. 378-9 ; Nichols's 
Literary Anecdotes, 1812-15, i. 396, v. 597, viii. 
265, 266, 268, 277, 495; The Georgian Era, 
1834, iii. 516; Historical Eegister, 1720, vol. v. 
Chron. Diary, p. 10; Gent. Mag. 1779, xlix. 
456-7, 549 ; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. x. 108, 
187, 195, 249, 255, 268 ; Halkett and Laing's 
Diet, of Anon, and Pseud. Lit. 1882-8; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] G. F. E. B. 

HUGHES, JOHN (1776-1843), divine 
and antiquary, the third child of William 
Hughes, by his second wife, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of John and Grwenllian Thomas of Lany- 
ewan, was born on 18 May 1776 at Brecon, 
where his father was a respectable trades- 
man. He was educated at the College gram- 
mar school at Brecon. In 1790 he met John 
Wesley, who was passing northwards from 
the Bristol conference, joined the Wesleyans, 
and soon became a local preacher. In 1796 
he was ordained a minister, and engaged in 
mission work on various Welsh circuits until 
1805, when he was appointed to superintend 
the Wesleyan mission in Liverpool, and to 




pay monthly visits to Manchester. At Man- 
chester he made the acquaintance of Dr. 
Adam Clarke [q. v.] In 1832 Hughes be- 
came a supernumerary, and retired to Knuts- 
ford in Cheshire, where he died 15 May 1843 
In 1811 he married Esther, eldest daughter oJ 
Edward Clarke of Knutsford, who survived 

Hughes published, besides smaller works 

1. 'A Plea ^ for Religious Liberty,' 1812 

2. ' Horse Britannicae, or Studies in Ancient 
British History,' 2 vols. London, 1818-19, 
8vo ; a work highly spoken of by Bishop Bur- 
gess and Sharon Turner. 3. ' Theological Es- 
says and Discourses on the Nature and Obli- 
gations of Public Worship, &C./1818. 4. 'An 
Essay on the Ancient and Present State of 
the Welsh Language,' London, 1823, 8vo, for 
which, as for two other essays, he obtained 
a medal from the Cambrian society. 5. l Me- 
moir of Miss Pedmore of Knutsford,' 1836. 
6. { Memoir and Eemains of the Rev. Mr. 
Fussel, Wesleyan Minister,' 1840. He left 
in manuscript (1) a corrected copy of the 
'Hone Britannic33,' (2) < A History of Wales/ 
and (3) ' Historical Triads, Memorials of Re- 
markable Persons and Occurrences among 
the Cymry.' The last, which is an anno- 
tated translation from the Welsh, is now in 
the British Museum. A Welsh translation 
of his friend Dr. Coke's ' Commentary on the 
New Testament ' was begun by him, but was 
not completed. 

[Williams's Eminent Welshmen, p. 225 ; Wes- 
leyan Meth. Mag., LXX. i. 209.] W. A. J. A. 

HUGHES, JOHN (1790-1857), author, 
born 2 Jan. 1790, was the only child of 
Thomas Hughes, D.D., clerk of the closet to 
George III and George IV, vicar of Uffing- 
ton, Berkshire, and canon of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, by his wife Mary Anne, daughter of 
the Rev. George Watts, vicar of Uffington. 
1 Clever, active Mrs. Hughes ' was an early 
friend of Sir Walter Scott, whom she visited 
with her husband in 1824 (LoCKHAKT, Life of 
Scott, p. 524, 1 vol. ed., 1845). John Hughes 
was educated at Westminster School and at 
Oriel College, Oxford, where he graduated 
B.A. 1812 and M.A. 1815. He gained the 
prize for Latin verse, and recited an Eng- 
lish ode when Wellington and the united 
sovereigns visited Oxford in 1814. He was 
the author of the macaronic Oriel grace- 
cup song, ' Exultet mater Oriel ' (Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. iii. 66). About 1820 
Hughes went to live at Uffington, but on the 
death of his father, thirteen years later, re- 
moved to Donnington Priory, Berkshire. He 
died at Brompton on 13 Dec. 1857. He mar- 
ried, 14 Dec. 1820, Margaret Elizabeth, second 

daughter of Thomas Wilkinson, esq., of Stokes- 
ley Hall, Yorkshire, and had by her a family 
of six sons and one daughter. An account 
of the eldest son, George Edward Hughes of 
Donnington Priory, is given in the ' Memoir 
of a Brother,' by the second son, Mr. Thomas 
Hughes, Q.C., judge of county court, who is 
the well-known author of 'Tom Brown's 

Hughes was a good scholar and linguist, a 
clever draughtsman and wood-carver (cp. 
Miss MITFOKD, Recollections, 1859, chap, 
xxxvii.) Some forcibly written letters to his 
sons when boys and young men are printed 
in the 'Memoir of a Brother.' His chief 
publications were: 'An Itinerary of Pro- 
vence and the Rhone made during the year 
1819,' with etchings by the author, London, 
1822, 8vo, a work praised by Scott in the 
preface to ' Quentin Durward,' and an edition 
of 'The Boscobel Tracts/ Edinburgh and 
London, 1830, 8vo ; 2nd edit. Edinburghand 
London, 1857, 8vo. He also published ' Lays 
of Past Days/ 1850, 16mo ; an ode recited in 
the Theatre, Oxford, 1814; and ' Pompeii ' (an 
ode) [1820_?], 4to. ' Views in the South of 
France . . . engraved by William Bernard 
Cooke [q. v.], &c./ 1825, fol., contained illus- 
trations from sketches made by Hughes. 

[Gent. Mag. 1858, 3rd ser. iv. 225 ; Hughes's 
Memoir of a Brother ; Miss Mitford's Eecollec- 
tions; Burke's Landed Gentry, 1868, s.v. 'Hughes 
of Donnington Priory ; ' Brit. Mus. Cat.] 


HUGHES, JOHN (1787-1860), arch- 
deacon of Cardigan, son and heir of John 
Hughes, esq., of Llwyn Glas, Llanfihangel 
Geneu'rGlyn, near Aberystwyth, was born in 
1787. After attending the grammar school of 
Ystradmeurig, he became classical master at 
a large school at Putney, London, where he re- 
mained about eighteen months. As a lad he 
aspired to become a preacher. Returning to 
Wales he was ordained by the Bishop of St. 
Asaph in 1811. He was'curate first for six 
years at Llandrillo yn Rhos, near Conway, and 
afterwards at Foleshill, near Coventry. At 
Foleshill he became very popular ; but when 
the vicar died, in 1822, Lord-chancellor Eldon 
refused the petition of the parishioners to 
Destow the living on him. Hughes therefore 
.eft, and settled at Tiddington, near Oxford. 
Here again his fame as a preacher soon filled 
the church, and students from Oxford were 
ften among his hearers. He became in 1837 
icar of Aberystwyth and curate of Llanba- 
larn Fawr . In 1 834 the living of the mother 
church of Llanbadarn was conferred on him, 
,vith aprebendalstall in the collegiate church 
>f Brecon, and in 1859 Bishop Thirlwall gave 




him the archdeaconry of Cardigan. In the 
course of that year he visited eighty parishes, 
preaching in each. He died on 1 Nov. 1860, 
aged 73. He was for many years the most 
popular preacher of the established church in 

He published in Welsh, besides sermons, 
translations of Henry and Scott's ' Com- 
mentary,' as far as Deuteronomy, 1834, of 
Hall's < Meditations,' and ' Y Nabl' (i.e. the 
Psaltery), a collection of Welsh psalms and 

His English publications include, besides 
sermons : 1. ' The Domestic Ruler's Moni- 
tor/ 1821. 2. < Pastoral Visitation,' 1822. 
3. ' Esther and her People,' 1832. 4. < Ruth 
and her Kindred,' 1839. 5. 'The Self- 
Searcher.' 6. f Psalms and Hymns for the 
use of the Church at Aberystwyth.' 7. ' The 
Heathen's Appeal.' A volume of sermons, 
with biography by his son, the Rev. R. 
Hughes, appeared at Liverpool in 1864. 

[Foulkes's Geirlyfr Bywgraffiadol ; biography 
by the Eev. R. Hughes, prefixed to sermons, 
1864.] E. J. J. 

HUGHES, JOHN (1796-1860), Calvin- 
istic methodist, was born at Adwy'r Clawdd, 
near Wrexham, on 11 Feb. 1796. His parents 
were Hugh and Mary Hughes. His father 
was a carpenter, and he himself followed the 
same occupation till he was nineteen. When 
a lad of twelve he joined the Sunday-school j 
which was then introduced into the neigh- \ 
bourhood, and made great progress. In 1810 ' 
he joined the Calvinistic methodist church at ! 
Adwy, and three years later began preaching, i 
On 13 Sept. 1815 he opened a school at Cross 
Street, near Hope, Flintshire, but in August 
1817 he went to school himself to learn Latin 
and Greek. After a time he opened a new 
school at Wrexham, and prepared many 
young men for the pulpit. He preached ! 
every Sunday. In February 1821 he was 
authorised as regular preacher to visit all 
parts of Wales, and in 1822 he preached 
before the Methodist Association. On 17 June 
1829 he was ordained at Bala. In 1835, owing | 
to bad health, he gave up his school, and be- j 
came a flour merchant, in partnership with j 
a brother. In 1838 he went to Liverpool, | 
attained considerable eminence there as a j 
preacher, and became co-pastor with Henry 
Rees [q. v.] of the Welsh Calvinistic churches 
of Liverpool. He died on a visit to Aber- 
gele 8 Aug. 1860. He was twice married. 

Hughes's chief work is his ' History of 
Welsh Calvinistic Methodism,' in three large 
volumes (Wrexham, vol. i. 1851, vol. ii. 1854, 
vol. iii. 1856). A volume containing twenty- 
two sermons, together with a memoir by the 

Rev. R. Edwards and the Rev. John Hughes 
of Everton, and a portrait, appeared in 1862. 
Other works (all in Welsh, and nearly all 
published at Wrexham without date) are : 
1. ' Companion to Scripture.' 2. 'Mirror of 
Prophecy' (reviewed in 'Drysorfa,' March 
1849). 3. 'The Scripture Test.' 4. 'Cate- 
chism of Scripture History' (reviewed in 
' Drysorfa,' January 1850). 5. ' Protestant- 
ism in Germany,' London, 1847. 6. 'An 
Essay on the Sabbath,' 1859. He also trans- 
lated several works for the Religious Tract 

[Foulkes's Geirlyfr Bywgraffiadol; Geiriadur 
Hughes ; Memoir.] E. J. J. 

1887), Welsh poet, youngest child of Richard 
and Phoebe Hughes, was born in the old 
family homestead of Penbryn, Llanarmon- 
Dyffryn Ceiriog, Denbighshire, on 25 Sept. 
1832. Ceiriog (as he was familiarly called) 
traced his pedigree to Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, 
prince of Gwynedd and Powys in 1072. After 
attending school at Nant-y-Glog, he took un- 
willingly to agricultural pursuits. He was 
always reading, and it soon became evident 
that farming was not his vocation. In 1848 
he spent three months in a printer's office 
at Oswestry, and in 1849 obtained employ- 
ment with a grocer at Manchester, but shortly 
afterwards became a clerk in a large place of 
business in London Road, Manchester, where 
he remained sixteen years. Leaving Man- 
chester in 1865, Ceiriog was appointed sta- 
tionmaster, first on the Cambrian railway at 
Llanidloes, then in 1870 at Towyn, in 1871 
at Trefeglwys, and the same year at Caersws. 
He appeared in public for the last time at the 
Holborn Town Hall on 11 Nov. 1886 in con- 
nection with the London National Eisteddfod. 
He was then in bad health, and died on 
23 April 1887, aged 54. His remains were 
interred in the parish churchyard of Llanwnog, 
two miles from Caersws, Montgomeryshire. 
On 22 Feb. 1861 he married Miss Roberts of 
the Lodge, Dyffryn Ceiriog, by whom he had 
four children, two sons and two daughters. 

His first prize for poetry was won at a 
literary tournament in Grosvenor Square 
Chapel, Manchester. In 1853 he won a 
prize at Nantglyn, Denbighshire, for the- 
best poem in memory of Dr. W. 0. Pughe. 
In the London Eisteddfod of 1856 he won 
a prize for the best six stanzas on the Rev. 
John Elias (1774-1841), and another for a 
poem in memory of the heir of Nanhoron. 
About the same time he published the 'Bar- 
ddoniadur,' and its strictures on Caledfryn, 
the greatest Welsh critic of the day, attracted 
attention in Wales. In 1856-9 Ceiriog pub- 




lished his first satiric verses in ' Yr Ar- 
weinydd,' of which Tegai [see HUGHES, HUGH, 
1805-1864] was editor. In 1856 he won a 
prize of 10Z. for his pastoral poem l Owain 
Wyn,' which is now recognised as the best pas- 
toral in the language, although it failed to win 
a prize at an eisteddfod the year before. At 
the Llangollen Eisteddfod in 1858 he secured 
the prize for ' Myfanwy Fychan,' which raised 
him to the first rank among Welsh bards. 
His first volume of poetry, ' Oriau'r Hwyr ' 
(Evening Hours), was published in 1860, 
Euthyn, 2nd edit. 1861 ; 101. was paid him 
for the copyright. His biographer says that 
between twenty-five thousand and thirty 
thousand copies were sold. In the same year 
he won seven prizes at the Merthyr Eistedd- 
fod for seven temperance songs. His second 
volume of poetry, ' Oriau'r Bore ' (Morning 
Hours), appeared in 1862, Wrexham ; his 
third, ' Cant o Ganeuon' (A Hundred Songs), 
in 1863; < Bardd a'r Cerddor, gyda Hen 
Ystraeon am danynt/ and ' Gemau'r Ad- 
roddwr ' soon afterwards ; ' Oriau Eraill ' 
(Other Hours) in 1868; 'Oriau'r Haf 
(Summer Hours), in 1870; 'Oriau Olaf 
(Last Hours) posthumously, edited by Isaac 
Foulkes, in 1888. The volumes published in 
his lifetime contain about six hundred songs. 
Of these a hundred are adapted to older 
Welsh airs, and modern composers have set 
the rest to music. He also wrote fifty songs 
for Brinley Richards's ' Songs of Wales,' Lon- 
don, 1873, and composed twenty-five sacred 
songs at the request of leuan Gwyllt and 
Owain Alaw. Ceiriog was the author of the 
original song for which Brinley Richards 
wrote the popular air * God bless the Prince 
of Wales.' Many of the articles in the 
' Gwyddoniadur ' (Welsh Encyclopaedia) were 
written by him, notably that on Dafydd ab 
Gwilym, and he contributed four articles to 
the 'Traethodydd' (Welsh quarterly). He 
also wrote weekly for the 'Baner' for twenty- 
seven years, at first as Manchester corre- 

Ceiriog is the best lyric poet that Wales 
has produced. His verse is always true to 
nature, always pure, always simple- Feeling 
that he owed much to the eisteddfod, he 
vigorously supported the institution to the 
last, and helped to improve its position in 
public estimation. There was hardly any 
eisteddfod of importance in recent years with 
which his name was not associated either as 
competitor or adjudicator. His adjudications 
were as a rule carefully written out, and are 
still greatly valued (see Cardiff Eisteddfod 
Transactions, 1883, pp. 126-45). 

[Memoir by ' Llyfrbryf,' i.e. Isaac Foulkes, 
Liverpool ; four papers, ' Ar Fywyd ac Athry- 

lith Ceiriog,' in Y G-eninen, 1887-8, by 'Lle-w 
Lhvyfo ; ' Preface to Brinley Richards's Songs of 
Wales, iii ; prize essay by the Rev. Elved Lewis 
in Wrexham Eisteddfod Trans. 1888.] R. J. J. 

HUGHES, JOSHUA (1807-1889), 
bishop of St. Asaph, son of C. Hughes, esq., 
of Newport, Pembrokeshire, was born at 
Nevern, Pembrokeshire, in 1807. He was 
educated at Ystradmeurig grammar school, 
i and at St. David's College, Lampeter ; at both 
' his performances gave promise of future dis- 
tinction. With two brothers, Hughes took 
orders in the church of England, being or- 
dained deacon in 1830, and priest in 1831. 
His first curacy was at Aberystwith, whence 
he passed to St. David's, Carmarthen, and to 
Abergwilly. At Abergwilly he first enjoyed 
the intimacy of Bishop Thirlwall, whose in- 
fluence left its mark upon his character. At 
Abergwilly Hughes worked with conspicuous 
zeal until 1846, when he was presented to the 
vicarage of Llandovery. For the twenty-four 
years of his residence there Hughes was one 
of the most laborious of Welsh clergy. He 
thought little of riding twenty-five miles on 
Sunday in order to conduct four services in 
his parish. His bishop made him rural dean, 
and his fellow clergy sent him to convoca- 
tion. In 1870 Mr. Gladstone, at the sug- 
gestion, it is said, of Dr. Thirlwall, offered 
the vacant bishopric of St. Asaph to the 
Welsh-speaking vicar of Llandovery. The 
appointment was criticised somewhat ad- 
versely because Hughes was not a university 
man, was practically unknown outside the 
Principality, and had had exclusively paro- 
chial experience. Events justified the choice. 
Hughes (who was made D.D. by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury) administered his dio- 
cese with vigour and impartiality. Exacting 
a high standard from candidates for holy 
orders, and strenuously upholding the pre- 
rogatives of the church, he still cultivated 
friendly relations with nonconformity. He 
favoured all reasonable measures of church 
reform; laboured hard to secure Welsh- 
speaking clergy for Welsh and bi-lingual 
parishes ; promoted the provision of services 
in Welsh for Welsh residents in English 
towns ; and was one of the first as well as 
warmest supporters of the movement for pro- 
moting higher education in Wales. In August 
1888 Hughes was struck with paralysis while 
at Crieff in Perthshire. He never rallied, 
and died there on 21 Jan. 1889. Hughes 
married in 1832 Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Thomas McKenny, and widow of Captain 
Gun, by whom he had three sons and five 

Hughes was the author of several charges^ 
sermons, and pamphlets. One of the latter'^ 




on 'TheUniversity oi Brecknock' (n.d. ? 1856, 
and signed l Veritas '), was much discussed. 

[Kecord, 25 Jan. 1889 ; North Wales Guar- 
dian, 26 Jan. 1889 ; Montgomeryshire Express, 
29 Jan. 1889; information from the Eev. J. 
Pritchard Hughes.] A. K. B. 

HUGHES, LEWIS (/. 1620), chaplain 
at the Bermudas, a Welshman, who seems 
to have taken holy orders in England, was 
one of the earliest English settlers in the 
Bermudas, and probably arrived in the island 
on 11 July 1612. The plantation was at the 
time in the hands of the Virginia Company. 
Hughes took a prominent part in the affairs 
of the colony, and engaged in commerce 
there. In 1615, after the first governor 
(Moore) left the islands, his authority fell 
into the hands of three deputy governors, each 
acting for a month in turn, and, to Hughes's 
disgust, much disorder and drunkenness pre- 
vailed (cf. App. ii. 8th Rep. Dep. Keep. Publ. 
Records, p. 134), Hughes contrived to defeat 
an attempt of the deputies to continue in office 
six months after the new governor should 
arrive. When Hughes explained his action 
from his pulpit, there was a scene in church, 
and he was arrested ; he was released shortly 
afterwards, but quarrelled with Keith, his 
fellow minister, who had taken the deputies' 
side, and was imprisoned again for a short 

On 29 June 1615 the charter incorporating 
the Bermudas Company was granted by 
James I, and the new governor (Tucker) was 
instructed to admit Hughes to his council. 
Tucker arrivedin May 1616, and soon engaged 
in a fierce quarrel with Hughes. Hughes 
denounced Tucker for building the governor's 
house by forced labour, and the governor, ac- 
cording to Hughes, grossly ill-used him. Oc- 
casionally high words passed between them 
in church, as when ' the preacher reproueinge 
. . . some of his auditory for gazeing vpon the 
women, "And why not, I pray, sir? (cryes 
out the gouernour in publick) Are they not 
God's creatures?"' Hughes also had diffi- 
culties about the church service, and drew 
up a form for the use of his congregation, 
of which a manuscript copy is in the pos- 
session of the Duke of Manchester (ib. pp. 
7, 31, 33). Tucker afterwards charged him 
with nonconformity. In an interval be- 
tween Tucker's departure and the arrival 
of his successor, Butler, in 1619, confusion 
again prevailed. A disloyal faction, recog- 
nising Hughes's influence, tried hard to win 
his support, but l his stiff refusall and earnest 
protestation against it gave a main blow to 
their mutinous and confused proiects.' 
Hughes came to England in 1620 to secure 

more ministers, and to give the company an 
account of the grievances of the people. 
Tucker thereupon stirred up Sir Edwin Sands 
to accuse him of railing against bishops, the 
church, and the book of common prayer, and 
Hughes managed to answer the charges, but 
the company declined to contribute to his ex- 
penses in coming over. In 1621 he returned 
to the Bermudas, and in 1622 was appointed 
one of the governing body which Governor 
Butler nominated on his departure. About 
1625 he finally came back to England. In that 
year he petitioned the privy council for arrears 
of his salary. He was probably the Lewis 
Hughes who was ejected from the chaplaincy 
of the White Lion gaol, Southwark, in 1627 
for nonconformity, and received in 1645 the 
sequestered rectory of Westbourne, Sussex, 
but resigned it before 1 May 1647 (App. to 
6th Rep. ib.} Hughes married for the se- 
cond time, at St. George's, Botolph Lane, 
by license dated 16 July 1625, Anne, widow 
of John Smith, draper, of London. His first 
wife seems to have remained in England while 
he was in the Bermudas. In 1625 Hughes 
speaks of her as ' miserable, weake, and sicke.' 

Hughes published : 1. ' A Letter sent into 
England from the Summer Hands/ London, 
1615, 4to. 2. ' A Plaine and True Relation 
of the Goodnes of God towards the Sommer 
Hands, written by way of Exhortation . . .' 
London, 1621, 4to. 3. ' Certaine Grievances 
well worthy the serious Consideration of the 
. . . Parliament,' 1640, 4to, a pamphlet di- 
rected against the church service. Another 
edition was published before the year was 
out. 4. * Certaine Grievances, or the Errours 
of the Service Booke, . . .' 1641, 4to, very 
similar in matter to the preceding, in the 
form of a dialogue. An answer appeared in 
the same year, and another edition of the 
dialogue in 1642, said to be the fifth im- 
pression. 5. ' Signs from Heaven of the 
Wrath and Judgements of God ready to come 
upon the Enemies and Persecutors of the 
Truth: whereunto are annexed Examples 
of most fearful Judgements of God, upon 
Churches in time of Divine Service, and upon 
Sabbath Breakers, and upon such as have 
reviled the Protestants . . . , calling them 
Roundheads, in reproach and derision,' Lon- 
don, 1642, 4to. Much of this appears again 
in 6. 'A Looking-glasse for all true hearted 
Christians . . .' London, 1642, 8vo. 7. A 
printed copy of Hughes's Petition of 1625 to 
the Privy Council, giving an account of his 
many troubles, is in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 

[Notes and Queries, 5th ser. ix. 488, xii. 215, 
516; Hughes's Works, especially his Petition ; 
Chester's London Marriage Licenses ; Cal. State 




Papers, Colon. Ser., America and the West In- 
dies, 1574-1660, 1662 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1633-4 p. 262, 1654 p. 358 ; Lefroy's Memorials 
of the Bermudas ; Smith's History of Virginia ; 
Hist, of the Bermudas, attributed to Smith, ed. 
Lefroy (Hakluyt Soc.) ; Neill's Hist, of the Vir- 
ginia Company; Neill's English Colonisation of 
America during the Seventeenth Century.] 

W. A. J. A. 

HUGHES, MARGARET (d. 1719), ac- 
tress and mistress to Princess Rupert, has 
contested with ( Mary Betterton the posi- 
tion of the earliest actress on the English 
stage, which in fact belongs to neither. As 
a member of the king's company playing 
at the Theatre Royal, subsequently Drury 
Lane, she was, in 1663, the first recorded 
representative of Desdemona. According 
to Downes (Roscius Anglicanus, p. 8) she 
was the original Theodosia in Dryden's 
' Evening's Love, or the Mock Astrologer,' 
22 June 1668. She also played Panura in 
the ' Island Princess ' of Fletcher on its re- 
vival, 7 Jan. 1669. After this, time she 
disappears from the stage of the Theatre 
Royal, carried off presumably by Prince Ru- 
pert. Hamilton's words concerning this 
transaction are : ' Prince Rupert had found 
charms in the person of another player, called 
Hughes, who brought down and greatly 
subdued his natural fierceness' (Memoirs of 
Grammont, p. 269, ed. 1846). In 1676 she re- 
turned to the stage andjoined the Duke's com- 
pany, playing at Dorset Garden Cordelia in 
D'Urfey's 'Fond Husband,' licensed 15 June 
1676 ; Octavia in Ravenscroft's ' Wrang- 
ling Lovers,' licensed 25 Sept. 1676 ; Mrs. 
Monylove in ' Tom Essence, or the Modish 
Wife,' by Rawlins, licensed 4 Nov. 1676 ; 
Charmion (sic) in Sir Charles Sedley's ' An- 
tony and Cleopatra,' licensed 24 April 1677 ; 
Valeria in Mrs. Behn's ' Rover, or the Banished 
Cavaliers,' licensed 2 July 1677 ; and Leonora 
in the ' French Conjuror,' licensed 2 Aug. 1677. 
Prince Rupert bought for her in 1683 the fine 
seat near Hammersmith of Sir Nicholas Crisp 
[q. v.], subsequently occupied by Princess 
Caroline, who became the wife of George IV, 
and known as Brandenburg House. By the 
prince she had a daughter Ruperta, born 1673, 
who married Emanuel Scrope Howe [q. v.], 
died at Somerset House about 1740, and had 
a daughter, Sophia Howe, who was maid of 
honour to Caroline, princess of Wales. Ac- 
cording to the burial registers of Lee in 
Kent, copied by Lysons, ' Mrs. Margaret 
Hewes from Eltham ' was buried there on 
15 Oct. 1719. By his will, dated 1 Dec. 1682, 
Prince Rupert left all his goods, chattels, 
jewels, plate, furniture, &c., and all his rights, 
estates, &c., to William, earl of Craven, in 

trust for the use and behoof of < Margaret 
Hewes and of Ruperta, my naturall daugh- 
ter begotten on the bodie of the said Mar- 
garet Hewes, in equal moyeties ' ( Wills from 
Doctors' Commons, Camden Soc.) He also 
bade Ruperta be dutiful and obedient to her 
mother, and not dispose of herself in marriage 
without her consent and the advice of the 
Earl of Craven. In the scandalous ' Letters 
from the Dead to the Living ' of Tom Brown 
(1663-1704) [q. v.] and others < N[e]ll G[wy]n ' 
arraigns ' P[e]g H[ug]hes ' for having wasted 
over cards and dice the money she received 
from Prince Rupert. In the answer, which, 
like the attack, is, of course, imaginary, the 
charge is admitted. In a book of accounts at 
Coombe Abbey is a document signed by Mrs. 
Hughes and Ruperta (seeWARBUETON", Prince 
Rupert, iii. 558). An excellent portrait of 
Margaret Hughes, by Lely, is at Lord Jersey's 
house, Middleton Park, near Bicester, Ox- 
fordshire, and a full-length of Ruperta by 
Kneller is at Lord Sandwich's house at Hinch- 
inbrook, Huntingdonshire. 

[Books and plays cited ; Genest's Account of 
the English Stage ; Downes's Eoscius Angli- 
canus, ed. Waldron ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
iii. 7.] J. K. 

1751), presbyterian minister, son of George 
Hughes (d. November 1719), minister at 
Canterbury, was born in 1695. His father 
was grandson of George Hughes (1603-1667) 
[q. v.], and son of Obadiah Hughes (d. 24 Jan. 
1704, aged 64), who was ejected in 1662 from 
a studentship at Christ Church, Oxford, before 
taking his degree, received presbyterian ordi- 
nation on 9 March 1670 at Plymouth, and 
ministered from April 1674 in London, and 
afterwards at Enfield (his portrait, by Dob- 
son, engraved by J. Caldwall, is given in 
PALMER, Nonconformist's Memorial, 1775, 
i. 392 ; an inferior engraving is in the 2nd 
edit., 1802, ii. 62). Obadiah Hughes the 
younger was educated at a Scottish uni- 
versity (not Edinburgh). In 1728 King's 
College, Old Aberdeen, sent him the diploma 
of D.D. Having acted for some time as a 
domestic chaplain, he was ordained on 11 Jan. 
1721 at the Old Jewry, being then assistant to 
Joshua Oldfield, D.D., at Maid Lane, South- 
wark. Though a non-subscriber at Salters' 
Hall in 1719, he was an evangelical preacher, 
With Lardner and others he established a 
Tuesday evening lecture at the Old Jewry; he 
belonged also, with Jeremiah Hunt [q. v.] and 
others,to a ministers' club which met atChew's 
Coffee-house, Bow Lane. On Oldfield's death 
on 8 Nov. 1729 he became sole pastor at Maid 
Lane, and was at once elected Oldfield's sue- 




cessor as trustee of Dr. Daniel Williams' s 
foundations. He took part in 1734 in the 
course of sermons against popery at Salters' 
Hall. From 1738 to 1750 lie was secretary 
to the presbyterian board. In 1743 he suc- 
ceeded Samuel Say at Long Ditch (now 
Princes Street), Westminster. He became 
one of the Salters' Hall lecturers in 1746. 
His health failed him while still in his prime, 
and he died on 10 Dec. 1751. Funeral ser- 
mons were preached by Samuel Lawrence, 
D.D., of Monkwell Street, and John Allen, 
M.D., of New Broad Street; that by the 
latter was published. Hughes married a sister 
of Sir John Fryer, hart., one of the presby- 
terian gentry, who was lord mayor of London 
in 1721. He adopted his wife's niece, Delicia 
Fryer, who married Joshua Iremonger, and 
died in December 1744. 

Wilson gives a list of fourteen separate 
sermons by Hughes published between 1726 
and 1749, eight of them being funeral sermons, 
including those for Oldfield and Say. To 
these may be added: 1. 'A Sermon on the 
Anniversary of King George's Coronation,' 
&c., 1725, 8vo. 2. ' The Salvation of God's 
People,' &c., 1745, 8vo. 3. < Peace attended 
with Reformation,' &c., 1749, 4to. 

A nephew, Obadiah Hughes, son of John 
Hughes, minister at Ware, Hertfordshire (d. 
1729, brother of the foregoing), was a fellow- 
student with Doddridge at Kib worth, assisted 
his father at Ware, and was afterwards 
minister at Staplehurst, Kent. 

[Funeral Sermon by Allen, 1752; Calamy's 
Account, 1713, p. 232 ; Calamy's Continuation, 
1727, i. 257 ; Calamy's Own Life, 1830, ii. 514; 
Protestant Dissenter's Mag., 1799, p. 14; Wil- 
son's Dissenting Churches of London, 1814, 
iv. 96 sq. ; Jeremy's Presbyterian Fund, 1885, 
pp. 122, 130sq.] A. G. 

1812), admiral,' is said to have been born in 
1729 (FOSTEE, Baronetage). His grandfather, 
Captain Richard Hughes (d. 1756), and his 
father, Sir Richard Hughes, first baronet (d. 
23 Sept. 1780), were both in turn for many 
years commissioners of the navy at Ports- 
mouth. Rear-admiral Robert Hughes (d. 
1729), whose daughter was mother of Ad- 
miral Sir Robert Calder [q. v.] seems to have 
been his granduncle (cf. CHAENOCK, iii. 165, 
232, v. 43, 293). 

In 1739 Hughes was entered at the Royal 
Academy at Portsmouth, and three years 
later joined the Feversham, commanded by 
his father. On 1 April 1745, while acting- 
lieutenant of the Burford in the Mediter- 
ranean, he passed his examination, and was 
declared in the certificate to be ' upwards of 
21. The next day he was promoted by 

Vice-admiral Rowley to be lieutenant of 
the Stirling Castle, and continued serving 
in her till the peace. In 1752 he was ap- 
pointed to the Advice, going out to the West 
Indies with the broad pennant of Commodore 
Pye ; in her he lost the sight of one of his 
eyes, which was accidentally pierced by a 
table-fork. On 6 Feb. 1756 he was promoted 
to be commander of the Spy, and was posted 
to the Hind on 10 Nov. In January 1758 
he was appointed to the Active, one of the 
squadron employed during the summer on 
the coast of France under Commodore Howe 
[see HOWE, RICHAED, EAEL] ; and in Febru- 
ary 1759 to the Falmouth, one of the ships 
sent out under Rear-admiral Samuel Cornish 
[q.v.] to join Vice-admiral Pocock in the 
East Indies. In the following January he 
was moved into the York, and in her parti- 
cipated in the reduction of Pondicherry in 
1760-1. He was shortly afterwards obliged 
by ill-health to return to England, and in 
November 1761 he was appointed to the 
Portland, for service on the home station ; 
in her, in the following summer, he carried 
the Earl of Buckinghamshire, as ambassador 
to Russia, to Cronstadt. In April 1763 he 
was transferred to the Boreas frigate for 
occasional service, including the convoying 
troops to Goree in the spring of 1766. From 
May 1767 to May 1770 he commanded the 
Firm guardship at Plymouth, and the Wor- 
cester guardship at Portsmouth from January 
1771 to January 1774. In 1777 he was ap- 
pointed to the Centaur, and in June 1778 
was sent out as resident commissioner of the 
navy at Halifax, and also, in express terms, 
* commander-in-chief of his Majesty's ships 
and vessels which shall from time to time 
be at Halifax, when there shall be no flag 
officer or senior officer present.' This office 
he held till 26 Sept. 1780, when he was 
promoted to be rear-admiral of the blue ; in 
the previous April he had succeeded to the 
baronetcy, on the death of his father. In 
1781 he was commander-in-chief of the 
squadron in the Downs, and in 1782, with 
his flag in the Princess Amelia, commanded 
a division in the grand fleet under Lord 
Howe at the relief of Gibraltar, and the en- 
counter with the allies off" Cape Spartel. 
He was afterwards sent out to the West 
Indies to reinforce Admiral Pigot, and on 
Pigot's returning to England remained as 
commander-in-chief, with his flag in the 
Leander, and afterwards in the Adamant, 
the larger ships being ordered home. 

The period of his command was marked 
by two incidents of interest, mainly from 
their connection with the career of Nelson. 
In 1785 Hughes, on the representations of 




the merchants, had been induced to waive 
the enforcement of the navigation laws with 
respect to vessels of the United States trading 
in the West Indies. But Nelson pointed 
out to him that the suspension of the act 
exceeded his legal power, and Hughes, 
accepting Nelson's view, was afterwards 
thanked by the treasury, for his action, to 
the annoyance , of Nelson, who considered 
that the thanks were due to himself alone, 
and that Hughes had rather deserved a re- 
primand (LATJGHTON, Letters of Lord Nelson, 
p. 28). The other incident arose out of the 
admiral's giving Captain Moutray, the naval 
commissioner at Antigua, an order to act as 
commander-in-chief of the ships there in the 
absence of a senior officer. Hughes was pro- 
bably misled by the terms of his own com- 
mission at Halifax a few years before ; but 
as Moutray was on half-pay, with no exe- 
cutive authority from the admiralty, the 
order was irregular, and Nelson refused to 
obey it, thus drawing on himself an official 
admonition (ib. p. 31). Hughes appears to 
have been an amiable, easy-tempered man, 
without much energy or force of character. 
' Sir Richard Hughes,' Nelson wrote, ' is a 
fiddler; therefore, as his time is taken up 
tuning that instrument, . . . the squadron 
is cursedly out of tune. He lives in a board- 
ing-house at Barbadoes, not much in the 
style of a British admiral. He has not that 
opinion of his own sense that he ought to 
have ; he does not give himself that weight 
that I think an English admiral ought to 
do'(&. pp. 25, 34). 

In the summer of 1786 Hughes returned 
to England, and in 1789, again in the Ada- 
mant, went out as commander-in-chief at 
Halifax, from which he returned in May 
1792. He became a vice-admiral on 21 Sept. 
1790, and admiral on 12 Sept. 1794, but 
had no further service, and died 5 Jan. 1812. 
He married Jane, daughter of William 
Sloane, nephew of Sir Hans Sloane, and had 
issue two sons, who died before him, and a 
daughter. The baronetcy passed to his bro- 
ther Robert, in whose line it is still extant 
[see under HTJGHES, WILLIAM, 1803-1861]. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. vi. 180 ; official letters 
and other documents in the Public Record 
Office.] J. K. L. 

(1744P-1785), Welsh poet, was born atCaint 
Bach, in the parish of Penmynydd in Angle- 
sey about 1744. After receiving a good edu- 
cation under the care of the vicar of the 
parish, he became a schoolmaster at Amlwch, 
and afterwards spent twenty years in Lon- 
don as barrister's clerk. Ultimately his 

health failed ; he returned to Wales, acted 
as a schoolmaster at Carnarvon, and dying of 
consumption 27 Feb. 1785, aged 41, was 
buried in the parish churchyard of Llanbeblig, 
Carnarvonshire, where the Society of Gwy- 
neddigion, of which he was a founder, erected 
a monument to his memory, A portrait of 
him was engraved. 

Hughes's ' Cywydd Molawd Mon,' and a 
couple of Englynion appeared with a brief 
biographical notice by the vicar of Llanllyfni, 
Carnarvonshire, in the 'Diddanwch Teu- 
luaidd,' 1817 (pp. xxx, xxxi, 234, 236). In 
the ' Brython,' iii. 376, appears his ' Cywydd 
Myfyrdod y Bardd am ei Gariad, pan oedd hi 
yn mordwyo o Fon i Fanaw ; mewn cwch a 
elwid " Tarw," ' i.e. < The bard's meditation 
on his sweetheart's setting sail from Anglesey 
to the Isle of Man in a boat called the Taurus/ 
This is dated 1763. There is a ' Cywydd y 
Byd ' by him in Blackwell's ' Cylchgrawn/ 
i. 265, 1834, and a ' Beddargraph' (epitaph) 
consisting of three Englynion in the ' Greal f 
(London, 1805), p. 72. Nine of his poems 
are published in ( Cyfresy Ceinion,' Liverpool, 
1879. Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 14993 con- 
tains unpublished poems by Hughes dating 
from 1765 to 1780 in his own handwriting. 
The statement that there are poems by Hughes 
in the 'Dewisol Ganiadau' is erroneous. 

[Information from the Eev. D. Silvan Evan& 
and Professor Powel ; Williams's Eminent "Welsh- 
men ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] R. J. J. 

HUGHES,ROBERT BALL (1806-1868), 
sculptor, born in London on 19 Jan. 1806, 
was probably son of Captain Ball, R.N.,, 
whose mother's second husband was Admi- 
ral Sir Edward Hughes, and whose son Ed- 
ward, the admiral's heir, assumed the sur- 
name of Hughes in 1819 [see HUGHES, SIE 
EDWARD, ad Jin J] Robert worked for seven 
years in the studio of E. H. Baily, R.A., and 
was a student at the Royal Academy. The